The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, the effectiveness of the German language in forming equivalents for foreign words from its inherited Germanic stem repertory is great. The tradition of loan translation was revitalized in the 18th century, with linguists like Joachim Heinrich Campe , who introduced close to words that are still used in modern German.
Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words deemed unnecessary with German alternatives. As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek. These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly.
The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total. The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.
As of August [update] , it is in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth. The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German. The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.
It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there. The most recent edition is the 42nd from The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol. This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en German verbs are indicated by a hyphen "-" after their stems. Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet.
Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts. In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner". Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.
German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available because they are a makeshift, not proper spelling. In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e. There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence.
Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e. Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.
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These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read. The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.
The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity. Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.
The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year. In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.
Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:. In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.
Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule. In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.
With approximately 25 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages. The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th. The th sounds, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and the 10th centuries. Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English as an f , or not at all , can often be linked to German ch: The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world. Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.
Thirteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from, often, the elimination of umlauts and not capitalizing nouns:. The government-backed Goethe-Institut  named after the famous German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.
This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language. The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , which was founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world. The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries.
Its founder, statistics professor Dr. The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle is the equivalent of the British BBC World Service and provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe. Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website to learn German.mail.mtsrnd.com/bone-and-soft-tissue-pathology-e-book-a-volume.php
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Deutsch disambiguation and German disambiguation. Not to be confused with Germanic languages. Co- Official and majority language. Co-official, but not majority language. Early New High German. Geographical distribution of German speakers. Italy South Tyrol 0. German is official language de jure or de facto and first language of the majority of the population. German is a co-official language, but not the first language of the majority of the population.
German or a German dialect is a legally recognized minority language Squares: German or a variety of German is spoken by a sizeable minority, but has no legal recognition. List of territorial entities where German is an official language. German language in Namibia. Brazilian German and Colonia Tovar dialect. Grammatical gender in German. German orthography and German braille. Listen to a German speaker recite the alphabet in German. German orthography reform of High German consonant shift. Deutsch disambiguation German family name etymology German toponymy Germanism linguistics List of German exonyms List of German expressions in English List of German words of French origin List of pseudo-German words adapted to English List of terms used for Germans List of territorial entities where German is an official language Names for the German language.
Retrieved 24 July Europeans and their languages" PDF report. Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 28 September Retrieved August 6, Old English and its closest relatives: An Anthology of German Literature. Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache. A history of the German language: University of Washington Press.
A history of German: Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Eerdmans; Brill, —, 1: A history of the German language. University of California Libraries. The German Nation and Martin Luther. The "Duden" and its History". Die Rolle der II. Orthographischen Konferenz in der Geschichte der deutschen Rechtschreibung. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 18 July Statista, The Statistics Portal. Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 June Supplement of the Allgemeine Zeitung.
Archived from the original PDF on 24 June Retrieved 23 June Markedness and salience in language contact and second-language acquisition: Founding Provisions South African Government". Retrieved 15 March German Dialects map ". Volume 2, Reference Survey" 1st ed. Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 17 October The right of dissolution shall lapse as soon as the Bundestag elects another Federal Chancellor by the vote of a majority of its Members.
Article 71 [Exclusive legislative power of the Federation: Laws adopted pursuant to clause 25 of paragraph 1 of this Article shall require the consent of the Bundesrat. Article 74a [Concurrent legislative power of the Federation: Paragraph 3 of this Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to laws enacted pursuant to paragraph 1 of Article Paragraph 3 of Article 72 shall apply mutatis mutandis.
The Bundesrat shall be entitled to comment on such bills within six weeks. If for important reasons, especially with respect to the scope of the bill, the Bundesrat demands an extension, the period shall be increased to nine weeks. If in exceptional circumstances the Federal Government on submitting a bill to the Bundesrat declares it to be particularly urgent, it may submit the bill to the Bundestag after three weeks or, if the Bundesrat has demanded an extension pursuant to the third sentence of this paragraph, after six weeks, even if it has not yet received the Bundesrat's comments; upon receiving such comments, it shall transmit them to the Bundestag without delay.
