Hancock on my Kindle. It's a real button-pusher, The Kindle's buttons, I mean, not mine: Janet rated it really liked it Aug 14, Piksie rated it did not like it Jun 27, Patti rated it liked it Dec 14, Claire rated it liked it Jan 03, Julie rated it liked it Jul 03, Michael Gallagher rated it really liked it Feb 22, Maria rated it it was ok Jul 23, Lynnm rated it it was ok Feb 05, Ranita Hancock rated it it was amazing Oct 05, Lynn Brown rated it really liked it Jan 19, Pauline rated it it was amazing Apr 27, Kev Bates rated it liked it Dec 27, Sarah added it May 05, Martin marked it as to-read Jun 14, Jennifer Carr marked it as to-read Oct 24, Shar marked it as to-read Feb 10, Steve added it Feb 03, Cinisajoy marked it as to-read Feb 20, Jules marked it as to-read Jun 14, He recalled the earlier incident and told his friends that only de Fontgibu was missing to make the setting complete — and in the same instant, the now-senile de Fontgibu entered the room, having got the wrong address.
Jung wrote, after describing some examples, "When coincidences pile up in this way, one cannot help being impressed by them — for the greater the number of terms in such a series, or the more unusual its character, the more improbable it becomes. Gamow whimsically refers to the " Pauli effect ", a mysterious phenomenon which is not understood on a purely materialistic basis, and probably never will be.
The following anecdote is told:. It is well known that theoretical physicists cannot handle experimental equipment; it breaks whenever they touch it. Pauli was such a good theoretical physicist that something usually broke in the lab whenever he merely stepped across the threshold. A mysterious event that did not seem at first to be connected with Pauli's presence once occurred in Professor J. Early one afternoon, without apparent cause, a complicated apparatus for the study of atomic phenomena collapsed.
You may believe this anecdote or not, but there are many other observations concerning the reality of the Pauli Effect!
The Synchronicity Factor by Stephen T. Hancock
Causality , when defined expansively as for instance in the "mystic psychology" book The Kybalion , or in the platonic Kant -style Axiom of Causality , states that "nothing can happen without being caused. Other definitions of causality for example, the neo-Humean definition are concerned only with the relation of cause to effect. As such, they are compatible with synchronicity. There are also opinions which hold that, where there is no external observable cause, the cause can be internal.
It is also pointed out that, since Jung took into consideration only the narrow definition of causality — only the efficient cause — his notion of " acausality " is also narrow and so is not applicable to final and formal causes as understood in Aristotelian or Thomist systems. Many people believe that the Universe or God causes synchronicities.
Among the general public, divine intervention is the most widely accepted explanation for meaningful coincidences.
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Jung and his followers e. Dynamical systems theory has provided a new context from which to speculate about synchronicity because it gives predictions about the transitions between emergent states of order and nonlocality. According to a certain view, synchronicity serves as a way of making sense of or describing some aspects of quantum mechanics.
It argues that quantum experiments demonstrate that, at least in the microworld of subatomic particles, there is an instantaneous connection between particles no matter how far away they are from one another. Known as quantum non-locality or entanglement , the proponents of this view argue that this points to a unified field that precedes physical reality.
Synchronicity can also be seen in David Bohm 's theory of implicate order. According to Bohm's  theory, there are three major realms of existence: The flowing movement of the whole can thus be understood as a process of continuous enfolding and unfolding of order or structure. From moment to moment there is a rhythmic pulse between implicate and explicate realities.
The Synchronicity Factor
Therefore, synchronicity would literally take place as the bridge between implicate and explicate orders, whose complementary nature define the undivided totality. Mainstream mathematics argues that statistics and probability theory exemplified in, e. However, some proponents of synchronicity question whether it is even sensible in principle to try to evaluate synchronicity statistically. Jung himself and von Franz argued that statistics work precisely by ignoring what is unique about the individual case, whereas synchronicity tries to investigate that uniqueness.
Among some psychologists, Jung's works, such as The Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche , were received as problematic. Fritz Levi, in his review in Neue Schweizer Rundschau New Swiss Observations , critiqued Jung's theory of synchronicity as vague in determinability of synchronistic events, saying that Jung never specifically explained his rejection of "magic causality" to which such an acausal principle as synchronicity would be related. He also questioned the theory's usefulness.
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In psychology and cognitive science , confirmation bias is a tendency to search for or interpret new information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions, and avoids information and interpretations that contradict prior beliefs. It is a type of cognitive bias and represents an error of inductive inference , or is a form of selection bias toward confirmation of the hypothesis under study, or disconfirmation of an alternative hypothesis.
Confirmation bias is of interest in the teaching of critical thinking , as the skill is misused if rigorous critical scrutiny is applied only to evidence that challenges a preconceived idea, but not to evidence that supports it. Likewise, in psychology and sociology, the term apophenia is used for the mistaken detection of a pattern or meaning in random or meaningless data. Primates use pattern detection in their form of intelligence,  and this can lead to erroneous identification of non-existent patterns. A famous example of this is the fact that human face recognition is so robust, and based on such a basic archetype essentially two dots and a line contained in a circle , that human beings are very prone to identify faces in random data all through their environment, like the "man in the moon", or faces in wood grain, an example of the visual form of apophenia known as pareidolia.
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