The equipments used and the procedures of source preparation are described. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB physical-technical Federal institution - research institute and highest technical authority. The PTB Braunschweig and Berlin is a Federal institution for the natural sciences and engineering and the highest technical authority for measurements. It is subject to the directions of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs.
Its main tasks are representation, maintenance and development of physical units and, in connection with this, research, examinations, and granting permissions for calibration measuring equipment, as well as examinations of building types and permissions. The types of measuring equipment are represented. Many examinations are carried out on a voluntary basis.
The advisory activities and the PTB's publications are also reported on. An organizational plan informs of the structure of the PTB. Experimental facilities for calibrations at the dosimetry facility of group 6. The mechanical and electrical layout of the ''Dosimetriemessplatz'', a low scattering target area at the accelerator facility is described. Monoenergetic neutrons are generated at the irradiation facility for the research on neutron detectors and dosimeters for radiation protection.
The report is aimed to inform dosimetry in particular for those guest's coming from other laboratories. For that purpose a detailed description is given of the mechanical construction, of cable connections and of the monitor system. The feasibitity of data transfer from the system at the target position to the user's system and the mode of acceptance of external data are explained.
Bundesanstalt fuer Martialforschung und -pruefung BAM. Absolute Measurement of Radioactive Materials at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt ; Mesure absolue des substances radioactives a l'Institut federal de physique appliquee; Absolyutnoe izmerenie radioaktivnykh veshchestv v fiziko-tekhnicheskom federal'nom institute; Determinacion absoluta de la actividad de sustancias radiactivas en el Instituto Federal de Fisica Aplicada. Le memoire contient une description du materiel utilise et des procedes employes pour la preparation des sources.
Se describen los aparatos empleados y los procedimientos de preparacion de las fuentes. Privoditsya opisanie, ispol'zuemogo oborudovaniya i protsedura podgotovki istochnika. An international intercomparison of passive dosemeters, electronic dosemeters and dose rate meters used for environmental radiation measurements. This paper describes the intercomparison experiments performed at the newly established Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Physical and technical aspects of cryomedicine. Physikalische und technische Aspekte der Kryomedizin. Medizinische Akademie, Dresden Germany.
Some of the functional principles of cryomedical device engineering, the special features of heat transmission at the tissue surface and a model for calculating treatment parameters are presented for a discussion of focal cold application dosed according to indication. The elaboration of the physico-technical basics of cryotherapy has contributed to the development of this originally empirically oriented method to a safe and widely accepted therapeutic procedure. Progress report on reversal and substitute element technique for thread calibration on CMMs. Feasibility of the reversal and substitute element technique for thread calibration.
Accelerated degeneration testing for flowmeter sensors. Evaluation and constancy against measuring; Beschleunigte Abnutzungspruefung fuer Durchflusssensoren. Test specifications for flow sensors state that a fatigue test should be carried out for h. The PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt , in cooperation with industrial organisations, developed a faster fatigue test for mechanical and static sensors which requires only h.
A Focus of Discoveries. It subsequently developed into the largest research center worldwide as a place where scientists could concentrate exclusively on their research subject, and served as a model for similar institutes established in other countries. Within a very short time, the PTR produced extremely important scientific results that cemented its international position at the top, such as Max Planck's radiation law and energy q.
Technische Planologie in beweging, naar een hoge kwaliteit in onderwijs. In de oratie wordt een beeld geschetst van de ontwikkeling van de opleiding Technische Planologie en de daarmee samenhangende internationalisering. Tevens wordt het onderwijs-kwaliteitszorg-systeem zoals dat vanaf binnen de RUG zal worden opgezet nader belicht.
Physical water treatment against calcification and rust; Physikalische Wasserbehandlung gegen Kalk und Rost. In contrast to Germany, where the installation of small-sized, decentralised plants is still prefered, water supply companies in countries such as Denmark have already for some time successfully been using physical water treatment systems. Although the health and environmental benefits of this non-chemical method of water treatment are undisputed and its proper application is also economically beneficial, there is still a widerspread lack of information as to where such plants can be used.
Consequently, older methods are often resorted to combatting calcification and rust.
Obwohl der Nutzen dieser Form chemiefreier Wasserbehandlung fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit ausser Frage steht, zudem bei richtiger Verwendung deutliche Kostenvorteile entstehen, besteht noch haeufig Unsicherheit ueber die Einsatzgebiete physikalischer Wasserbehandlungsgeraete. Dies fuehrt haefig dazu, beim Kampf gegen Kalk und Rost auf aeltere Verfahren zurueckzugreifen. Comparison of temperature standards.