In the case of bills to amend this Basic Law or to transfer sovereign powers pursuant to Article 23 or 24 the comment period shall be nine weeks; the fourth sentence of this paragraph shall not apply. In submitting them the Federal Government shall state its own views. If for important reasons, especially with respect to the scope of the bill, the Federal Government demands an extension, the period shall be increased to nine weeks.
If in exceptional circumstances the Bundesrat declares a bill to be particularly urgent, the period shall be three weeks or, if the Federal Government has demanded an extension pursuant to the third sentence of this paragraph, six weeks. The Bundestag shall consider and vote on bills within a reasonable time. After their adoption the President of the Bundestag shall submit them to the Bundesrat without delay. The composition and proceedings of this committee shall be regulated by rules of procedure adopted by the Bundestag and requiring the consent of the Bundesrat.
The Members of the Bundesrat on this committee shall not be bound by instructions. When the consent of the Bundesrat is required for a bill to become law, the Bundestag and the Federal Government may likewise demand that such a committee be convened. Should the committee propose any amendment to the adopted bill, the Bundestag shall vote on it a second time. The time for objection shall begin, in the case described in the last sentence of paragraph 2 of this Article, upon receipt of the bill as readopted by the Bundestag, and in all other cases upon receipt of a communication from the chairman of the committee provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article to the effect that the committee's proceedings have been concluded.
If the Bundesrat adopted the objection by a majority of at least two thirds of its votes, its rejection by the Bundestag shall require a two-thirds majority, including at least a majority of the Members of the Bundestag. A bill adopted by the Bundestag shall become law if the Bundesrat consents to it, or fails to make a demand pursuant to paragraph 2 of Article 77, or fails to enter an objection within the period stipulated in paragraph 3 of Article 77, or withdraws such an objection, or if the objection is overridden by the Bundestag.
In the case of an international treaty respecting a peace settlement, the preparation of a peace settlement, or the phasing out of an occupation regime, or designed to promote the defense of the Federal Republic, it shall be sufficient, for the purpose of making clear that the provisions of this Basic Law do not preclude the conclusion and entry into force of the treaty, to add language to the Basic Law that merely makes this clarification.
The content, purpose, and scope of the authority conferred shall be specified in the law. Each statutory instrument shall contain a statement of its legal basis. If the law provides that such authority may be further delegated, such subdelegation shall be effected by statutory instrument. The determination of a state of tension and specific approval in the cases mentioned in the first sentence of paragraph 5 and the second sentence of paragraph 6 of Article 12a shall require a two-thirds majority of the votes cast. Any measures taken pursuant to this paragraph shall be rescinded whenever the Bundestag, by the vote of a majority of its Members, so demands.
The same shall apply if a bill has been rejected although the Federal Chancellor had combined it with a motion under Article The same shall apply if the Bundestag does not pass the bill within four weeks after it is reintroduced. After the expiration of this period, no further declaration of a state of legislative emergency may be made during the term of office of the same Federal Chancellor. Statutory instruments shall be certified by the agency that issues them and, unless a law otherwise provides, shall be promulgated in the Federal Law Gazette.
In the absence of such a provision, it shall take effect on the fourteenth day after the day on which the Federal Law Gazette containing it was published. This law shall include general principles governing the performance of such tasks. The inclusion of a project in the overall plan shall require the consent of the Land in whose territory it is to be carried out. Details shall be regulated by the law. The apportionment of costs shall be regulated by the relevant agreement.
Article 93 [Federal Constitutional Court: Half the members of the Federal Constitutional Court shall be elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat. They may not be members of the Bundestag, of the Bundesrat, of the Federal Government, or of any of the corresponding bodies of a Land.
The law may require that all other legal remedies be exhausted before a constitutional complaint may be filed, and may provide for a separate proceeding to determine whether the complaint will be accepted for decision. These courts may exercise criminal jurisdiction only during a state of defense or over members of the Armed Forces serving abroad or on board warships. These courts shall be under the aegis of the Federal Minister of Justice.
Their full-time judges shall be persons qualified to hold judicial office. The legislature may set age limits for the retirement of judges appointed for life. In the event of changes in the structure of courts or in their districts, judges may be transferred to another court or removed from office, provided they retain their full salary. In the case of an intentional infringement it may order him dismissed. The Federation may enact framework provisions on this subject to the extent that paragraph 4 of Article 74a does not otherwise provide. Existing Land constitutional law shall not be affected.
