To collect money , parishes organised lotteries and days of prayer. But the burden was sometimes considered too heavy, and refugees were then asked, or forced, to find shelter elsewhere: Switzerland and Holland, for instance, were transit places and encouraged the refugees to go to Germanic countries, where they were better received. But social tensions appeared, and contrary to the protestant history of charity, the Refuge was not always a positive affair.
Once the first emotion had waned, the burden of emigration became heavier and heavier. Public opinion was not always understanding: It is difficult to assess the number of refugees at the end of the 17 th century. Fancifully, some estimates suggest up to 2 million. Voltaire reckoned there were , The special status of pastors was remembered. They had to choose between conversion and exile, the latter being forbidden to their followers: Returns were very few because Louis XIV was wary of the newly converted likely to cause trouble in France at war.
The confiscated properties were added to the Domain, their incomes used to develop Catholicism i. But the results were disappointing because properties were either sold before the people left, or they were fictitious sales to relatives or trusted friends, who were supposed to forward the revenues to the immigrants.
Lawsuits were innumerable, management an administrative conundrum, and the overall profits from the dispossessions were insignificant. The refuge was a momentous event in European history that transformed Europe at the end of the 17 th century and all through the 18 th century. From a religious point of view, the Refuge helped balance Lutheranism and Calvinism. The benefits of the Refuge for the economies of host countries are a permanent feature of the Protestant historiography.
Demographic growth helped make up for the losses suffered in the Thirty-Year War The less developed States of Germany gained from the inflow of capital and of know-how from people coming from far more developed countries. The arrival of qualified craftsmen boosted activity in many sectors, such as textile or clock-making in Switzerland. Commercial exchanges grew as the affluence of the Amsterdam middle-class testifies. But the burden of immigration and the management of refugees steadily became heavier. The competition with the new craftsmen was deemed dangerous, and public opinions did not accept the opportunities granted to the refugees.
It is difficult to quantify the economic contribution. On the other hand, the cultural contribution was unquestionable. The French Huguenots took an active part in the conciliation between the host country and their homeland. The intellectual elite who chose exile, tried to keep in touch with their original culture. Helped by the diaspora, channels of exchange and influence were established. This period ranging between the two Lateran Councils of and has been described by Robert Moore as the time when a persecuting society was formed.
Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and deviance in western Europe Oxford, Although this story has its roots in the persecution of Christians during the Roman Empire, it was particularly widespread during the Middle Ages. There are as many variations to this story as there are versions, but all share the belief that heretics met in private at night to have orgies and that children born as a consequence were ritually killed and eaten. The same story reappears in Catholic polemic in the context of a Protestant clandestine meeting which was discovered in the rue St Jacques in Paris in September This story was then circulated and peddled by Catholic authors and preachers and was soon accepted as true of all Protestant meetings.
This thesis is an attempt to show that the dissemination of these stories must have contributed to the violence that befell Protestants during the French Wars of Religion, and not least St Bartholomew's Day massacre. This would place much more responsibility on the Catholic authors, pamphleteers and preachers than has previously been suggested. So much is hinted at by Mark Greengrass in his review of Les Guerriers de Dieu who also intimates that France was still in the sixteenth century the persecuting society described by Moore: In France, the public context must surely include, at the least, the institutions, ecclesiastical and lay, which had done so much, traditionally, to influence religious discourse.
One historian of the central Middle Ages has recently argued, for example, that the pursuit of heresy was far from having 'popular' roots, although there may have been some grafted on at a later date. Its origins lay in a 'persecuting society', that is to say, a set of institutions and attitudes which were manipulated by governing groups to promote the need for a consensus in society at large through the preservation of the purity of the majority and the persecution of identifiable minorities. Transposed to the sixteenth century, was France not still a 'persecuting society'?
Should we not look for at least some of the roots and chronology of 'panic mentality' in the instruments and individuals most engaged in the prosecution of Protestant heresy in sixteenth-century France? The kinship between Protestantism and medieval heresy, which is such a strong feature of Catholic polemic, suggests that there was a concerted effort by the Sorbonne to revive those mechanisms in the wake of the Calvinist challenge. But it did not lead to the endorsement of those mechanisms by the Crown, as it had been envisaged, but to the unlicensed massacres of the urban population.
This would be explained by the lack of resolve of the Crown after the demise of Henri II in , and indicate that the mechanisms found an outlet in the violence of the urban mob instead. This would be consistent with David Nicholls's theory of the decline around of the theatre of execution mentioned above. The portrayal of Protestants in Catholic polemic as medieval heretics and the dissemination of deeply ingrained stereotypes fuelled the notion that Protestants were not human beings but 'monsters'. This in turn enabled the Catholic urban mobs to take part in what Natalie Davis has called 'guilt free massacres' which benefited from the de facto assent of some members of the Sorbonne and Parlement of Paris.
It should have become clear that the objectives of a portion of Catholic polemic was to apply the mechanisms of a persecuting society to 59 Greengrass, 'Psychology of Religious Violence', pp. It could be argued that the aim of these authors was to impose their own agenda of persecution on the Crown which had chosen to pursue the opposite policies of conciliation and toleration. The effect that the dissemination of these ideas through print would have on the population at large were probably unforeseen by their authors.
Nevertheless the use of medieval stereotypes to describe Protestants must have contributed to building a mental picture of Protestants as heretics and as such 'non human'. This would explain why Catholics had so little respect for human life during urban massacres and why they attempted to exterminate Protestants to the last man. This would be consistent with the observations of Natalie Davis who found that contrary to the desacralizing violence of Protestants which was directed towards objects and symbols, the mutilations of the Catholics were taken out on the bodies of their victims.
The study of the mechanisms of stereotyping in Catholic printed polemic should further our understanding of violence in the French Wars of Religion. This modest contribution to the subject of religious violence cannot compare favourably with the scope and richness of the works that are reviewed here.
The stereotyping of Protestants should be added to the factors enumerated above, without superseding or nullifying them, but enriching our understanding of religious violence. This study rests on the reading of Catholic polemic printed between and particularly; a period which has been identified by historians as critical. Between those crucial years, Calvinism emerged from relative anonymity to become the banner under which a whole section of French society chose to break away from the consensus.