The purpose of this analysis was the detection of possible systematic errors as well as the evaluation of the uncertainty limit. Evaluation of disposal possibilities and potential in the Konrad iron-ore mine based on experiments for the handling and isolation of radioactive wastes. The Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen und Umwelftorschung GSF has established, at the conclusion of feasibility studies, that the suitability of the Konrad mine for the disposal of low-level waste and decommisioning waste has been proved, as well as the radiological safety of the disposal operations.
Utilization of the research and measurement reactor Braunschweig for neutron metrology. The objectives of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB with regard to neutron metrology are briefly described. Reference neutron beams are described which serve as irradiation facilities for the calibration of detectors for radiation protection purposes in the frame of the legal metrology work in the PTB.
The German thoron progeny chamber-Concept and application. Following completion of the project 'Generation and characterisation of reference atmospheres of thoron decay products for the calibration of measuring devices for thoron decay products', the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB now operates a thoron progeny chamber in which Rn thoron , Rn and its progenies can be made available under almost all ambient conditions. This allows all measuring systems to be calibrated under realistic climatic conditions with an accuracy unique worldwide.
Atmospheric physical chemistry; Bunsentagung Physikalische Chemie der Atmosphaere. The main subject of the Bunsen conference was atmospheric physical chemistry. There were lectures and posters on measurement and distribution of atmospheric trace gases, photochemical reactions in the different parts of the atmosphere, natural and anthropogenic emissions resulting from biomass combustion, thermodynamics and microphysics of aerosol, and air pollution abatement. Themen der Vortraege und Poster waren u. Ammoniakemissie-arme huisvestingssystemen voor vleeskuikens en het effect van vloerverwarming op emissie en technische resultaten.
Het Praktijkonderzoek Pluimveehouderij heeft onderzoek gedaan naar het gebruik van emissiearme stalsystemen voor vleeskuikens en het effect van het gebruik van vloerverwarming op de technische resultaten, strooiselkwaliteit en ammoniakemissie. Haalbaarheidsstudie bio-afbreekbare plastic draagtasjes: Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een haalbaarheidsstudie naar de technische en economische haalbaarheid en implicaties van een verbod op dunne plastic draagtasjes in Nederland, met een eventuele uitzondering voor bioplastic draagtassen.
In deze korte studie staan bioplastic draagtassen. The contribution of licensing measures to the safety of novice drivers in Germany. Workplace photon radiation fields. The knowledge of workplace radiation fields is essential for measures in radiation protection. The devices are described and some results obtained at workplaces in nuclear industry, medicine and science in the photon energy range from 20 keV to 7 MeV are given.
Involving private persons and corporations in the planning process according to paragraph 9b German nuclear law - practicability and limits.une rencontre par jour">
The 4th Amendment to the German Nuclear Law has procured the legal base for the disposal of radioactive waste in the German Federal Republic. The PTB can be assisted in its responsibilities by persons and institutions of private character. Involving private persons and corporations in the licensing process figures a legal problem, and there has been a seminar in the PTB discussing such problems. The present contribution gives a brief summary of the opinions stated by the various legal experts taking part in this seminar.
Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications In addition, in some cases the results are also given in terms of the quantity measured by each national network system.
The experience gained from this intercomparison is used to help organise a follow-up intercomparison to be held at the PTB Situation and development of solid state dosimetry from the PTB-point of view. An outline is given of the legal situation concerning dosimetry in the field of radiation protection in the Federal Republic of Germany which is ruled by the German law of verification. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB therefore has worked out requirements for the type approval of TLD systems the main points of which are discussed briefly.
A further progress of TLD - measuring methods and materials - seems desirable. Therefore, extended research with regard to preparation, TL mechanism and dosimetric properties is necessary. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for a transfer standard and expressed as a ratio of the PTB and the BIPM standards for reference air kerma rate, is 1.
Practical experience in and improvements to aerosol sampling for trace analysis of airborne radionuclides in ground level air. In November the Polish government and the German government signed a bilateral agreement for scientific and technological co-operation. This progress report deals with the history of the project covering the period from July to December , the scientific activities and their results. A proposal for future co-operation, which is planned for the near future, is made. Quality control of radionuclide calibrators: Interlaboratory comparison of thallium After I and sup 99m Tc comparisons in and , the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB in cooperation with the firm Amersham-Buchler organized a further comparison in October in order to investigate the accuracy of activity measurements in nuclear medicine.
