Although they may feel free to act as themselves, the opacity involved in entering a non-heterosexual territory insinuates judgment upon their identity, she argues in Imitation and Gender Insubordination Coming out of the closet is the source of other gay slang expressions related to voluntary disclosure or lack thereof. LGBT people who have already revealed or no longer conceal their sexual orientation or gender identity are out , i.
Oppositely, LGBT people who have yet to come out or have opted not to do so are labelled as closeted or being in the closet. Outing is the deliberate or accidental disclosure of an LGBT person's sexual orientation or gender identity, without their consent. By extension, outing oneself is self-disclosure. Glass closet means the open secret of when public figures' being LGBT is considered a widely accepted fact even though they have not officially come out. In , one hundred years before the Stonewall riots , the German homosexual rights advocate Karl Heinrich Ulrichs introduced the idea of self-disclosure as a means of emancipation.
Claiming that invisibility was a major obstacle toward changing public opinion , he urged homosexual people to reveal their same-sex attractions. In , Magnus Hirschfeld revisited the topic in his major work The Homosexuality of Men and Women , discussing the social and legal potentials of several thousand homosexual men and women of rank revealing their sexual orientation to the police in order to influence legislators and public opinion. The first prominent American to reveal his homosexuality was the poet Robert Duncan.
In , using his own name in the anarchist magazine Politics , he wrote that homosexuals were an oppressed minority.
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In , Donald Webster Cory   published his landmark The Homosexual in America , exclaiming, "Society has handed me a mask to wear Everywhere I go, at all times and before all sections of society, I pretend. In the s, Frank Kameny came to the forefront of the struggle.
Having been fired from his job as an astronomer for the Army Map service in for homosexual behavior, Kameny refused to go quietly. He openly fought his dismissal, eventually appealing it all the way to the U. As a vocal leader of the growing movement, Kameny argued for unapologetic public actions. The cornerstone of his conviction was that, "we must instill in the homosexual community a sense of worth to the individual homosexual", which could only be achieved through campaigns openly led by homosexuals themselves.
With the spread of consciousness raising CR in the late s, coming out became a key strategy of the gay liberation movement to raise political consciousness to counter heterosexism and homophobia. At the same time and continuing into the s, gay and lesbian social support discussion groups, some of which were called "coming-out groups", focused on sharing coming-out "stories" experiences with the goal of reducing isolation and increasing LGBT visibility and pride. As historian George Chauncey points out:. Gay people in the pre-war years [pre-WWI] In fact, as Elizabeth Kennedy observes, "using the term 'closet' to refer to" previous times such as "the s and s might be anachronistic ".
An article on coming out  in the online encyclopedia glbtq. The article continues by echoing Chauncey's observation that a subsequent shift in connotation occurred later on. The pres focus was on entrance into "a new world of hope and communal solidarity" whereas the post- Stonewall Riots overtone was an exit from the oppression of the closet.
The closet metaphor, in turn, is extended to the forces and pressures of heterosexist society and its institutions. When coming out is described as a gradual process or a journey,  it is meant to include becoming aware of and acknowledging one's gender identity or non-heteronormative sexual orientation. This preliminary stage, which involves soul-searching or a personal epiphany ,  is often called "coming out to oneself" and constitutes the start of self-acceptance.
Many LGBT people say that this stage began for them during adolescence or childhood , when they first became aware of their sexual orientation toward members of the same sex. Coming out has also been described as a process because of a recurring need or desire to come out in new situations in which LGBT people are assumed to be heterosexual or cisgender , such as at a new job or with new acquaintances.
Every coming out story is the person trying to come to terms with who they are and their sexual orientation. Dank, ; Cass, ; Coleman, ; Troiden, Of these models, the most widely accepted is the Cass identity model established by Vivienne Cass. However, not every LGBT person follows such a model. For example, some LGBT youth become aware of and accept their same-sex desires or gender identity at puberty in a way similar to which heterosexual teens become aware of their sexuality, i. High school students and even middle school students are coming out. Emerging research suggests that gay men from religious backgrounds are likely to come out online via Facebook and Blogs as it offers a protective interpersonal distance.
This largely contradicts the growing movement in social media research indicating that online use, particularly Facebook, can lead to negative mental health outcomes such as increased levels of anxiety. While further research is needed to assess whether these results generalize to a larger sample, these recent findings open the door to the possibility that gay men's online experiences may differ from heterosexuals' in that it may be more likely to provide mental health benefits than consequences.
In areas of the world where homosexual acts are penalized or prohibited, gay men, lesbians, and bisexual people can suffer negative legal consequences for coming out. In particular, where homosexuality is a crime, coming out may constitute self-incrimination. These laws still exist in 76 countries worldwide, including Egypt, Iran, Singapore, and Afghanistan.
In the early stages of the lesbian, gay or bisexual identity development process, people feel confused and experience turmoil. In , Michelangelo Signorile wrote Queer in America , in which he explored the harm caused both to a closeted person and to society in general by being closeted. Because LGBT people have historically been marginalized as sexual minorities , coming out of the closet remains a challenge for most of the world's LGBT population and can lead to a backlash of heterosexist discrimination and homophobic violence. On the personal and relationship levels, effects of not coming out have been the subject of studies.
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For example, it has been found that same-sex couples who have not come out are not as satisfied in their relationships as same-sex couples who have. Depending on the relational bond between parents and children, a child coming out as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender can be positive or negative. Strong, loving relationships between children and their parents may be strengthened but if a relationship is already strained, those relationships may be further damaged or destroyed by the child coming out. A number of studies have been done on the effect of people coming out to their parents.
