This is unexpected based on previous studies e. It is possible that, especially at adolescence, parents use more psychological control with girls and more behavioral control with boys. Finally, daughters rated their family expressiveness as higher in positive and negative submissive expressivity than did sons. Although other researchers have not reported such differences Eisenberg et al.
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In addition, there is evidence that mothers talk about some emotions more with girls than boys Fivush, As a consequence, girls may have noticed and reported more expressiveness in their family than boys. In addition, it is possible that cultural differences or the age of the participants accounts for the difference across studies; this variable has not been studied in France, and in most extant research, the children have been younger than in the present study. A few limitations of this study should be highlighted. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not enable us to draw firm conclusions about the causal relations.
Furthermore, although we tested two alternative models and showed that they did not represent the data as well the hypothesized model, it is likely that other equivalent or alternative models exist MacCallum et al. Second, the literature stresses the importance of peers at adolescence; however, peer reports were not obtained. Finally, this study relied on questionnaire measures. Although multiple reporters were used, which limits some problems linked with self-reports i. The authors wish to thank the teachers, adolescents, and parents who participated in this project.
They served as an invaluable liaison, providing the necessary connections to the parents, students, teachers, and principals of the schools. To test whether the participants with data from all reporters differed from the participants with incomplete data, three MANOVAs were conducted on the variables measured in this study: Therefore, the participants with missing data did not differ from the participants with data from all three reporters. The correlations among attention shifting, focusing, and inhibitory control were not all in the expected direction e.
Sometimes attention shifting has not been included as an indicator of EC Rothbart et al. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract The relations among effortful control, ego resiliency, socialization, and social functioning were examined with a sample of French adolescents 14—20 years old.
Socialization A variety of parenting practices and behaviors have been associated with social and psychological benefits for adolescents. Socialization in France French parents have two goals that might appear somewhat conflicting and, yet, cohabit peacefully Suizzo, The Present Study There were two main goals to this study. Open in a separate window. Procedure All the questionnaires were translated by a bilingual person and back translated by another person.
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Connection, monitoring, and psychological control Parents and adolescents rated the participating parent in regard to three dimensions of parenting: Relations with the order of the questionnaires There were two counterbalanced orders for the questionnaires. Correlational Analyses In order to address our first goal, zero-order correlations and partial correlations controlling age and sex were initially used to examine relations among the variables. Relations of measures of social functioning to EC and ego resiliency The few correlations between EC and peer competence were inconsistent see Table 3.
Structural Equation Modeling SEM We tested our second hypothesis within the SEM framework because it allowed us to test the hypothesized mediational model and use multiple indicators to model overall relations among the constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis We first conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to ensure the unidimensionality of each of the latent variables in the model.
Mediational model Mplus was used to estimate indirect mediated relations. Footnotes 1 Of the 48 adolescents who did not have data from all three reporters, 42 had adolescent and teacher reports, 1 had parent and teacher reports, 2 had adolescent and parent reports, 1 had only adolescent report, 1 had only teacher report, and 1 had only parent report. Manual for the youth self report and profile. Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont; Parenting and intergenerational transmission of values in Germany and France. Adolescent popularity, social adaptation, and deviant behavior.
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Personality development across the life course. Damon W, Eisenberg N, editors. Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development. Harsh parenting in relation to child emotion regulation and aggression. Canada, France, Belgium and Italy. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. Parental practices in late adolescence, a comparison of three countries: Canada, France and Italy. Adolescent development in interpersonal context.
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Temple University; Philadelphia, PA: Parent ratings of anxiety in their children: Kenny D, Kashy D. Analysis of the multitrait—multimethod matrix by confirmatory factor analysis. Screening of child behavior problems for prevention programs at school entry. The problem of equivalent models in applications of covariance structure analysis.
Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Childhood and adolescent resiliency, regulation, and executive functioning in relation to adolescent problems and competence in a high-risk sample. Best practices in quantitative methods for developmentalists.
The cultural regulation of emotions. Handbook of emotion regulation. Relations of age to cognitive and motivational elements of impulse control in boys with and without externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Longitudinal relations among parental emotional expressivity and sympathy and prosocial behavior in adolescence. Adolescent perceptions as mediators of parenting: Genetic and environmental contributions. Construct coherence, longitudinal stability, and relationship with externalizing problems in middle childhood and adolescence.
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Journal of Research on Adolescence. Mother—child relationships in France: Balancing autonomy and affiliation in everyday interactions. Suizzo M, Bornstein MH.
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French and European American child—mother play: Culture and gender considerations. Allyn and Bacon; A four-year longitudinal study. Emotion words used in six European countries. European Journal of Social Psychology. Emotion regulation in children and adolescents.
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