Preliminary waste acceptance requirements for the planned Konrad repository. These requirements were developed, in accordance with the Safety Criteria of the Reactor Safety Commission, with the help of a site specific safety assessment; they are under the reservation of the plan approval procedure, which is still in progress. In developing waste acceptance requirements, the PTB fulfills one of its duties as the institute responsible for waste disposal and gives guidelines for waste conditioning to waste producers and conditioners.
The absolute efficiency of an NE liquid scintillator of Determination of the air attenuation correction factor for a free air ionization chamber. The objective of this work is to present the experimental and simulation results for the air attenuation correction factor for a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders of Victoreen, model The values were compared with the results from the German primary standard laboratory Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt PTB , and maximum differences of 0. Neutron noise measurement technique in a coupled reactor.
Describes work carried out on the swimming pool reactor at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at Braunschweig.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Xu Cheng
There is a D 2 0 reservoir between the two parts of the reactor. Spectral density of the interzone interaction energy was obtained by use of Fourier transforms, previously corrected by a Hanning window. New ways for the coordination of research for the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. This new formal status and the related independence from European research programmes allows new ways in the coordination of research.
Vrouwen weg van techniek: Om de tekorten op te vangen wordt hard gewerkt aan het motiveren van jongeren om een. De bijdrage van Direct Manipulations Enviroments aan de ontwikkeling van technische geletterdheid in de basisschool. Om goed te kunnen participeren in de huidige maatschappij moeten mensen in zekere mate ' technische geletterd' zijn. Het doel van dit project, VT-NRK toepassing bioplastics, is het genereren en verspreiden van kennis met betrekking tot het verbeteren van de technische eigenschappen van PLA folies.
Het effect van grondontsmetting en organische bemesting op het bouwplan in de Veenkolonien: In dit deelonderzoek van het project "Veranderingen in de Veenkoloniale Akkerbouw" wordt aandacht besteed aan de technische en economische gevolgen van vermindering van grondontsmetting in de aardappelteelt en de haalbaarheid van dierlijke mest en groenbemesters. Berekeningen zijn uitgevoerd met en. Air-cooled recirculation cooling systems. Technical and economic comparison; Luftgekuehlte Rueckkuehlsysteme. There are several air-cooled forced-circulation cooling systems for heat removal from refrigeration systems.
Optimum solutions should not be selected on the basis of the cost factor alone; an integrative approach should be used instead. An exemplary investigation is presented. Die Auswahl des Systems ist oft von kurzfristigem Kostendenken gepraegt, was in technischer und wirtschaftlicher Hinsicht aber nicht immer der optimalen Loesung entspricht. Erst die genauere Kenntnis der verschiedenen Systeme und eine ganzheitliche Betrachtungsweise ermoeglichen die optimale Wahl fuer den einzelnen Fall. Die hier praesentierte Untersuchung wird anhand eines konkreten Falls dargestellt, wobei Preise und technische Produktdaten auf realen Anfragen beruhen.
Der Autor ist um objetive Bewertung bemueht, der Leser moege aber selbst urteilen. Physical interactions in MRI. Einige Daumenregeln zu ihrer Reduktion. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is one of the most powerful and at the same time gentlest clinical imaging techniques at the present time; however, the enormous physical complexity as well as simple inattentiveness projectile effect implicate a significant risk potential and place high demands on the MR operator to ensure a safe workflow. A sound knowledge of the potential MR interactions is the foundation for a safe and profitable operation for all parties.
The first part of this article deals with the three most important sources of physical interaction, i. Each section is followed by simple rules of thumb to minimize potentially unwanted physical MRI interactions. Allerdings bergen ihre enorme physikalische Komplexitaet, aber auch einfache Unaufmerksamkeiten ''Projektileffekt'' ein signifikantes Risikopotenzial in sich und stellen hohe Anforderungen an die MR-Bediener, um einen sicheren Betrieb zu gewaehrleisten.
Ein solides Wissen um die potenziellen MR-Wechselwirkungen ist die Grundlage fuer einen sicheren und fuer alle Seiten gewinnbringenden Betrieb. Der erste Teil der Arbeit behandelt die 3 zentralen Quellen fuer physikalische Wechselwirkungen in der Magnetresonanztomographie statisches Magnetfeld, geschaltete Gradienten- und HF-Felder. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. The example of refrigeration technology for air conditioning plants.