At this time, members of the Sorbonne, self-appointed champions of orthodoxy, rose to the challenge with unprecedented vigour. Although polemic had been a familiar element of French print before , it rose to prominence when the Genevan presses started producing en masse Protestant material intended for France.
This is also a time when the French Catholic community became increasingly 62 Davis, Culture and Society, p. Symptomatic of this awareness is the incident of the rue St Jacques in September when between three and four hundred Protestants were found conducting Reformed worship next door to the Sorbonne. In the ten years between the outbreak of the first War of Religion in and St Bartholomew's Day massacre in , the character of Catholic polemic did not change significantly and merely repeated the themes which were drawn out during the preceding period.
Needless to say, Protestant printing within France remained marginal and was concentrated around the strongholds of French Calvinism in the south and east of France. What emerges very strongly from this material is fear of the impact and popularity of Calvinism at this time, which was perhaps an exaggeration. It is as if those grave men of learning, repositories of knowledge and tradition, were taken by surprise by the scope and ambitions of the Calvinist Church.
In concert with the Parlement of Paris, without the authorization with which no religious books could be legally printed in France, they set out to exploit their hold on the Parisian book industry. Catholic printing at this time is characterised by the increasing number of works in the vernacular to counter the proselytising efforts of the Genevan presses, whereas before the middle of the century they had been the exception rather than the rule.
Catholic printing seemed to be split equally between theological defences of tenets of the faith and very offensive in both senses of the word attacks on the character of the Protestants themselves. It is to this second class of writing that this work devotes most of its attention, although this distinction is an arbitrary one and 63 Andrew Pettegree, 'Religious Printing in Sixteenth-Century France: This aspect of Catholic polemic has probably been overlooked in the historiography because of its distasteful and embarrassing nature, which has been observed by a number of historians.
In a article to which this work owes much of its inspiration, Wylie Sypher made inroads in the jungle of a polemical genre which had been previously ignored by historians of the French Wars of Religion. Although Wylie Sypher completely missed the mark when saying that this historiographical oversight had been caused by a 'scarcity of surviving work', he duly noted the disdain of many historians for this genre which 'deliberately wallowed "in triviality, in filthy vulgarity".
The significance of these authors has been acknowledged by historians since notably by Denis Crouzet , and motivated much of this research.
Une tentation écartée : le choix du protestantisme pour la France
As for the content developed in the hundreds of pages of these books, it cannot be done justice in the space allocated here. The most striking themes are outlined in chapters 2 to 4 with extensive recourse to examples and quotes from the text themselves. Chapters 5 and 6 are concerned by the impact and response that this polemic solicited, among the Protestants in particular and the Catholic readership in general. Chapter 2 deals with the portrayal of Protestants and Protestantism on the eve of the French Wars of Religion from the affair of the rue St Jacques to the outbreak of civil war.
Chapter 3 explores the comparison between Protestantism and medieval heresy, concentrating of the Albigensian Crusade which seems to have been specific to the French Reformation. Chapter 4 deals with the theme of the world turned upside down, which has been touched upon above, particularly in relations to the perceived role of women in the Reformation. Moving from the specific 64 sypher, 'The Image of Protestantism', pp.
Finally Chapter 6 is an attempt to assess the impact and relevance of the Catholic portrayal of Protestantism on the emerging public opinion. Catholic polemic on the eve of the French Wars of Religion. This chapter is concerned with the portrayal of Protestantism in the closing years of the reign of Henri II and during the ensuing period of political instability which followed his death up to the outbreak of the French Wars of Religion.
Catholic authors deliberately exploited the clandestine nature of Protestant gatherings to accuse them of conducting orgies and, after the politicisation of the conflict, plot against the Crown. Accusations of orgies were not new and had been borrowed from the medieval tradition of accusing heretics and other minority groups of despicable crimes in order to turn public opinion against them. This provided their opponents with arguments, as unlike any other groups, Protestants were able to turn these accusations to their advantage as a sign of election and martyrdom.
The accusation of a plot against the Crown, which was mixed with the topos of the orgy, was more difficult to dispel as the unstable political situation made it more plausible. The aim of these authors was to justify the persecution of Protestantism during the reign of Henri II, and forestall the efforts towards conciliation which were made during the regency of Catherine de Medicis. These accusations were published by the most committed anti-Protestants in the ranks of the Sorbonne and the Parlement of Paris, with the obvious aim of swaying public opinion and policy at Court against religious concord.
Although the themes of orgy and conspiracy overlap in the polemic of this period, there is a noticeable change in the tone of the polemic between the death of Henri H and the tumult of Amboise in March During this period, Protestants grew more confident and started assembling in public, which provoked a change in the Catholic polemical response. This chapter will therefore be concerned with the transition from the topos of the orgy to the emergence of the idea of a Protestant conspiracy against the Crown.
In the night of 4 September , students of the College du Plessis stumbled upon a clandestine Protestant meeting in a house nearby where between three and four hundred people had gathered to celebrate the Lord's Supper. Many people were arrested, notably women, who were led through the assembled crowd. By all accounts, this event marked the intensification of religious divisions and the stepping up of persecutions, as a well as the beginning of a Catholic polemical campaign to revile the Protestants.
The Catholic polemicists used this event as the basis for accusing Protestants of conducting orgies and engaging in acts of sexual promiscuity including adultery, incest, and sodomy. Accusations of ritual murder, infanticide and cannibalism appeared in the course of the controversy as the persecutions emboldened Catholic preachers and polemicists.
The Histoire Ecclesiastique also identified the Catholic polemicists as the authors of these accusations which were disseminated in print in order to reach a wider audience: In his Responce a quelque apologie , de Mouchy reiterated the accusation in response to Protestant tracts which had been written in the wake of the affair of the rue St Jacques: Que s'ils ne sont contens de la nuict, pourront encores demeurer le jour ensemble, tant qu'ils vouldront, car us sont si charitables les uns envers les autres, qu'ils ne chassent personnes hors la maison: He was instrumental in the trial of Anne du Bourg, took part in the Colloquy of Poissy and the Council of Trent, and also wrote a number of theological treatises defending the tenets of Catholicism.
