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El Rey Lear (Spanish Edition)
El rey Lear King Lear es una de las principales tragedias de William Shakespeare, fue escrita en su segundo periodo. Read more Read less. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Product details File Size: April 11, Sold by: Not Enabled Screen Reader: Enabled Amazon Best Sellers Rank: Related Video Shorts 0 Upload your video. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Once Edmund leaves with Goneril to warn Albany about the invasion, Gloucester is arrested, and Regan and Cornwall gouge out Gloucester's eyes.
As he is doing so, a servant is overcome with rage by what he is witnessing and attacks Cornwall, mortally wounding him.
Regan kills the servant, and tells Gloucester that Edmund betrayed him; then she turns him out to wander the heath , too. Edgar, in his madman's guise, meets his blinded father on the heath.
El Rey Lear
Gloucester, sightless and failing to recognise Edgar's voice, begs Tom to lead him to a cliff at Dover so that he may jump to his death. Goneril discovers that she finds Edmund more attractive than her honest husband Albany, whom she regards as cowardly. Albany has developed a conscience — he is disgusted by the sisters' treatment of Lear and Gloucester -- and denounces his wife.
Goneril sends Edmund back to Regan. After receiving news of Cornwall's death, she fears her newly widowed sister may steal Edmund and sends him a letter through Oswald. Now alone with Lear, Kent leads him to the French army, which is commanded by Cordelia. But Lear is half-mad and terribly embarrassed by his earlier follies. At Regan's instigation, Albany joins his forces with hers against the French. Goneril's suspicions about Regan's motives are confirmed and returned, as Regan rightly guesses the meaning of her letter and declares to Oswald that she is a more appropriate match for Edmund.
Edgar pretends to lead Gloucester to a cliff, then changes his voice and tells Gloucester he has miraculously survived a great fall. Lear appears, by now completely mad. He rants that the whole world is corrupt and runs off. Oswald appears, still looking for Edmund. On Regan's orders, he tries to kill Gloucester but is killed by Edgar. In Oswald's pocket, Edgar finds Goneril's letter, in which she encourages Edmund to kill her husband and take her as his wife. Kent and Cordelia take charge of Lear, whose madness quickly passes.
Regan, Goneril, Albany, and Edmund meet with their forces. Albany insists that they fight the French invaders but not harm Lear or Cordelia.
The two sisters lust for Edmund, who has made promises to both. He considers the dilemma and plots the deaths of Albany, Lear, and Cordelia. Edgar gives Goneril's letter to Albany. The armies meet in battle, the British defeat the French, and Lear and Cordelia are captured. Edmund sends Lear and Cordelia off with secret-joint orders from him representing Regan and her forces and Goneril representing the forces of her estranged husband, Albany for the execution of Cordelia. The victorious British leaders meet, and the recently widowed Regan now declares she will marry Edmund.
But Albany exposes the intrigues of Edmund and Goneril and proclaims Edmund a traitor. Regan falls ill, having been poisoned by Goneril, and is escorted offstage, where she dies. Edmund defies Albany, who calls for a trial by combat. Edgar appears masked and in armour, and challenges Edmund to a duel. No one knows who he is. Edgar wounds Edmund fatally, though he does not die immediately. Albany confronts Goneril with the letter which was intended to be his death warrant; she flees in shame and rage.
Edgar reveals himself, and reports that Gloucester died offstage from the shock and joy of learning that Edgar is alive, after Edgar revealed himself to his father. Offstage, Goneril, her plans thwarted, commits suicide. The dying Edmund decides, though he admits it is against his own character, to try to save Lear and Cordelia; however, his confession comes too late.
Soon after, Albany sends men to countermand Edmund's orders, Lear enters bearing Cordelia's corpse in his arms, having survived by killing the executioner.