Practice-oriented advanced training at Technische Akademie Esslingen training centre. The training lasts several days and comprises a total of 12 courses on the subjects: In the present article the structure of the training is illustrated for the example of refrigeration in air conditioning plants. The article also discusses questions concerning the assessment of the training and its benefit to the participants. Insgesamt werden in diesem gesamten Themenkomplex 12 Lehrgaenge angeboten: Am Beispiel des Themenbereiches Kaeltetechnik in Klimaanlagen wird die Lehrgangsausrichtung dargestellt.
Ferner werden Fragen der Lehrgangsbewertung und der Nutzen fuer die Teilnehmer diskutiert. Gasification of biomass - principles and technical alternatives; Vergasung von Biomassen - Prinzipien und technische Moeglichkeiten. The technical principles of gasification are outlined, and a number of biomass gasification processes are presented and compared with the coal gasification process.
On the basis of the knowledge gained in coal gasification, it will be easy to carry out the development work still required on small-scale biomass gasification systems in cooperation with the gas users. Auf der Grundlage der technischen Erkenntnisse bei der Kohlevergasung einschliesslich der vor- und nachgeschalteten Prozessstufen sind die noch notwendigen verfahrens- und apparatetechnischen Entwicklungsarbeiten fuer vorwiegend kleine Anlagen in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gasnutzern durchfuehrbar.
Late effects of mining operations. Technical and legal aspects. Conference; Spaetfolgen des Bergbaus. Technische und rechtliche Fragen. The problem of late effects of mining was reviewed. Solutions were found which may be interesting to other countries as well. Bergwerksstandorte wurden aufgegeben, andere Oberflaechennutzungsformen machten sich auf diesem Gelaende breit. Dort koennen auch noch lange nach Einstellung des Bergbaus Schaeden eintreten.
Welche technischen Ursachen haben sie? Diese Problematik wird anhand der Situation in Deutschland untersucht. Die Loesungsansaetze koennen aber auch fuer andere Laender fruchtbar gemacht werden. In the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische,Bundesanstalt at the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY I, radiation sources for radiometric applications in industry and basic research in the vacuum ultraviolet VUV spectral range are developed, characterized and calibrated.
Established sources such as deuterium lamps, Penning and hollow cathode discharge sources have limited spectral ranges and in particular their stability and life time suffers from the erosion of the cathode material. To overcome these limitations we have developed a radiation source based on the principle of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. ELISA is a 10 GHz monomode source with a compact design featuring a tunable cavity and axially positionable permanent magnets.
The radiation emission of the source can be detected simultaneously in the VUV and X-ray spectral range via a toroidal grating monochromator and a Si Li -detector. The special design of the source allows spectroscopic investigations of the plasma in dep Results of the dosimetry intercomparison. The appropriate way to verify the accuracy of the results of dose reported by the laboratories that offer lend personal dosimetry service is in the periodic participation of round of intercomparison dosimetry, undertaken by laboratories whose standards are trace Secondary Laboratory.
New techniques for cutting and decontamination for decommissioning of nuclear research reactors with consideration of cost reduction. In decommissioning of research reactors, specific boundary conditions, such as special materials, nuclides, geometries, spatial circumstances exist.
This project aims on the development and adaptation of progressive procedures for decommissioning tasks with respect to economical aspects cost reduction. Fluence measurement at the neutron time of flight experiment at CERN. In and the commissioning of the new target took place. During the summer a fission chamber of the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt PTB Braunschweig was used for the neutron fluence measurement.
The evaluation of the data recorded with this detector is the primary topic of this thesis. The experiment was implemented to clarify a question about the scattering cross section of molecular gas which could not be answered clearly via the literature. The values of the activity submitted were about 15 MBq and 42 MBq.
Willkommen am IFRT - Bereich Innovative Reaktorsysteme - Mitarbeiter - Xu Cheng
The new key comparison results have replaced the earlier values in the matrix of degrees of equivalence that now contains six results, identifier BIPM. Cd held in are still linked. Using multi-cistronic expression vectors, stable genomic integration was achieved in HT fibroblasts. The aim of this study is to characterise and use these highly reliable cell lines for studying initial steps of DNA damage responses and kinetics of repair after microbeam irradiation with high- and low-linear energy transfer LET particles in living cells at physiological conditions. Review on common calibration and measurement practises for measuring gears on CMMs.
Special attention is paid to gear metrology on coordinate measuring machines CMMs. Calibration chains for the major gear geometrical quantities developed by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB as well as their recent This review also describes the design and development of a new type of master gear: Its main characteristic is the replacement of the teeth with gauge blocks, in order to achieve direct traceability of the chordal tooth thickness High-frame rate imaging of two-phase flow in a thin rectangular channel using fast neutrons.