De Mouchy's work was answered in turn by Nicolas des Gallars in the Seconde apologie ou defense des vrais chrestiens , where he addressed de Mouchy directly: Nicolas des Gallars added to the accusations of de Mouchy in order to draw on a comparison with the persecutions of the early Church Christians: Ou il est respondu aux diffames redoublez par un nomme Demochares docteur de la Sorbonne [Geneva, Jean Crespin], , sig. This indicates an uncanny resemblance between the accusations targeted at the early Church martyrs and the Protestants of the rue St Jacques.
This detail is found in the Histoire Ecclesiastique: Barbara Diefendorf also noted this detail when dealing with the memoirs of Claude Haton, who relates the incident of the rue St Jacques: De Mouchy, and others, resorted to this story because it had been used repeatedly against heretics for generations long before the advent of the Reformation, especially in the first Christian centuries and the central Middle Ages.
De Mouchy was aware of the parallel with Tertullian and attempted to draw attention away from the Christian persecutions. Perhaps this is the reason why he omitted the accusation of infanticide and cannibalism and steered the discussion back to the alleged lechery of patristic and medieval heretics: Voila qui pourra suffir pour exemple des anciens heretiques, il y a plus d'unze cens ans, comme en leurs assemblees us paillardoient.
Apologeticus Cambridge, , p. In fact, the story against which Tertullian wrote was perpetuated by the Catholic Church after the conversion of Constantine, when it was turned against heterodoxy. Christians took the accusations that had been used against them and turned them against their enemies without changing a single word. The story of the orgy found in Tertullian was reproduced almost word for word by the Church Fathers.
This story is here reported by Thomas Beauxamis who compiled a catalogue of heresies in L'artnee des Gnostiques flit beaucoup avancee par Carpocrates l'an Voire us procuroient rendre le fruit abortif de leur chamelle dilection: Pour ma part j'ai quelque peine a 13 Louis Rougier, Celse contre les chretiens: In his Contra Fortunatum Augustine refused to pronounce himself on the Manichees' morals, on the grounds that, although he had been one of their followers, he had not been one of the 'elect': Quid autem inter vos agatis, qui Electis estis, ego scire non possum.
Nam et Eucharistiam audivi a vobis saepe quod accipiatis: The story was relayed by medieval authors, among whom we find Guibert of Nogent who describes in his autobiography the bacchanalia of the heretics of Soissons at the beginning of the twelfth century: Dans des caveaux ou dans des endroits souterrains bien dissimules, us tiennent leurs conciliabules.
Denonciation et refutation de la gnose au nom menteur Paris, , p. It is probably this passage that Beauxamis, Histoire des sectes, p.
The Huguenot Refuge - Musée protestant
Peu apres, us eteignent ces flambeaux, us se mettent A crier de tout cOtes: Aussited, chacun se precipite pour posseder la premiere partenaire qui lui tombe sous la main. Que si, A la suite de cela, une femme devient grosse, us retourneront au meme endroit apres l'accouchement: Si vous relisez l'enumeration qu'Augustin a operee des heresies, vous verrez que tout cela s'applique, mieux qu'd aucune autre, A celle des manicheens. What was termed the 'twelfth-century renaissance' saw the proliferation of heretical groups which sprang from the rediscovery of the ideals of the Vita Apostolica.
This period saw the emergence of a new breed of monasticism which was based on the ideals of poverty and humility. Although the foundation of the Franciscan and Dominican orders was condoned by the Papacy, all other apostolic movements were deemed heretical. The Albigensians and Waldensians posed the most immediate threat to orthodoxy in this period but there were many more. Both groups were depicted as a renewal of Manicheeism, which provided a precedent for their persecution, and the orgy story was used once more against them. Very similar stories were used at regular intervals against a variety of undesirable groups like the Fraticelli in , the Templars in , or the Beguines in , implying that these 18 E.
Autobiographie Paris, , p p. The sixteenth-century Catholic theologian Thomas Beauxamis has noted the parallel between the story that was used against the early Christians, and the accusations of ritual murder which were used against Jews under Emperor Caius: As the devotion of the body of Christ increased from the twelfth century onwards, miracle stories linked with the desecration of the Eucharist started to appear. The miracles manifested the sanctity of the Eucharist and chastised the desecrators, who were often Jews.
E7r ; Beauxamis, Histoire des sectes, p. Langmuir, 'Thomas of Monmouth: Detector of Ritual Murder', Speculum, 59 , , p. Probably the first occurrence of this phenomenon is the martyrdom of William of Norwich, who was canonized at the beginning of the twelfth century: In his time, the Jews of Norwich bought a Christian child before Easter and tortured him with all the torture that our Lord was tortured with; and on Good Friday hanged him on a cross on account of our Lord, and then buried him. They expected it would be concealed, but our Lord made it plain that he was a holy martyr, and the monks took him and buried him with ceremony in the monastery, and through our Lord he works wonderful and varied miracles, and he is called St William.
Another case of the Jews ritually killing a Christian child who became 'Little Saint Hugh', occurred in in Lincoln, and the town became the site of miracles and pilgrimages. In Trent in , Jews were put on trial for the killing of a child who shortly became 'blessed Simon martyr', accused of having drawn blood for the purpose of celebrating Passover. The fact that both Jews and heretics were accused of similar crimes in the Middle Ages has led some historians to suggest that they were the victims of a single 22 Guillaume Postel and Jean Boulaese, Le Miracle de Laon: Irena Backus Geneva, Po-Chia Hsia, Trent Stories of a ritual murder trial Michigan, , p.
Moore has argued that the tightening of the boundaries of orthodoxy between the third and fourth Lateran Council of and corresponded to the emergence of a persecuting mechanism. Any minority groups became legitimate targets and grisly stories were used to legitimize the indiscriminate persecution of Jews, heretics and lepers alike: The images of nightmares are not always consistent, but they always feed the same fear.
For all imaginative purposes heretics, Jews and lepers were interchangeable. They had the same qualities from the same source, and they presented the same threat: A common accusation which was used against Jews and lepers during the Middle Ages was of poisoning wells and other sources of fresh water to provoke epidemics of plague or leprosy. What was not known at the time is that unlike the plague, leprosy is not infectious, and lepers because of their repulsive appearance made prime suspects for the spreading of disease and contagion.