The decision in cases of judicial impeachment shall rest with the Federal Constitutional Court. Article 99 [Decision by the Federal Constitutional Court and the supreme federal courts in disputes concerning Land law]. A land law may assign the decision of constitutional disputes within a Land to the Federal Constitutional Court, and the final decision in matters involving the application of Land law to the supreme courts specified in paragraph 1 of Article This provision shall also apply where the Basic Law is held to be violated by Land law and where a Land law is held to be incompatible with a federal law.
No one may be removed from the jurisdiction of his lawful judge. Article [Hearing in accordance with law; ban on retroactive criminal laws and on multiple punishment]. Persons in custody may not be subjected to mental or physical mistreatment. If such a deprivation is not based on a judicial order, a judicial decision shall be obtained without delay. The police may hold no one in custody on their own authority beyond the end of the day following the arrest. The judge shall, without delay, either issue a written arrest warrant setting forth the reasons therefor or order his release.
Details, especially with respect to the kinds of investments to be promoted, shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat or by executive agreements under the Federal Budget Law. Details shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat. Such determination shall be based on the following principles:. This law may provide that municipalities may establish supplementary or reduced rates with respect to their share of the tax. Municipalities shall be authorized to establish the rates at which taxes on real property and trades are levied, within the framework of the laws.
If there are no municipalities in a Land, revenue from taxes on real property and trades as well as from local taxes on consumption and expenditures shall accrue to the Land. Details regarding such apportionment shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat.
In accordance with Land legislation, taxes on real property and trades as well as the municipalities' share of revenue from the income tax and the turnover tax may be taken as a basis for calculating the amount of apportionment. In all other respects Land legislation shall determine whether and to what extent revenue from Land taxes shall accrue to municipalities associations of municipalities. Allocations made pursuant to the first sentence of this Article shall not be taken into account in determining the financial capacity of a Land under paragraph 2 of Article Details respecting the delimitation as well as the manner and scope of allotment of local revenue from corporation and wage taxes shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat.
- German Law and the German Legal System.
- Low German.
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This law may also provide for the delimitation and allotment of local revenue from other taxes. The organization of these authorities shall be regulated by a federal law. The heads of intermediate authorities shall be appointed in consultation with the Land governments. The organization of these authorities and the uniform training of their civil servants may be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat.
The heads of intermediate authorities shall be appointed in agreement with the Federal Government. Paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article 85 shall apply, provided that the Federal Minister of Finance shall take the place of the Federal Government. The procedures to be followed by Land revenue authorities or, as provided by the second sentence of paragraph 4 of this Article, by municipalities associations of municipalities may be prescribed by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat.
The budget shall be balanced with respect to revenues and expenditures. The law may provide that various parts of the budget apply to different periods of time, divided by fiscal years. The Budget Law may specify that its provisions shall expire only upon promulgation of the next Budget Law or, in the event of an authorization pursuant to Article , at a later date. Expenditures in excess of budgetary appropriations or for purposes not contemplated by the budget shall require the consent of the Federal Minister of Finance. Such consent may be given only in the event of an unforeseen and unavoidable necessity.
Details may be regulated by a federal law. Article [Consent of the Federal Government to increases in expenditures or decreases in revenue]. This requirement shall also apply to laws that entail or will bring about decreases in revenue. The Federal Government may demand that the Bundestag postpone its vote on bills to this effect. In this event the Federal Government shall submit its comments to the Bundestag within six weeks. Upon the expiration of this period such consent shall be deemed to have been given.
It shall submit an annual report directly to the Bundestag and the Bundesrat as well as to the Federal Government. In other respects the powers of the Federal Court of Audit shall be regulated by a federal law. Revenue obtained by borrowing shall not exceed the total of investment expenditures provided for in the budget; exceptions shall be permissible only to avert a disturbance of the overall economic equilibrium. Such determination shall be made on application of the Federal Government and shall require a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, which shall include at least a majority of the Members of the Bundestag.