We have demonstrated the feasibility of performing high-frame-rate, fast neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a thin channel with rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. A polychromatic, high-intensity fast neutron beam with average energy of 6 MeV was produced by Image sequences down to 10 ms exposure times were obtained using a fast-neutron imaging detector developed in the context of fast-neutron resonance imaging.
Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and mean bubble velocities have been measured. The first results are promising, improvements for future experiments are also discussed. Torque wrenches 10 N m - 1 kN m.
The transfer standards have been two reference torque wrenches, 10 N m and N m respectively, that have been measured between November and December The results presented here demonstrate the metrological equivalence, within the quoted uncertainties, of both participant laboratories. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report.
Cross sections for ionization of tetrahydrofuran by protons at energies between and keV. Double-differential cross sections for ionization of tetrahydrofuran by protons with energies from to keV were measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt ion accelerator facility. Single-differential and total ionization cross sections have been derived by integration.
The experimental results are compared to the semiempirical Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht model as well as to the recently reported method based on the dielectric formalism. The comparison to the latter showed good agreement with experimental data in a broad range of emission angles and energies of secondary electrons. The scaling property of ionization cross sections for tetrahydrofuran was also investigated. Compared to molecules of different size, the ionization cross sections of tetrahydrofuran were found to scale with the number of valence electrons at large impact parameters.
Gas detectors for x-ray lasers. We have developed different types of photodetectors that are based on the photoionization of a gas at a low target density.
The almost transparent devices were optimized and tested for online photon diagnostics at current and future x-ray free-electron laser facilities on a shot-to-shot basis with a temporal resolution of better than ns. An upgrade for the detection of hard x-rays was tested at the Sub-Picosecond Photon Source in Stanford. Postirradiation effects in alanine dosimeter probes of two different suppliers.
The measurand relevant for the dosimetry for radiation therapy is the absorbed dose to water, D W. This postirradiation behaviour is investigated for alanine pellets of two different suppliers for different storage conditions. The influence of the storage conditions on the temporal evolution may be dependent on the type of probes used. Care has to be taken in case this method cannot be applied. It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement.
The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.
BESSY annual report The annual report is drawn up as in the previous years, with general information on the organisational structure of the institution and its general purposes being given ahead of the research-specific reports. The achievements and developments in the fields of machines and experiments are reported, including contributions from the Litography laboratory of the Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructural Studies and Techniques, and from the Radiometry Laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt , followed by reports on basic research work.
The machine developments are reported in varions contributions, and a list of publications shows all available and known scientific publications resulting from research work done at the BESSY installations by the various users. Diploma, doctoral and habilitation theses are listed separately. Fitting methods for constructing energy-dependent efficiency curves and their application to ionization chamber measurements. An ionization chamber without and with an iron liner absorber was calibrated by a set of radionuclide activity standards of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB.
The ionization chamber is used as a secondary standard measuring system for activity at the Slovak Institute of Metrology SMU. Energy-dependent photon-efficiency curves were established for the ionization chamber in defined measurement geometry without and with the liner, and radionuclide efficiencies were calculated.
Programmed calculation with an analytical efficiency function and a nonlinear regression algorithm of Microsoft MS Excel for fitting was used. Such efficiency components are added to obtain the total radionuclide efficiency of photon emitters after beta decay. The method yields differences of experimental and calculated radionuclide efficiencies for most of the photon-emitting radionuclides in the order of a few percent. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.
As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence XRF spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt , Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects.
The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase. Alpha-induced reactions on selenium between 11 and 15 MeV. The irradiation of natural selenium targets on aluminum backings was conducted at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB in Braunschweig, Germany.
The spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products was performed using a high-purity germanium detector located at PTB and a low energy photon spectrometer detector at the Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany. Thick-target yields were determined. The corresponding energy-dependent production cross sections of 77,79,85,85m Kr and 77Br were calculated from the thick-target yields.
So war es Ziel, di Physikalische Therapie der Beckenbodeninsuffizienz - Methodenvergleich. In bezug auf den Harninkontinenzgrad sind die Ergebnisse am Studienende bei Einsatz der Feedbackverfahren signifikant besser als nach isolierter Elektrostimulation. Experiences with a technically oriented plant management system; Erfahrungen mit einem technisch orientierten Betriebs-Management-System. This contribution first deals with the duality of mercantile and technical plant management systems.
The following aspects are considered: Dissolution of the duality through coordinated interplay. The author then goes on to explain the most important components of technically oriented maintenance management. These include the collection of technical plant data with maintenance-relevant data and relations ; the establishment of recurring tasks, the commissioning method involving occupational safety, packaging and evaluation , compilation of manuals, reporting and accompanying plant documentation.