Bernard Gui reports a plot in involving lepers 'diseased of mind and body' who infected the water supplies of France in a conspiracy to take over the whole kingdom. In , Jews were also included in the conspiracy as accomplices of the lepers, and another version had the Muslim King of Granada finance the whole operation.
Jews and lepers had been compared with each other in antiquity and Flavius Josephus, in his Against Appion, mentions a legend that Jews originated from a group of lepers who had been driven out of Egypt. Flavius Josephus' Against Appion enabled these stories to survive into the Middle Ages which in turn transmitted them to the early modern period.
Both Jews and lepers were segregated from the time of the fourth Lateran Council onwards, and they were made to wear distinctive badges reminiscent of the Nazi yellow star. Jews and lepers have been identified by medieval historians as the targets of indiscriminate accusations of infanticide, ritual murder, and attempts to poison the wells of the kingdom. The analogy with heresy, which was to the body politic what a disease is to the body, is particularly significant and explains why heresy was perceived as 'spiritual leprosy'.
These key periods of Church history were marked by two fundamental Church Councils Nicea in and the fourth Lateran Council in which defined orthodoxy in the face of heresy. The heretics condemned at these Councils became indistinguishable in the course of time as they were used as precedents to condemn' further heresies. For all intents and purposes all these heretical groups Arians, Donatists, Manichees and Albigensians became indistinguishable, and whenever heterodoxy appeared in later years, it would immediately be added to the 'great tree of heresy'. The great tree of heresy had already been described by St Augustine and the great medieval summas perpetuated this image and passed it on to the sixteenth century.
Deciphering the Witches' Sabbath London, , pp. Moore, 'Heresy as Disease', in D. Fragonard, 'La determination des frontier-es symboliques: This is what the former Lutheran George Witzel , wrote about the Lutherans in Voici ce que veux faire maintenant pource que ton epistre m'y convie c'est que tu entendes que les sectes de ceste aage, ont grande affinite avec les anciennes: Wicelius, Libellus de moribus veterum haereticorurn Leipzig, Mais puisque nous sommes en une saison, ou il est malaise de Ces Manichees estimoient que les ames de leurs auditeurs au partir du corps, retournoient avec les eslus.
Les Manichees s'efforcoyent exterminer tout le franc arbitre. Les Lutheriens en pareil travaillent a le detruire Car tout ainsi que les Manichees se vantoient estre seuls Chrestiens: Si vous voulez scavoir ma Dame: Voyez doncques ma Dame: Le bon Calvin abuseur sest delecte de ceste la entre toutes les autres: When the Catholic authors compared Protestantism with Manicheeism, they could also have compared them with a number of other heretical groups.
Significantly, Protestants were also compared to Jews by Georg Witzel who drew a very extensive list of similarities between them: Quand us devorent de la chair en careme: Quand us se moquent des pieuses observations d'icelles: Quand us sentent mal des saints ja regnans avec Dieu: Quand us prophanent le Sabbat chrestien: Quand us persecutent les pretres et moines: Quand us demolissent les images: Quand us meprisent les conciles: Quand us font quelques autre chose en quoy se plaissent les juifs. V 36 Witzel, Discours des moeurs, p. Et sans oublier les usures publiques, qu'ilz permettent plus que Juifs.
Donner son argent a usure, prendre les dons de l'innocent, mesme a plus estrange condition que les juifs infideles n'ont a ccoustume Aussi ont les inventeurs de ce gaing usuraire de commun avec les Juifs, que tous jusques a un, combien que la conscience les remord, ne veulent jamais laisser ce gaing tant dehonneste, de peur qu'ils soient contraints de rendre ce que injustement us ont usurpe. Car rapine envers eux est presque une servitude d'idoles, comme dit a 37 Jean Gay, L'Histoire des scismes et heresies des Albigeois, conforme a celle de presents par laquelle appert que plusieurs grans princes et seigneurs sont tombez en extremes desolations et mines pour avoir favorise aux heretiques Paris, Pierre Gaultier, , pp.
Gentian Hervet made a comparison with Jews and argued that unlike them, Protestants were able to mix freely among the Catholic population and spread their heresy as they would the plague: Et si bien ils [les Juifs] sont alienez de la vraye religion, on les auroit aussi en tel estime qu'ils meritent et fuyroit on leur conversation, et pour les mieux cognoistre us auroient leur marque, comme us ont es autres pays For example the Polish cardinal Stanislas Hozius wrote in a work first published in Latin in and translated into French in Un membre poury se couppe, de peur qu'il ne gaste le reste du corps: The persecution of Jews and lepers for poisoning wells during the reign of Philippe V is used by de Mouchy to argue that because they were burned, so should the Protestants for 'poisoning the souls with false doctrine': A nostre probation pourrons aussi servir les punitions qu'on a accoustume garder contre les empoisonneurs, lesquels on brusle.
Et du temps du Roy Philippe le long, recite qu'aucuns ladres avoient empoisonnez les puys: L Moore has identified as the victims of the medieval persecuting society: Accusations of lechery, infanticide and cannibalism were also an integral part of this long standing tradition and Catholics used them against Protestants from the beginning.
These accusations were relayed by no less than Desiderius Erasmus in who used them against the Anabaptists: But these examples are all in the past. Surely much more to be deplored is that within recent memory there have been discovered nightly gatherings at which, after praise has been given to God, the lights are extinguished and the men and women consort in promiscuous love. Or the ceremonies in which mothers freely band over their infants to be butchered, and even watch serenely the horrid crime, so persuaded are they that their children will thus find a high place in heaven This madness seems to have taken its 43 Claude de Ruby, Discours sur la contagion de la peste qui a este ceste presente annee en la vile de Lyon Lyon, J.
I am grateful to W. Naphy, University of Aberdeen, for this quote. This blood they would draw from small pinpricks, and if in the process the child died, it was venerated as a martyr. This was also the context in which Stanislas Hozius wrote, although he used Erasmus as an authority to turn the accusations against the Reformation as a whole: Noz Calvinistes ressemblent encores A ceulx cy: Et apres que ilz ont ce fait, n'est-il pas vray, que souvent ilz esteignent les chandelles: Jaques, la ou ilz estoient plus de cinq cens Nous reciterons choses certes grandement a deplorer: A scavoir les conventicules qui ont este trouvez de nostre temps.