If this cannot be done in time, promulgation shall be effected in another manner; the determination shall be printed in the Federal Law Gazette as soon as circumstances permit. The Federal President shall announce that time as soon as circumstances permit. Under the conditions specified in paragraph 2 of this Article, the Joint Committee shall act in place of the Bundestag.
Upon the promulgation of a state of defense the power of command over the Armed Forces shall pass to the Federal Chancellor. Such laws shall require the consent of the Bundesrat. The Bundestag and the Bundesrat shall debate such bills in joint session without delay. Insofar as the consent of the Bundesrat is necessary for any such bill to become law, a majority of its votes shall be required.
Details shall be regulated by rules of procedure adopted by the Bundestag and requiring the consent of the Bundesrat. The Joint Committee shall have no power to enact laws pursuant to the second sentence of paragraph 1 of Article 23, paragraph 1 of Article 24, or Article Neither the constitutional status nor the performance of the constitutional functions of the Federal Constitutional Court or its judges may be impaired. The law governing the Federal Constitutional Court may be amended by a law enacted by the Joint Committee only insofar as the Federal Constitutional Court agrees is necessary to ensure that it can continue to perform its functions.
Pending the enactment of such a law, the Federal Constitutional Court may take such measures as are necessary to this end. Determinations by the Federal Constitutional Court pursuant to the second and third sentences of this Article shall be made by a majority of the judges present. A term of office of the Federal President due to expire during a state of defense, and the exercise of his functions by the President of the Bundesrat in case of the premature vacancy of his office, shall end nine months after the termination of the state of defense.
The term of office of a member of the Federal Constitutional Court due to expire during a state of defense shall end six months after the termination of the state of defense. The Joint Committee may express its lack of confidence in the Federal Chancellor only by electing a successor by a two-thirds majority of its members. This provision shall not apply to earlier law enacted pursuant to Articles c, e or g.
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After such termination they may, with the consent of the Bundesrat, be amended by a federal law so as to revert to the provisions of Titles VIIIa and X. Article l [Repeal of extraordinary measures; termination of a state of defense; conclusion of peace].
The Bundesrat may demand that the Bundestag reach a decision on this question. Any measures taken by the Joint Committee or by the Federal Government to avert a danger shall be rescinded if the Bundestag and the Bundesrat so decide. A state of defense shall be declared terminated without delay if the conditions for determining it no longer exist. They shall be deemed never to have been deprived of their citizenship if they have established their domicile in Germany after May 8, and have not expressed a contrary intention.
Article [Transitional provision respecting paragraph 2 of Article 3 and Article 11]. If no agreement is reached, the revision shall be effected by a federal law, which shall provide for an advisory referendum. In this connection the Federal Government may be authorized to issue individual instructions in particular cases. Unless time is of the essence, such instructions shall be addressed to the highest Land authorities. The Federation shall be responsible for subsidies toward meeting the costs of social security, including unemployment insurance and public assistance to the unemployed.
In exercising these powers, the Federal Equalization of Burdens Office shall not require the consent of the Bundesrat; except in urgent cases, its instructions shall be given to the highest Land authorities Land Equalization of Burdens Offices. Within the meaning of this Basic Law, a majority of the Members of the Bundestag and a majority of the members of the Federal Convention shall be a majority of the number of their members specified by a law.
Article [Continuing applicability as federal law within the sphere of exclusive legislative power]. Law respecting matters subject to the exclusive legislative power of the Federation shall become federal law in the area in which it applies. Law respecting matters subject to the concurrent legislative power of the Federation shall become federal law in the area in which it applies: It may be superseded by Land law. A federal law may provide that it may be superseded by Land law. The same shall be true of federal law enacted before that date which could no longer be enacted by virtue of paragraph 2 of Article Article [Disagreements respecting the continued applicability of law as federal law].
German offices in Schleswig-Holstein are obliged to accept and handle applications in Low German on the same footing as Standard High German applications. The Dutch Low Saxon varieties, which are also defined as Dutch dialects, consist of:. It is documented from the 9th century until the 12th century, when it evolved into Middle Low German.
Only a few texts survive, predominantly in baptismal vows the Saxons were required to perform at the behest of Charlemagne. The only literary texts preserved are Heliand and the Old Saxon Genesis. It was spoken from about to After mass education in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries, the slow decline which Low German had been experiencing since the end of the Hanseatic League turned into a free fall.