The following tools are useful for DP-assisted maintenance: Sodann werden wichtige Bausteine eines technisch orientierten Instandhaltungs-Managements erlaeutert. Dazu gehoeren die technische Anlagenerfassung mit instandhaltungsrelevanten Daten und Relationen , die Einrichtung wiederkehrender Aufgaben, das Arbeitsauftragsverfahren mit Arbeitssicherheit, Paketierung und. Type testing of devices with inserted radioactive sources. In Germany devices with inserted radioactive sources can get a type approval if they comply with specific requirements.
Whoever operates a device whose type has been approved in accordance with the German Radiation Protection Ordinance does not need an individual authorization. Main aspects of the assessment are the activity of the radioactive sources, the dose equivalent rate near the devices, the tamper-proofness and leak-tightness of the sources and the safety of the construction of the devices. With the new Radiation Protection Ordinance in , more stringent requirements for a type approval were established. Experiences with the new regulations and the relevant assessment criteria applied by P.
Modelation and simulation of technical systems. An introduction close to practice; Modellierung und Simulation technischer Systeme. Fakultaet Naturwissenschaften und Technik. There is a growing trend towards using calculation programmes to design and optimise technical systems. Such programmes simulate the systems' dynamic behaviour on the basis of mathematical models. This book first presents the methods used for model identification and model description. A widely applicable basic algorithm has been derived by means of these methods. Creating an overview block diagram of the system under study constitutes an important step of model development.
The methods elaborated by the author are applied to numerous examples ordered in a sequence of growing complexity and hence difficulty. The examples each end with calculations on the model's behaviour, the results of which the reader can verify. Using the applied basic algorithm as a basis the reader can efficiently examine other systems not addressed in the book.
Die Programme simulieren das dynamische Verhalten der Systeme auf der Basis von mathematischen Modellen. In diesem Buch wird zunaechst die Methodik der Modellermittlung und -beschreibung dargelegt, aus welcher ein breit anwendbarer Grundalgorithmus abgeleitet worden ist. Die vom Autor erarbeitete Methodik wird auf zahlreiche Beispiele wachsender Komplexitaet und damit wachsenden Schwierigkeitsgrades angewendet. Der Leser kann auf der Grundlage des angewendeten Grundalgorithmus zielstrebig andere, im Buch nicht behandelte, Systeme untersuchen.
Gedanken zur Konzeption und Entwicklung spielbasierter digitaler Lernumgebung. Full Text Available Computerspiele sind heute aus der digitalen Medienwelt nicht mehr wegzudenken. Auf diesem Gebiet besteht Forschungsbedarf: Magnetic resonance imaging of pulmonary perfusion. Technical requirements and diagnostic impact; MRT der Lungenperfusion. Technische Voraussetzungen und diagnostischer Stellenwert.
With technical improvements in gradient hardware and the implementation of innovative k-space sampling techniques, such as parallel imaging, the feasibility of pulmonary perfusion MRI could be demonstrated in several studies. Dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D gradient echo sequences as used for time-resolved MR angiography have been established as the preferred pulse sequences for lung perfusion MRI. With these techniques perfusion of the entire lung can be visualized with a sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolution.
In several trials in patients with acute pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension and airway diseases, the clinical benefit and good correlation with perfusion scintigraphy have been demonstrated. The following review article describes the technical prerequisites, current post-processing techniques and the clinical indications for MR pulmonary perfusion imaging using MRI. In der Praxis haben sich dynamische kontrastverstaerkte 3D-Gradientenechosequenzen, wie sie fuer zeitaufgeloeste MR-Angiographien verwendet werden, fuer die Bildgebung der Lungenperfusion etabliert.
Hiermit ist es moeglich, die Perfusion der gesamten Lunge mit ausreichend hoher zeitlicher und raeumlicher Aufloesung zu visualisieren. In mehren klinischen Studien konnte bei Patienten mit Lungenembolie, pulmonaler Hypertonie sowie Erkrankungen der Atemwege und des Lungenparenchyms der klinische Nutzen der Lungenperfusions-MRT und die gute Uebereinstimmung mit der Lungenperfusionsszintigraphie nachgewiesen werden.