Dit d'avantage en ce mesme lieu ledict Erasme, en son livre de l'admirable concorde de l'Eglise Laquelle faisoit l'Eucharistie de farine meslee avecques sang d'un enfant, lequel ilz receuilloyent par petites piqueurs, qu'ilz fairoyent au corps de l'enfant. Que si cest enfant venoit a mourir, ii estoit honore de par eux cornme martyr. From the affair of the rue St Jacques and the tumult of Amboise, the accusation of the orgy was relayed by no fewer than five different authors, and by many more throughout the French Wars of Religion.
By using this story, the Catholic polemicists were hoping to associate Protestantism with a long list of heretics and thus justify their persecution at a time when the Court seemed to sway in their favour. The story was used hand in hand with arguments that Protestantism threatened to take over the whole body politic like a disease and turn 46 Du Val, Mirouer des Calvinistes, fols 9", 10'.
These authors condemned Protestantism without trial as their doctrine had already been condemned before in the Church Councils of the past. In their eyes, Protestantism was nothing more than another manifestation of the undying monster that the Catholic Church had defeated before. The Catholic authors perpetuated the medieval tradition and weighed any arguments in the light of a lengthy list of precedents which had been approved by the Church. This allowed the Catholics to ignore the Protestant plea for toleration and evade the serious issues that the popularity of Protestantism was raising.
The use of this story against the Protestants of the rue St Jacques must be seen in the context of centuries of characterization of heretics which had become ingrained in the culture of western Christendom. The story had become an integral part of the institutionalized Church's response to heresy and the Catholic authors who used it were in direct line with what R.
Moore has called the persecuting society. But unlike their predecessors, Protestants were not simply the victims of a persecuting mechanism which had been set up in the central Middle Ages. Moore's persecuting society was remarkably successful given the track record of the single story quoted above used at different times against different people. But it worked only as long as the boundaries between heresy and orthodoxy were clearly marked.
This was no longer the case in the sixteenth century where the Reformation challenged the very roots on which Catholic orthodoxy was based. The ability of the Protestants to challenge these accusations and draw a parallel with the early Christians was unprecedented and called for a different strategy. Catholics who used this story in the wake of the rue St Jacques probably did not anticipate that it would be turned in the Protestants' advantage and used to claim kinship with the early Church martyrs.
It is obvious that de 47 See Chapter 5 below. Indeed, Antoine de la Roche Chandieu, who recounts the whole episode in his Histoire des persecutions , wrote that it had been a decisive argument: Aucuns Docteurs de Sorbonne s'efforcerent d'y faire response: By pointing out the similarities between the persecutions of the early Church and their own situation, Protestants strengthened their claim to represent the true Church of the Apostles. This is probably why de Mouchy edited the story and simply accused those assembled in the rue St Jacques of being lecherous.
The same 'sanitised' version was used by another author, Jean de la Vacquerie, who nonetheless implied that 'other impieties' might have been committed by the Protestants at their assemblies: Et se donner lieu aux 48 Chandieu, Histoire des persecutions, sig.
The full story is told in the Histoire Ecclesiastique which reproduces in large part Antoine de la Roche Chandieu's first hand account of the persecutions. The latter, Georges Renard is said to have been arrested during the very first wave of persecutions in the aftermath of the affair of the Placards, whereas Claude David was the brother of an official of the Parlement of Paris.
All accounts of this episode mention Antoine de Mouchy and Marechal St Andre as the recipients of this information and say that the persecutions were interrupted by the death of Henri II. During the wave of arrests that followed, two apprentices came forward and offered to testify to what they had allegedly seen at the Protestants' secret meeting.
The two young apprentices had been in the employ of a Protestant master who had offered to take them to a secret Protestant meeting before they were dismissed. The theses debated and criticized many aspects of the Church and the papacy, including the practice of purgatory , particular judgment , and the authority of the pope. Luther would later write works against the Catholic devotion to Virgin Mary , the intercession of and devotion to the saints, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, good works, and the sacraments.
The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg. From onward, religious pamphlets flooded much of Europe. Following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. After the expulsion of its Bishop in , and the unsuccessful attempts of the Bern reformer William Farel , Calvin was asked to use the organisational skill he had gathered as a student of law to discipline the city of Geneva.
His Ordinances of involved a collaboration of Church affairs with the City council and consistory to bring morality to all areas of life. After the establishment of the Geneva academy in , Geneva became the unofficial capital of the Protestant movement, providing refuge for Protestant exiles from all over Europe and educating them as Calvinist missionaries. The faith continued to spread after Calvin's death in Protestantism also spread from the German lands into France, where the Protestants were nicknamed Huguenots. Calvin continued to take an interest in the French religious affairs from his base in Geneva.
He regularly trained pastors to lead congregations there. Despite heavy persecution, the Reformed tradition made steady progress across large sections of the nation, appealing to people alienated by the obduracy and the complacency of the Catholic establishment. French Protestantism came to acquire a distinctly political character, made all the more obvious by the conversions of nobles during the s.
This established the preconditions for a series of conflicts, known as the French Wars of Religion. The civil wars gained impetus with the sudden death of Henry II of France in Atrocity and outrage became the defining characteristics of the time, illustrated at their most intense in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of August , when the Roman Catholic party annihilated between 30, and , Huguenots across France. The wars only concluded when Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes , promising official toleration of the Protestant minority, but under highly restricted conditions.
Roman Catholicism remained the official state religion , and the fortunes of French Protestants gradually declined over the next century, culminating in Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau which revoked the Edict of Nantes and made Roman Catholicism the sole legal religion once again. In the late 17th century many Huguenots fled to England, the Netherlands, Prussia, Switzerland, and the English and Dutch overseas colonies.
Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. Zwingli was a scholar and preacher, who in moved to Zurich. Although the two movements agreed on many issues of theology, some unresolved differences kept them separate. A long-standing resentment between the German states and the Swiss Confederation led to heated debate over how much Zwingli owed his ideas to Lutheranism.
