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Krakatoa Author and Historian Simon Winchester. Despite being voluntary to drought risk, there has been a reduction in their vulnerability as both internal and external interventions have been made to lessen the risks and impacts of droughts. There is criticism from politician and NGOs concerning the increasing fragility of the village towards flood and drought shocks. Recent observations in , and suggest the fact that local government has been more responsive.
Both media and social media helped spread the news, and the local disaster management authority BPBD as well as the head of the district could visit the village within 48 h in the case of floods. As early adopters of CBDRR, we observed that the approach has been introduced by non-governmental organisations NGOs , including our organisations in Indonesia since late s.
Such a big push by NGOs was aimed at recognising the roles of local communities and local capacities. In addition, there has been an increasing trend of disaster risk governance practice in Indonesia in the last 50 years Lassa where both local and national governments have been able to promote and pilot disaster resilience building at village level BNPB We witnessed some good practices from particular households and community members. Some local community members have been able to cope with the floods and droughts in the last 20 years.
In addition, most of the changes are the outcomes of complex interactions between all the actors from within and outside the local communities. The challenge is how to scale up some of these practices to wider scale. Our recent observation suggests an incremental change in flood risk management and adaptation. Some of the challenges for the future are that with the increasing population projected to increase by , how the communities rearrange their access to land use, access to forest, and competition over free flood zones.
In general, facilitated via the participatory processes, the elders generally could identify the root causes of risks and vulnerabilities that evolve in the village over long period of time. In some ways, NGOs and local communities believe that the declining of Aisio Forest Ecosystem Services has been like a leaking boat where most of the efforts to fix the holes are about delaying the end of the history.
However, this alarmist view might not fit with the real progress and achievements. Overall, there is a declining trend in flood disaster and drought mortality in Toineke. Recent global trends suggest that while there is a consistent decline in global disaster mortality, however, both mortality risk and economic loss from localised disaster events are increasing UNISDR These have been in particular associated with the human dimension of vulnerabilities ranging from inequality, environmental degradation and weak governance. In Toineke, we argue that rural planning needs to be moving beyond agriculture to include shelter, education, nutrition and social policy.
Unfortunately, we also observe that during the recent floods in , and , the local schools have been affected, as one high school teachers and students posted that their books and tables have been flooded. The current response system has been mainly focused on a small fraction of local livelihood systems.
It needs to address the issue of education in times of flood emergencies. Furthermore, increasing vulnerability to floods and droughts has its implication on nutritional issues. The challenge is how to train future community development workers and emergency responders as well as agriculture officials that can be mindful of all the complexity of building community resilience.
Unfortunately, the document made no explicit references to floods at all. This suggests that local communities did not fully adopt the risk assessment results to inform their recent planning documents. However, this is not surprising because most of these documents have been outsourced and completed by external consultants who might be either blind to disaster risks issues or simply using a general national template that is skewed towards big projects such as roads that had recently been funded by both local government as well as international donor projects.
While trying to change the community, we ended up changing our perception about social change. Non-governmental organisation workers as most of the authors used to be are often pushed for prompt public action while building and nurturing the condition for collective action from the communities. Nurturing community and collective action is not a simple endeavour.
Our 15 years of observation have improved our understanding of reality of risk as well as the communities. Spending decades not guarantee continuity of collective action and trust; but without intimately working with communities, chances for social change and future collective action might be very small.
However, not all the prescribed elements Figure 1 can be accommodated and funded because of a lack of resources. The final stages such as evaluation and monitoring, including exit strategy could not always be carried out. Such framing of entry and exit might be fit for international NGOs and donors but a vague concept for local governments as well as local NGOs. Many thanks also to all the PMPB staff who have been playing roles in some of the data collection and internal report writing for PMPB during — We would like to express our deepest condolences for the resent passing of Mr Yulius Nakmofa the third author.
Remembering his wonderful and gentle soul will forever remain in our hearts.
May he rest in peace! The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationships that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article. He went to the field during —, and He consistently archived data from the field, media, literature survey, social media and clippings during — How to cite this article: However, as this article shows, some local NGOs ended up continuing engaged with an at-risk community for 12 years in a row followed by further engagements via assessments, research and later on social media.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Jamba v. Published online May 3. Received Jun 2; Accepted Jan This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. Abstract Academics and practitioners often argue indirectly that all the roads to community resilience should be paved with community-based disaster risk reduction CBDRR approach. Introduction Community-based approach CBA has been a discursive material that appeals to most international donors, non-governmental organisations and high-level government officials Blaikie Open in a separate window.
Processes and tools of community-based disaster risk reduction frameworks. Methods This research uses longitudinal observations and combines qualitative and quantitative methods.
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Brief background of Toineke village Etymologically, Toineke is derived from toi [gate] and neke [kapok tree] Java cotton or Ceiba pentandra. Results and discussion Community perception of risk and hazards Disaster specialists are often interested only in natural hazards such as floods and droughts. Cardinal ranking means the participants summed. Number Identified problems Pre Post Remarks Source of information 1 Flood inundations and flood risk Non-intervention — but late s an NGO tried to mobilise the local communities to build drainage but failed Build flood wall embankment to channel back to the river —; — Some communities have been able to utilise small dams.
Dynamics of local arrangement of the use of these dams are still unknown. In situ marketing of crops and NTFPs products during Saturday market; higher penetration of financial and credits services from outside. NTFP, non-timber forest product. Flood history Floods have been disruptive to their livelihood assets such as livestock and food crops.
Flood events and trends between the s—s flood frequency. A positive deviation story According to the data from Toineke , the village has at least wells not including 8 boreholes. Coping mechanism — Combination of food diversification and reduction of food intakes Corn is the main food for the people.
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Floods and social media observation during — Despite being voluntary to drought risk, there has been a reduction in their vulnerability as both internal and external interventions have been made to lessen the risks and impacts of droughts. Conclusion As early adopters of CBDRR, we observed that the approach has been introduced by non-governmental organisations NGOs , including our organisations in Indonesia since late s.
Competing interests The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationships that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article. Footnotes How to cite this article: Blaikie Badan Pusat Statistiks P. Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability.
Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction
Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change , pp. Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 7 1 , Art. From Government to Governance? Vol 31 2 , — A community based disaster risk reduction guide [Bhasa: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 8 1 , a https: Support Center Support Center.
Risk mapping, food choice map, welfare ranking, coping mechanism, priorities and ranking. Village data —; BPS data — Recommend this book series Also available in our: Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management deals with a wide range of issues relating to global environmental hazards, natural and man-made disasters, and approaches to disaster risk reduction. As people and communities are the first and the most important responders to disasters and environment-related problems, this series aims to analyse critical field-based mechanisms which link community, policy and governance systems.
The series is built on field evidence and community practices, and provides specific tools and guiding frameworks with appropriate academic analysis. The series is the long-awaited missing link between academic research and field practice in the environment and disaster management field.
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