Der folgende Uebersichtsartikel beschreibt die technische Durchfuehrung, Bildnachverarbeitung und die klinischen Anwendungsgebiete der MRT zur Untersuchung der Lungenperfusion. Combustible liquids and gases; Sicherheitstechnische Kenngroessen. Brennbare Fluessigkeiten und Gase. About 1, combustible gases and vapours are listed, along with explosion protection characteristics like flame point, ignition temperature, explosion limits, minimum ignition energy, normal gap width, maximum explosion pressure, and maximum pressure increase over time.
Important thermophysical data are presented as well, e. Definitions of the characteristics are presented. There are several indexis to facilitate acces CAS number, sum formula, synonyms. Die Angaben werden eingeleitet durch Definitionen. Market segmentation end-consumers of domotica and technical control of behavior. Management summary; Marktsegmentatie eindgebruikers domotica en technische gedragssturing.
A qualitative and a quantitative study on the title subject were carried out. The quantitative study is based on the third measurement of the multi-client study in which attention is paid to attitudes and use of energy en the interest for domotica. The results are correlated with different types of communities. In the qualitative study attention is paid to motives to purchase domotica applications.
In deze studie wordt specifiek gekeken naar de attitude van verschillende deelsegmenten consumenten inzake energie en de potentieale interesse voor domotica en technische gedragsturing, teneinde energiebesparing te realiseren. Motivaction heeft de studie, die bestaat uit een kwantitatieve en kwalitatieve fase, uitgevoerd.
Voor het kwantitatieve deel is gebruik gemaakt van het multiclientonderzoek Socioconsult; gegevens daaruit op het gebied van energie en domotica zijn gekoppeld aan woonbelevingsgroepen. Vervolgens is een aantal domotica concepten voorgelegd aan en getoetst bij individuele consumenten in vier aparte groepsessies. Risicoleerlingen bij technisch lezen.
Dit project laat zien, dat verbetering van leesprestaties haalbaar is. Men zou de vraag kunnen stellen of die verbetering stand houdt, ook als de begeleiding ophoudt. Om daar zicht op te krijgen is evaluatieonderzoek noodzakelijk. Stenting und technische Stentumgebung.
- EnJoy Today: Inspirations for Every Day.
- Seashore (Seashore Novels Book 1).
- Pride and Prejudice and Zombies!
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- Fractional Analysis: Methods of Motion Decomposition.
Die KHK war im Jahre mit The objective of the Federal Institute for Meat Research is to contribute, through research and development, to the adequate provision of the Federal German population with high quality, where some meat and meat products including slaughter fat, eggs and poultry products, which are free of toxic residues.
This includes the development of analytical procedures for the determination of toxic heavy metals in foods, and is the subject of four contributions to this Annual Report. The annual report of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz covers the following issues: The report includes a list of publications. Was ein Wort bedeutet, kann ein Satz nicht sagen: Full Text Available Einleitung: Kritische Analyse und Betrachtung.
Neben den terminologischen Grundbegriffen Begriff, Benennung und Gegenstand werden vor allem die Definition als Begriffsbeschreibung sowie die Kriterien zur Bildung von Benennungen untersucht. Physikalische Belastungen in unseren Arbeits- und Umwelten. Site investigations and conceptual design for the repository in the nuclear 'Entsorgungszentrum' of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Site investigations are planned to enable the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the other institutions involved to scrutinize the suitability of the Gorleben site and its salt dome as the nuclear 'Entsorgungszentrum' repository, and to provide all data necessary for detailed site-specific planning and safe building and operation of the repository.
The investigations include deep drillings and an extensive hydrogeological programme for exploring the general structure of the salt dome and its environment. The latter programme started on 17 April The Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe Federal Geological Survey is in charge of the geoscientific side of the investigations. For the site-independent conceptual design the following requirements have been laid down: Investigation and modelling of fuel utilisation in the zone near the burner of technical combustion systems.
Final report; Untersuchung und Modellierung der Brennstoffumsetzung im Brennernahbereich technischer Verbrennungssysteme. Optimisation and development of technical combustion systems in order to generate energy efficiently and reduce pollution is an ever-increasing challenge. Mathematical and numerical simulations play a very important role in this context.
This project was dedicated to the implementation and improvement of mathematical models and subsequent verification of the modelling concepts. Verification used data measured by the university department for combined cyle turbines. The focal point of interest was the reaction zone near the burner. Further points of interest: Simulating the combustion chamber of the combined cycle turbines was prioritised.