A meeting was held in his castle in , now known as the Colloquy of Marburg , which has become infamous for its failure. The two men could not come to any agreement due to their disputation over one key doctrine. In , King Henry VIII put an end to all papal jurisdiction in England , after the Pope failed to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon ;  this opened the door to reformational ideas. Reformers in the Church of England alternated between sympathies for ancient Catholic tradition and more Reformed principles, gradually developing into a tradition considered a middle way via media between the Roman Catholic and Protestant traditions.
The English Reformation followed a particular course. The different character of the English Reformation came primarily from the fact that it was driven initially by the political necessities of Henry VIII. King Henry decided to remove the Church of England from the authority of Rome. Between and , under Thomas Cromwell , the policy known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries was put into effect. Following a brief Roman Catholic restoration during the reign of Mary I, a loose consensus developed during the reign of Elizabeth I. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement largely formed Anglicanism into a distinctive church tradition.
The compromise was uneasy and was capable of veering between extreme Calvinism on the one hand and Roman Catholicism on the other. The success of the Counter-Reformation on the Continent and the growth of a Puritan party dedicated to further Protestant reform polarised the Elizabethan Age. The early Puritan movement was a movement for reform in the Church of England. The desire was for the Church of England to resemble more closely the Protestant churches of Europe, especially Geneva. The later Puritan movement, often referred to as dissenters and nonconformists , eventually led to the formation of various Reformed denominations.
The Scottish Reformation of decisively shaped the Church of Scotland. John Knox is regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation. The Scottish Reformation Parliament of repudiated the pope's authority by the Papal Jurisdiction Act , forbade the celebration of the Mass and approved a Protestant Confession of Faith.
It was made possible by a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent Mary of Guise , who had governed Scotland in the name of her absent daughter. In the course of this religious upheaval, the German Peasants' War of —25 swept through the Bavarian , Thuringian and Swabian principalities.
The Great Awakenings were periods of rapid and dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history. The First Great Awakening was an evangelical and revitalization movement that swept through Protestant Europe and British America , especially the American colonies in the s and s, leaving a permanent impact on American Protestantism.
It resulted from powerful preaching that gave listeners a sense of deep personal revelation of their need of salvation by Jesus Christ.
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Pulling away from ritual, ceremony, sacramentalism and hierarchy, it made Christianity intensely personal to the average person by fostering a deep sense of spiritual conviction and redemption, and by encouraging introspection and a commitment to a new standard of personal morality. The Second Great Awakening began around It gained momentum by After , membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement.
It was past its peak by the late s. It has been described as a reaction against skepticism, deism , and rationalism , although why those forces became pressing enough at the time to spark revivals is not fully understood. The Third Great Awakening refers to a hypothetical historical period that was marked by religious activism in American history and spans the late s to the early 20th century. It was affiliated with the Social Gospel Movement, which applied Christianity to social issues and gained its force from the Awakening, as did the worldwide missionary movement.
New groupings emerged, such as the Holiness , Nazarene , and Christian Science movements. The Fourth Great Awakening was a Christian religious awakening that some scholars—most notably, Robert Fogel —say took place in the United States in the late s and early s, while others look at the era following World War II. The terminology is controversial. Thus, the idea of a Fourth Great Awakening itself has not been generally accepted.
In , a Protestant revival in Wales had tremendous impact on the local population. A part of British modernization, it drew many people to churches, especially Methodist and Baptist ones. A noteworthy development in 20th-century Protestant Christianity was the rise of the modern Pentecostal movement.
Sprung from Methodist and Wesleyan roots, it arose out of meetings at an urban mission on Azusa Street in Los Angeles.
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From there it spread around the world, carried by those who experienced what they believed to be miraculous moves of God there. These Pentecost-like manifestations have steadily been in evidence throughout the history, such as seen in the two Great Awakenings. Pentecostalism, which in turn birthed the Charismatic movement within already established denominations, continues to be an important force in Western Christianity.
In the United States and elsewhere in the world, there has been a marked rise in the evangelical wing of Protestant denominations, especially those that are more exclusively evangelical, and a corresponding decline in the mainstream liberal churches. In the post— World War I era, Liberal Christianity was on the rise, and a considerable number of seminaries held and taught from a liberal perspective as well. In the post— World War II era, the trend began to swing back towards the conservative camp in America's seminaries and church structures. In Europe, there has been a general move away from religious observance and belief in Christian teachings and a move towards secularism.
The Enlightenment is largely responsible for the spread of secularism. Several scholars have argued for a link between the rise of secularism and Protestantism, attributing it to the wide-ranging freedom in the Protestant-majority countries. United States remains particularly religious in comparison to other developed countries.
South America, historically Roman Catholic, has experienced a large Evangelical and Pentecostal infusion in the 20th and 21st centuries. Unlike mainstream Lutheran , Calvinist and Zwinglian movements, the Radical Reformation , which had no state sponsorship, generally abandoned the idea of the "Church visible" as distinct from the "Church invisible". It was a rational extension of the state-approved Protestant dissent, which took the value of independence from constituted authority a step further, arguing the same for the civic realm.
The Radical Reformation was non-mainstream, though in parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority would sympathize with the Radical Reformation despite the intense persecution it faced from both Roman Catholics and Magisterial Protestants. The early Anabaptists believed that their reformation must purify not only theology but also the actual lives of Christians, especially their political and social relationships. This was not a doctrine new to the reformers, but was taught by earlier groups, such as the Albigenses in Though most of the Radical Reformers were Anabaptist, some did not identify themselves with the mainstream Anabaptist tradition.
Andreas Karlstadt disagreed theologically with Huldrych Zwingli and Martin Luther, teaching nonviolence and refusing to baptize infants while not rebaptizing adult believers. In the view of many associated with the Radical Reformation, the Magisterial Reformation had not gone far enough. Radical Reformer, Andreas von Bodenstein Karlstadt , for example, referred to the Lutheran theologians at Wittenberg as the "new papists". This is made evident in the prominence of Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli as leaders of the reform movements in their respective areas of ministry.
Because of their authority, they were often criticized by Radical Reformers as being too much like the Roman Popes. A more political side of the Radical Reformation can be seen in the thought and practice of Hans Hut , although typically Anabaptism has been associated with pacifism. Anabaptism in shape of its various diversification such as the Amish , Mennonites and Hutterites came out of the Radical Reformation.