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Kent appears and Lear now recognises him. Albany urges Lear to resume his throne, but as with Gloucester, the trials Lear has been through, including the hanging of his fool, have finally overwhelmed him, and he dies. Albany then asks Kent and Edgar to take charge of the throne. Kent declines, explaining that his master is calling him on a journey and he must follow. Finally, Albany in the Quarto version or Edgar in the Folio version implies that he will now become king.
Holinshed himself found the story in the earlier Historia Regum Britanniae by Geoffrey of Monmouth , which was written in the 12th century. Edmund Spenser 's The Faerie Queene , published , also contains a character named Cordelia, who also dies from hanging , as in King Lear. The source of the subplot involving Gloucester, Edgar, and Edmund is a tale in Philip Sidney 's Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia —90 , with a blind Paphlagonian king and his two sons, Leonatus and Plexitrus. Besides the subplot involving the Earl of Gloucester and his sons, the principal innovation Shakespeare made to this story was the death of Cordelia and Lear at the end; in the account by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Cordelia restores Lear to the throne, and succeeds him as ruler after his death.
During the 17th century, Shakespeare's tragic ending was much criticised and alternative versions were written by Nahum Tate , in which the leading characters survived and Edgar and Cordelia were married despite the fact that Cordelia was previously betrothed to the King of France. Although an exact date of composition cannot be given, many academic editors of the play date King Lear between and The latest it could have been written is , as the Stationers' Register notes a performance on 26 December The date originates from words in Edgar's speeches which may derive from Samuel Harsnett 's Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures Foakes argues for a date of —6, because one of Shakespeare's sources, The True Chronicle History of King Leir , was not published until ; close correspondences between that play and Shakespeare's suggest that he may have been working from a text rather than from recollections of a performance.
Naseeb Shaheen dates the play c per line 1. The modern text of King Lear derives from three sources: The differences between these versions are significant. Q 1 contains lines not in F 1 ; F 1 contains around lines not in Q 1. Also, at least a thousand individual words are changed between the two texts, each text has a completely different style of punctuation, and about half the verse lines in the F 1 are either printed as prose or differently divided in the Q 1.
The early editors, beginning with Alexander Pope , simply conflated the two texts, creating the modern version that has remained nearly universal for centuries. The conflated version is born from the hypothesis that Shakespeare wrote only one original manuscript, now unfortunately lost, and that the Quarto and Folio versions are distortions of that original. Others, such as Nuttall and Bloom, have identified Shakespeare himself as having been involved in reworking passages in the play to accommodate performances and other textual requirements of the play.
As early as , Madeleine Doran suggested that the two texts had basically different provenances, and that these differences between them were critically interesting. This argument, however, was not widely discussed until the late s, when it was revived, principally by Michael Warren and Gary Taylor. Their thesis, while controversial, has gained significant acceptance. It posits, essentially, that the Quarto derives from something close to Shakespeare's foul papers , and the Folio is drawn in some way from a promptbook, prepared for production by Shakespeare's company or someone else.
In short, Q 1 is "authorial"; F 1 is "theatrical". The New Cambridge Shakespeare has published separate editions of Q and F; the most recent Pelican Shakespeare edition contains both the Quarto and the Folio text as well as a conflated version; the New Arden edition edited by R. Foakes is the only recent edition to offer the traditional conflated text.
Both Anthony Nuttall of Oxford University and Harold Bloom of Yale University have endorsed the view of Shakespeare having revised the tragedy at least once during his lifetime. Nuttall speculates that Edgar, like Shakespeare himself, usurps the power of manipulating the audience by deceiving poor Gloucester. The words "nature," "natural" and "unnatural" occur over forty times in the play, reflecting a debate in Shakespeare's time about what nature really was like; this debate pervades the play and finds symbolic expression in Lear's changing attitude to Thunder.
There are two strongly contrasting views of human nature in the play: Along with the two views of Nature, Lear contains two views of Reason, brought out in Gloucester and Edmund's speeches on astrology 1. The rationality of the Edmund party is one with which a modern audience more readily identifies.