Bei der technologischen Umsetzung dieses Ziels kommt der mathematisch-numerischen Simulation eine immer groessere Bedeutung zu. In diesem Projekt sollte die Implementierung und Verbesserung von mathematischen Modellierungsansaetzen sowie die anschliessende Verifikation der Modellierungskonzepte anhand der Messdaten des Lehrstuhls fuer Dampf- und Gasturbinen LDuG durchgefuehrt werden. Der Schwerpunkt lag in der brennernahen Reaktionszone. Konkrete Arbeitsschwerpunkte waren die Weiterentwicklung und Verbesserung der Modellansaetze fuer Zweiphaseneffekte, Brennstoffumsatz und Turbulenzinteraktion sowie die Weiterentwicklung der Methodik der numerischen Simulation.
Technical and economic practicability of novel flywheel mass storage systems in electricity supply networks; Technisch -wirtschaftliche Realisierbarkeit von neuartigen Schwungmassenspeicher-Systemen SMSS in elektrischen Netzen. Efficient storage of electrical energy is an increasing need. According to a first assessment, these systems may provide energy to the supply grid in a range of seconds and thus ensure frequency maintenance and compensation of short interruptions. The authors present first results of a preliminary study preparatory to a feasibility study on the technical and economic practicability of flywheel mass storage systems.
Nach einer ersten Einschaetzung eignen sich solche Anlagen, um im Sekundenbereich Energie in das Netz abzugeben und somit zur Frequenzstuetzung und zur Kompensation von Kurzunterbrechungen beizutragen. Praesentiert werden erste Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung zur Vorbereitung einer Machbarkeitsstudie ueber die technisch -wirtschaftliche Realisierbarkeit von Schwungmassenspeicher-Systemen. Annual report ; Bundesanstalt fuer Strahlenschutz.
Radioactive waste in Federal Germany. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since , the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year The result of this forecast is presented.
In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste.
Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications.
The radiation levels measured are used to estimate the radiation risks to people arising from the accident. Seven European countries participated in the intercomparison with detector systems used in their national network systems as well as with detectors being developed for future use. Since different radiation quantities were measured by the systems namely exposure, air kerma and ambient dose equivalent , the initial analysis of the intercomparison results was made in terms of the quantity air kerma rate. This report completes the analysis of the results and these are given in terms of air kerma rate in order to be consistent with the preliminary report.
The experience gained from this intercomparison is used to help organise a follow-up intercomparison to be held at the PTB Braunschweig in September and in which a further seven or eight countries from Europe will participate. Radiation measurement of civil air flight. In order to aquire knowledge of the radiation exposure of civil aircrew members in common flight altitudes, it was necessary to develop a practicable measurement system.
Total Equivalent Dose could be estimated in a simple way by combining a measured component of the radiation field in flight altitudes and the results of simulation with LUIN 94 particle transport code Keran O'Brian. To verify the results of the measurement system, a tissue equivalent proportional counter TEPC was used. Because of the difficult measurement conditions in cargo airplanes, special attention had to be taken to make the measurement equipment easy to use and transport. Special software has been developed to automate the measurement and the evaluation of the large amount of collected data.
Time-resolved fast-neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel by an improved detection system. In a previous work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt , Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography.
The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing, significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.
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Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. The enhanced imaging quality enables an improved prediction of two-phase flow parameters like the instantaneous volumetric gas fraction, bubble size, and bubble velocities.
Instantaneous velocity fields around the gas enclosures can also be more robustly predicted using optical flow methods as previously. Monte Carlo evaluation of the neutron detection efficiency of a superheated drop detector. Neuron dosimetry has recently gained renewed attention, following concerns on the exposure of crew members on board aircraft, and of workers around the increasing number of high energy accelerators for medical and research purpose.
At the same time the new operational qualities for radiation dosimetry introduced by ICRU and the ICRP, aiming at a unified metrological system applicable to all types of radiation exposure, involved the need to update current devices in order to meet new requirements. The detectors were characterised through calibrations with monoenergetic neutron beams and where experimental investigations were inadequate or impossible, such as in the intermediate energy range , parametric Monte Carlo calculations of the response were carried out.
This report describes the general characteristic of the SDDs along with the Monte Carlo computations of the energy response and a comparison with the experimental results. Algorithms for tracking codes are derived, and a semi-empirical formula for the estimation of transverse quadrupole CBIs is presented.
Transient beam loading is evaluated by means of analytic formulas and new experimentally verified tracking codes. For the baseline bunch fill pattern of BESSY VSR, it is shown that the particular setup of cavity frequencies amplifies the transient effect on the long bunch, limiting its elongation and potentially resulting in increased Touschek losses. On every radionuclide activity measurements or any measurements always contain uncertainties.
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Related Reaktortechnik: Physikalisch-technische Grundlagen (German Edition)
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