Protestants refer to specific groupings of congregations or churches that share in common foundational doctrines and the name of their groups as denominations. An example this is no universal way to classify Protestant churches, as these may sometimes vary broadly in their structures to show the difference:. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic Church's doctrine that it is the one true church , believing in the invisible church , which consists of all who profess faith in Jesus Christ. Other denominations are simply regional or ethnic expressions of the same beliefs.
Because the five solas are the main tenets of the Protestant faith, non-denominational groups and organizations are also considered Protestant. Various ecumenical movements have attempted cooperation or reorganization of the various divided Protestant denominations, according to various models of union, but divisions continue to outpace unions, as there is no overarching authority to which any of the churches owe allegiance, which can authoritatively define the faith. Most denominations share common beliefs in the major aspects of the Christian faith while differing in many secondary doctrines, although what is major and what is secondary is a matter of idiosyncratic belief.
Several countries have established their national churches , linking the ecclesiastical structure with the state. Jurisdictions where a Protestant denomination has been established as a state religion include several Nordic countries ; Denmark including Greenland ,  the Faroe Islands its church being independent since ,  Iceland  and Norway    have established Evangelical Lutheran churches.
Tuvalu has the only established church in Reformed tradition in the world, while Tonga — in the Methodist tradition. In , Finland was the first Nordic country to disestablish its Evangelical Lutheran church by introducing the Church Act. United and uniting churches are churches formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations. Historically, unions of Protestant churches were enforced by the state, usually in order to have a stricter control over the religious sphere of its people, but also other organizational reasons.
As modern Christian ecumenism progresses, unions between various Protestant traditions are becoming more and more common, resulting in a growing number of united and uniting churches. As mainline Protestantism shrinks in Europe and North America due to the rise of secularism , Reformed and Lutheran denominations merge, often creating large nationwide denominations.
The phenomenon is much less common among evangelical , nondenominational and charismatic churches as new ones arise and plenty of them remain independent of each other. Perhaps the oldest official united church is found in Germany , where the Evangelical Church in Germany is a federation of Lutheran , United Prussian Union and Reformed churches , a union dating back to The first of the series of unions was at a synod in Idstein to form the Protestant Church in Hesse and Nassau in August , commemorated in naming the church of Idstein Unionskirche one hundred years later.
Around the world, each united or uniting church comprises a different mix of predecessor Protestant denominations. Trends are visible, however, as most united and uniting churches have one or more predecessors with heritage in the Reformed tradition and many are members of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches. Protestants can be differentiated according to how they have been influenced by important movements since the Reformation, today regarded as branches.
Some of these movements have a common lineage, sometimes directly spawning individual denominations. Due to the earlier stated multitude of denominations , this section discusses only the largest denominational families, or branches, widely considered to be a part of Protestantism. These are, in alphabetical order: A small but historically significant Anabaptist branch is also discussed. The chart below shows the mutual relations and historical origins of the main Protestant denominational families, or their parts. Adventism began in the 19th century in the context of the Second Great Awakening revival in the United States.
William Miller started the Adventist movement in the s. His followers became known as Millerites. Although the Adventist churches hold much in common, their theologies differ on whether the intermediate state is unconscious sleep or consciousness, whether the ultimate punishment of the wicked is annihilation or eternal torment, the nature of immortality, whether or not the wicked are resurrected after the millennium, and whether the sanctuary of Daniel 8 refers to the one in heaven or one on earth.
The General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists has compiled that church's core beliefs in the 28 Fundamental Beliefs and , which use Biblical references as justification. In , Adventism claimed some 22 million believers scattered in various independent churches. James Springer White and his wife, Ellen G. White founded the Seventh-day Adventist Church. An Adventist pastor baptizes a young man in Mozambique. Anabaptism traces its origins to the Radical Reformation. Anabaptists believe in delaying baptism until the candidate confesses his or her faith.
Although some consider this movement to be an offshoot of Protestantism, others see it as a distinct one. Schwarzenau Brethren , Bruderhof , and the Apostolic Christian Church are considered later developments among the Anabaptists. The name Anabaptist , meaning "one who baptizes again", was given them by their persecutors in reference to the practice of re-baptizing converts who already had been baptized as infants.
The early members of this movement did not accept the name Anabaptist , claiming that since infant baptism was unscriptural and null and void, the baptizing of believers was not a re-baptism but in fact their first real baptism. As a result of their views on the nature of baptism and other issues, Anabaptists were heavily persecuted during the 16th century and into the 17th by both Magisterial Protestants and Roman Catholics. Anabaptist reformers of the Radical Reformation are divided into Radical and the so-called Second Front.
Balthasar Hubmaier , one of the earliest and most prominent Anabaptist theologians. Anglicanism comprises the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures. There is no single "Anglican Church" with universal juridical authority, since each national or regional church has full autonomy.
As the name suggests, the communion is an association of churches in full communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury. The great majority of Anglicans are members of churches which are part of the international Anglican Communion ,  which has 85 million adherents. These reforms were understood by one of those most responsible for them, the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer , as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism.
Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer , the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries. While it has since undergone many revisions and Anglican churches in different countries have developed other service books, the Book of Common Prayer is still acknowledged as one of the ties that bind the Anglican Communion together.
Thomas Cranmer , one of the most influential figures in shaping Anglican theology and self-identity. The various editions of the Book of Common Prayer contain the words of structured services of worship in the Anglican Church. British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey , a royal peculiar under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch. Baptists subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers believer's baptism , as opposed to infant baptism , and that it must be done by complete immersion as opposed to affusion or sprinkling.
Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency liberty , salvation through faith alone , Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.
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Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ widely from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, and their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest church labeled Baptist back to in Amsterdam , with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. Baptist missionaries have spread their church to every continent. Roger Williams was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state. Baptists subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers.
The First Baptist Church in America. Baptists are roughly one-third of U. Calvinism, also called the Reformed tradition, was advanced by several theologians such as Martin Bucer , Heinrich Bullinger , Peter Martyr Vermigli , and Huldrych Zwingli, but this branch of Christianity bears the name of the French reformer John Calvin because of his prominent influence on it and because of his role in the confessional and ecclesiastical debates throughout the 16th century. Today, this term also refers to the doctrines and practices of the Reformed churches of which Calvin was an early leader.