The decision to exclude Low German in formal education was not without controversy, however. On one hand, proponents of Low German advocated that since it had a strong cultural and historical value and was the native language of students in northern Germany, it had a place in the classroom. On the other hand, High German was considered the language of education, science, and national unity, and since schools promoted these values, High German was seen as the best candidate for the language of instruction.
Initially, regional languages and dialects were thought to limit the intellectual ability of their speakers. Nevertheless, the opponents claimed that it should simply remain a spoken and informal language to be used on the street and in the home, but not in formal schooling. According to them, it simply did not match the nationally unifying power of High German. As a result, while Low German literature was deemed worthy of being taught in school, High German was chosen as the language of scholarly instruction.
With High German the language of education and Low German the language of the home and daily life, a stable diglossia developed in Northern Germany. Total users in all countries are , Open source software has been translated into Low German; this used to be coordinated via a page on Sourceforge,  but as of , the most active project is that of KDE. In the early 20th century, scholars in the Netherlands argued that speaking dialects hindered language acquisition, and it was therefore strongly discouraged.
As education improved, and mass communication became more widespread, the Low Saxon dialects further declined, although decline has been greater in urban centres of the Low Saxon regions. Therefore, a lot of Low German words sound similar to their English counterparts. One feature that does distinguish Low German from English generally is final devoicing of obstruents, as exemplified by the words 'good' and 'wind' below. This is a characteristic of Dutch and German as well and involves positional neutralization of voicing contrast in the coda position for obstruents i.
This is not used in English except in the Yorkshire dialect , where there is a process known as Yorkshire assimilation. The table below shows the relationship between Low German consonants which were unaffected by this chain shift and their equivalents in other West Germanic languages. Generally speaking, Low German grammar shows similarities with the grammars of Dutch , Frisian , English , and Scots , but the dialects of Northern Germany share some features especially lexical and syntactic features with German dialects.
Low German declension has only two morphologically marked noun cases, where accusative and dative together constitute an oblique case , and the genitive case has been lost. In most modern dialects, the nominative and oblique cases are primarily distinguished only in the singular of masculine nouns. In some Low German dialects, the genitive case is distinguished as well e. By contrast, German distinguishes four cases: So, for example, the definite article of the masculine singular has the forms: Thus case marking in Low German is simpler than in German.
In Low German verbs are conjugated for person, number, and tense. Verb conjugation for person is only differentiated in the singular. There are five tenses in Low German: For example, "Ekj sie jekomen", "I am come", means that the speaker came and he is still at the place to which he came as a result of his completed action. Unlike Dutch , German , and southern Low German, the northern dialects form the participle without the prefix ge- , like the Scandinavian languages , Frisian and English.
Compare to the German past participle ge schlafen. It should be noted that e- is used instead of ge- in most Southern below Groningen in the Netherlands dialects , though often not when the past participle ends with -en or in a few oft-used words like west been. The reason for the two conjugations shown in the plural is regional: The -en suffix is of Dutch influence. The -t ending is however more often encountered, even in areas where -en endings were prominent due to the fact that these -t endings are seen as kennzeichnend Niederdeutsch , that is to say a well-known feature of Low German.
There is also a progressive form of verbs in present, corresponding to the same in the Dutch language. These forms fall somewhere in between these two languages. Unlike German, Low German does not have a distinction for strong and weak forms of adjectives.
However, its adjectives still do have endings, whereas English adjectives do not. The adjectives in Low German make a distinction between singular and plural to agree with the nouns that it modifies. Like German, Low German maintains the historical Germanic distinction between the second person singular and second person plural. The second person pronouns for each case are given below to further illustrate this distinction. In the genitive possessive case, the pronoun functions in the same way as an adjective and so it may take an ending if needed to match the singular or plural status of the noun it is modifying.
Since there is no standard Low German, there is no standard Low German consonant system. Low German is written using the Latin alphabet. There is no true standard orthography , only several locally more or less accepted orthographic guidelines, those in the Netherlands mostly based on Dutch orthography, and those in Germany mostly based on German orthography.
To the latter group belongs the standard orthography devised by Johannes Sass.
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