But the Edmund party carries bold rationalism to such extremes that it becomes madness: This betrayal of reason lies behind the play's later emphasis on feeling. The two Natures and the two Reasons imply two societies. Edmund is the New Man, a member of an age of competition, suspicion, glory, in contrast with the older society which has come down from the Middle Ages, with its belief in co-operation, reasonable decency, and respect for the whole as greater than the part.
King Lear is thus an allegory. The older society, that of the medieval vision, with its doting king, falls into error, and is threatened by the new Machiavellianism ; it is regenerated and saved by a vision of a new order, embodied in the king's rejected daughter.
Cordelia, in the allegorical scheme, is threefold: Nevertheless, Shakespeare's understanding of the New Man is so extensive as to amount almost to sympathy. Edmund is the last great expression in Shakespeare of that side of Renaissance individualism — the energy, the emancipation, the courage — which has made a positive contribution to the heritage of the West. But he makes an absolute claim which Shakespeare will not support. It is right for man to feel, as Edmund does, that society exists for man, not man for society. It is not right to assert the kind of man Edmund would erect to this supremacy.
The play offers an alternative to the feudal-Machiavellian polarity, an alternative foreshadowed in France's speech I. Until the decent society is achieved, we are meant to take as role-model though qualified by Shakespearean ironies Edgar, "the machiavel of goodness",  endurance, courage and "ripeness". The play also contains references to disputes between King James I and Parliament.
Just as the House of Commons had argued to James that their loyalty was to the constitution of England, not to the King personally, Kent insists his loyalty is institutional, not personal, as he is loyal to the realm of which the king is head of, not to Lear himself, and he tells Lear to behave better for the good of the realm. Furthermore, James VI of Scotland who inherited the throne of England upon the death of Elizabeth I in , thereby uniting all of the kingdoms of the British isles into one, and a major issue of his reign was the attempt to forge a common British identity.
King Lear provides a basis for "the primary enactment of psychic breakdown in English literary history". According to Kahn, Lear's old age forces him to regress into an infantile disposition, and he now seeks a love that is traditionally satisfied by a mothering woman, but in the absence of a real mother, his daughters become the mother figures.
Lear's contest of love between Goneril, Regan, and Cordelia serves as the binding agreement; his daughters will get their inheritance provided that they care for him, especially Cordelia, on whose "kind nursery" he will greatly depend. Cordelia's refusal to dedicate herself to him and love him as more than a father has been interpreted by some as a resistance to incest , but Kahn also inserts the image of a rejecting mother.
Even when Lear and Cordelia are captured together, his madness persists as Lear envisions a nursery in prison, where Cordelia's sole existence is for him. It is only with Cordelia's death that his fantasy of a daughter-mother ultimately diminishes, as King Lear concludes with only male characters living. Sigmund Freud asserted that Cordelia symbolises Death.
Therefore, when the play begins with Lear rejecting his daughter, it can be interpreted as him rejecting death; Lear is unwilling to face the finitude of his being. The play's poignant ending scene, wherein Lear carries the body of his beloved Cordelia, was of great importance to Freud. In this scene, Cordelia forces the realization of his finitude, or as Freud put it, she causes him to "make friends with the necessity of dying".
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Alternatively, an analysis based on Adlerian theory suggests that the King's contest among his daughters in Act I has more to do with his control over the unmarried Cordelia. In his study of the character-portrayal of Edmund, Harold Bloom refers to him as "Shakespeare's most original character".
Freud's vision of family romances simply does not apply to Edmund. Iago is free to reinvent himself every minute, yet Iago has strong passions, however negative. Edmund has no passions whatsoever; he has never loved anyone, and he never will. In that respect, he is Shakespeare's most original character.
The tragedy of Lear's lack of understanding of the consequences of his demands and actions is often observed to be like that of a spoiled child, but it has also been noted that his behaviour is equally likely to be seen in parents who have never adjusted to their children having grown up.
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