A report by Robinson et al. The study found that two-thirds of parents reacted negatively. Homelessness is a common effect among LGBT youth during the coming out process. LGBT youth are among the largest population of homeless youth; this has typically been caused by the self-identification and acknowledgment of being gay or identifying with the LGBT community. Jimmie Manning performed a study in on positive and negative behavior performed during the coming out conversation.
She asks us to have the courage to live out forgotten forms of Christian love, including same-sex love: Scripture shows us the covenant friendship of David and Jonathan, the devoted kinship of Ruth and Naomi. Jesus, the God who is love, loved more deeply than any human being. If we are all the church together, LGBT laypeople who seek to live in obedience to the church have a place as well as those who dissent. After the Pulse shooting, Washington area houses of worship held an interfaith vigil.
The participants were of every sexual orientation and many beliefs; celibate gay people stood alongside those in same-sex marriages to mourn and pray. Sometimes it can be harder to come together in ordinary times than in the wake of crisis. No matter what we do or where we go, God is there with us. The thing many LGBT Christians need most — the thing whose absence most deeply warps our lives and our relationship with God — is heartfelt conviction that God cherishes us and delights in our existence.
Without the conviction that God cherishes us, how can we trust that His will is for our peace, that His commands are for our own good? How can we trust ourselves to love others and bring this love as a gift to our churches? Foot care - podiatrists. Complementary and alternative care. Healthy living Healthy living. Babies and toddlers Drugs and addictive behaviours. Older people in hospital — Get well soon.
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Sexual health Sexual health - Sexuality and sexual identity Young people Young people - Sex and sexuality. The problem does not lie with GLBTI individuals, but with the attitudes and behaviour of the society around them. Research suggests that gay men and lesbians have reduced access to medical care because of their fear of discrimination. The constant pressure of dealing with the homophobia of others makes depression, among other mental health problems, relatively common.
While gay and lesbian people are as diverse as the rest of the population, their shared experience of discrimination creates common health issues. Australian society generally regards heterosexuality as the most acceptable sexual orientation, which means that gay men, lesbians and bisexual people may be marginalised and discriminated against.
Transgender and intersex people may also experience marginalisation and discrimination in relation to their health and wellbeing. The previous term for intersex was hermaphrodite. Sexuality and violence A study of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender GLBT Victorians found that nearly one in seven reported living in fear of homophobic violence. This fear was justified in that nearly 85 per cent of respondents had been subjected to some form of homophobic violence or harassment in their lifetimes and one in two had experienced homophobic harassment or other non-physical abuse in the past two years.
In eighty-five per cent of cases, violence and harassment were preceded or accompanied by homophobic language. Sexual assault was also common, with nearly 5 per cent having been subjected to this form of violence over the last two years. Among same sex attracted young people, violence and discrimination were also common. A study of young Australians found that 61 per cent had suffered verbal abuse because of their sexuality, 18 per cent suffered physical assault and 69 per cent suffered other forms of homophobia such as exclusion rumours and graffiti.
Homophobia and heterosexism Homophobia means fear of homosexuality. Some people may feel threatened by people who have sexual preferences other than their own. They may express this fear in a variety of ways ranging from subtle discrimination to overt violence. Heterosexism is the belief that everyone is, or should be, heterosexual and that other forms of sexuality are unacceptable.
This belief may underpin a range of areas — for example, health policy, health services, welfare and education services — and can make gay and lesbian people feel invisible. This can have a range of impacts. For example, it may mean that the form you fill in at a medical service may have no place to record that your nominated next of kin is a same sex partner.
If you are a young gay person, you may not be permitted to take a same sex partner to the school formal. Health impacts for gay men and lesbians While many things have improved for gay and lesbian people over the past 50 years in Australia, there is still constant uncertainty about whether they will receive acceptance from families, friends, colleagues and services. The constant pressure of dealing with this uncertainty has an impact on health.
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Gay men and lesbians have higher rates of mental health disorders than the rest of the population. They also have higher rates of obesity, smoking and unsafe alcohol and drug use, and are more likely to self-harm. These conditions develop in response to different scenarios including: Gay men, lesbians and health professionals Research suggests that gay men and lesbians have reduced access to medical care compared to heterosexuals. Some of the issues they face include: The majority of gay men and lesbians have had experience of homophobic health professionals.
This may make them less inclined to seek medical help, or they may wait longer before they seek help. Health professionals, particularly in rural areas, may be inadequately informed about gay and lesbian health issues. Gay men and lesbians may be reluctant to have their sexuality recorded in their histories due to the fear that others may gain access to their records. Reduced access to services leads to reduced levels of screening in gay and lesbian populations.
This is likely to account for the higher levels of some cancers in these groups. Gay and lesbian people do not need special medical treatment, but they do need treatment that is fair and appropriate. Equity and legal rights for gay men and lesbians Part of the reason gay and lesbian people experience marginalisation is that federal, state and territory laws do not offer gay and lesbian people uniform protection against all forms of discrimination. Prior to these changes, Victorian laws governing such factors as property rights and stamp duty were applicable only to heterosexual couples.
In , the Federal government went further and changed 58 laws that discriminated against gay and lesbian people and their families. Victorian gay and lesbian reforms Legal recognition and protection of rights is a powerful step towards improving the health and wellbeing of gay and lesbian people. In , Victoria was the first state in Australia to establish a Ministerial Advisory Committee on gay and lesbian health. The Victorian government has also been proactive in fighting homophobia in schools by establishing the Safe School Coalition of Victoria. They can be accessed on the Gay and Lesbian Health Victoria website.
Gay and Lesbian Health Victoria was established in and is funded by the government to provide training for health care providers, produce health resources and maintain a clearinghouse of health information for gay and lesbian people. Where to get help Switchboard Gay and Lesbian Tel. Send us your feedback. Rate this website Your comments Questions Your details.
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