Less commonly, it can refer to the individual teaching of Calvin himself. The particulars of Calvinist theology may be stated in a number of ways. Perhaps the best known summary is contained in the five points of Calvinism , though these points identify the Calvinist view on soteriology rather than summarizing the system as a whole.
Broadly speaking, Calvinism stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things—in salvation but also in all of life. This concept is seen clearly in the doctrines of predestination and total depravity. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 80 million members in member denominations around the world.
John Calvin 's theological thought influenced a variety of Congregational , Continental Reformed , United , Presbyterian , and other Reformed churches. Lutheranism identifies with the theology of Martin Luther—a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer, and theologian. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone ", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith, denying the belief of the Catholic Church defined at the Council of Trent concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition.
Unlike the Reformed tradition, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist , or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology , the purpose of God's Law , the divine grace , the concept of perseverance of the saints , and predestination. Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism. With approximately 80 million adherents,  it constitutes the third most common Protestant confession after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism.
Martin Luther initiated the Protestant Reformation in Philip Melanchthon , the co-founder of Lutheranism, baptizing an infant. Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-five Theses to the main door of the Schlosskirche. Methodism identifies principally with the theology of John Wesley —an Anglican priest and evangelist. This evangelical movement originated as a revival within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate Church following Wesley's death. Because of vigorous missionary activity, the movement spread throughout the British Empire , the United States, and beyond, today claiming approximately 80 million adherents worldwide.
Soteriologically , most Methodists are Arminian , emphasizing that Christ accomplished salvation for every human being, and that humans must exercise an act of the will to receive it as opposed to the traditional Calvinist doctrine of monergism. Methodism is traditionally low church in liturgy, although this varies greatly between individual congregations; the Wesleys themselves greatly valued the Anglican liturgy and tradition. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition; John Wesley's brother, Charles , was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church,  and many other eminent hymn writers come from the Methodist tradition.
John Wesley , the primary founder of the Methodism. A United Methodist elder celebrating the Eucharist. Methodist Central Hall in Westminster , London. Pentecostalism is a movement that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism with the Holy Spirit. For Christians, this event commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the followers of Jesus Christ , as described in the second chapter of the Book of Acts. This branch of Protestantism is distinguished by belief in the baptism with the Holy Spirit as an experience separate from conversion that enables a Christian to live a Holy Spirit—filled and empowered life.
This empowerment includes the use of spiritual gifts such as speaking in tongues and divine healing —two other defining characteristics of Pentecostalism. Because of their commitment to biblical authority, spiritual gifts, and the miraculous, Pentecostals tend to see their movement as reflecting the same kind of spiritual power and teachings that were found in the Apostolic Age of the early church.
For this reason, some Pentecostals also use the term Apostolic or Full Gospel to describe their movement. Pentecostalism eventually spawned hundreds of new denominations, including large groups such as the Assemblies of God and the Church of God in Christ, both in the United States and elsewhere. There are over million Pentecostals worldwide, and the movement is growing in many parts of the world, especially the global South.
Since the s, Pentecostalism has increasingly gained acceptance from other Christian traditions, and Pentecostal beliefs concerning Spirit baptism and spiritual gifts have been embraced by non-Pentecostal Christians in Protestant and Catholic churches through the Charismatic Movement. Together, Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity numbers over million adherents.
Charles Fox Parham , who associated glossolalia with the baptism in the Holy Spirit. A Pentecostal church in Ravensburg, Germany. There are many other Protestant denominations that do not fit neatly into the mentioned branches, and are far smaller in membership. Some groups of individuals who hold basic Protestant tenets identify themselves simply as "Christians" or " born-again Christians".
They typically distance themselves from the confessionalism or creedalism of other Christian communities  by calling themselves " non-denominational " or " evangelical ". Often founded by individual pastors, they have little affiliation with historic denominations. Hussitism follows the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best-known representative of the Bohemian Reformation and one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation.
This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness. Among present-day Christians, Hussite traditions are represented in the Moravian Church , Unity of the Brethren , and the refounded Czechoslovak Hussite churches.
The Plymouth Brethren are a conservative , low church, evangelical movement , whose history can be traced to Dublin , Ireland, in the late s, originating from Anglicanism. Brethren generally see themselves not as a denomination, but as a network, or even as a collection of overlapping networks, of like-minded independent churches. Although the group refused for many years to take any denominational name to itself—a stance that some of them still maintain—the title The Brethren , is one that many of their number are comfortable with in that the Bible designates all believers as brethren.
The Holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices emerging from 19th-century Methodism, and a number of evangelical denominations, parachurch organizations, and movements which emphasized those beliefs as a central doctrine. There are an estimated 12 million adherents in Holiness movement churches. Quakers , or Friends, are members of a family of religious movements collectively known as the Religious Society of Friends. The central unifying doctrine of these movements is the priesthood of all believers.
They include those with evangelical , holiness , liberal , and traditional conservative Quaker understandings of Christianity. Unlike many other groups that emerged within Christianity, the Religious Society of Friends has actively tried to avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. Unitarianism is sometimes considered Protestant due to its origins in the Reformation and strong cooperation with other Protestants since the 16th century. Unitarianism has been popular in the region of Transylvania within today's Romania , England, and the United States.
It originated almost simultaneously in Transylvania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. There are also Christian movements which cross denominational lines and even branches, and cannot be classified on the same level previously mentioned forms. Evangelicalism is a prominent example. Some of those movements are active exclusively within Protestantism, some are Christian-wide. Transdenominational movements are sometimes capable of affecting parts of the Roman Catholic Church , such as does it the Charismatic Movement , which aims to incorporate beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostals into the various branches of Christianity.
Neo-charismatic churches are sometimes regarded as a subgroup of the Charismatic Movement. Both are put under a common label of Charismatic Christianity so-called Renewalists , along with Pentecostals. Nondenominational churches and various house churches often adopt, or are akin to one of these movements. Megachurches are usually influenced by interdenominational movements. Globally, these large congregations are a significant development in Protestant Christianity.
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