A Chinese New Year Tale. Dutton Books for Young Readers published January 6, Katie Chin's Everyday Chinese Cookbook: Tuttle Publishing published May 6, A Century of Giving. Carbon Aerogel Sets New Record". A perspective in cancer therapy". Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 21 August Retrieved 22 August China's new beach trend". Retrieved 15 July Retrieved 24 February Retrieved 16 June Laughing Gas, Viagra, and Lipitor: Aczel, Amir D The Riddle of the Compass: The Invention that Changed the World.
Adshead, Samuel Adrian Miles. China in World History: The Rise of the East in World History. The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art and Cosmos in Early China. State University of New York Press. Origins of Chinese Science and Technology. Translated by Yang Liping and Y. The Material Culture of Needlework and Sewing. The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty. The Bureaucracy of Han Times. To Harness the Wind: A Short History of the Development of Sails. Chinese Thought, Society, and Science.
University of Hawaii Press. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. The Chinese State in Ming Society. The Book of Looms: University Press of New England. Six Studies in Urban Cartography. University Of Chicago Press. Burbank, Jane and Cooper, Frederick. Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference. Chinese or Olmec Primacy? International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms. Early Chinese Work in Natural Science. Essays in Honor of Joseph F. O'Callaghan, —, edited by Donald J. Kagay and Theresa M. Frank Cass and Company Ltd. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
From Shadow Play to the Silver Screen. Clarion Books, an imprint of Houghton Mifflin Company. The Secret Codes of the Emperor's Army. The Reader's Companion to Military History. Day, Lance and Ian McNeil.
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Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development, c. Translated by Wang Pingxing. University of Pennsylvania Press. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Highways of Culture and Commerce. Embree, Ainslie Thomas Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching.
Fairbank, John King and Merle Goldman Falkenhausen, Lothar von Flad, Rowan et al. Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture. Studies in Ancient Technology: The Fibres and Fabrics of Antiquity. The Architectural Theory Review: Edited by Nancy S. Edited by Nancy Steinhardt. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Gascoigne, Bamber and Christina Gascoigne. The Dynasties of China: A History of Chinese Civilisation. Foster and Charles Hartman. Medieval Chinese Warfare, — Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. Twelfth-Century Chinese Building Manual". Guo, Zhiyu et al. Austere Luminosity of Chinese Classical Furniture.
Harris, David R Edited by Cyril H.
Wecht and John T. A Cultural History and Drinking Guide. Li, Qi, and Shu: An Introduction to Science and Civilisation in China. A History of Mathematics: From Mesopotamia to Modernity: From Mesopotamia to Modernity. Howard, Angela Falco An East Gate Book, M. An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture. The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft. Famous Problems and Their Mathematicians. Johnstone, Paul and Sean McGrail. The Sea-craft of Prehistory. Alchemy, Bombards, and Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World.
Basic Books, Perseus Books Group. Opportunities in Dental Care Careers. The Annals of Lu Buwei. The Basics of Earth Science. The Oriental Board Games. Philosophical Synthesis in Early Han Thought. University of Hong Kong Press. Sports and Games of the Renaissance. The Genealogy of Chess. Landscape and Power in Early China: Aimant et Boussole," Isis , Vol.
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Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to BC. Over a Cup of Tea: An Introduction to Chinese Life and Culture. University Press of America. Wandering on the Way: The Drink That Changed the World. The Search for the Origins of Viniculture. University of Nebraska Press. The History of Clinical Endocrinology: Pantheon Publishing Group Inc. Forest and Land Management in Imperial China. Earthenware in Southeast Asia. Minford, John and Joseph S. Scott and Charlton M. Its History and Culture. The Development of the Rudder: People, Plants and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity.
Needham, Joseph and Wang Ling. Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth. Edited by Kenneth Girdwood Robinson. The Archaeology of Northeast China: Beyond the Great Wall. Its Historical and Clinical Background. The Archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World. Porter, Deborah Lynn From Deluge to Discourse: Myth, History, and the Generation of Chinese Fiction.
The Great Mahjong Book: History, Lore and Play. Mathematics in Society and History: The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. A History of Science: The Relevant History of Mankind. More Than a Game. Shurtleff, William and Akiko Aoyagi. The Book of Tofu: Protein Source of the Future Siddiqi, Mohammad Rafiq Parasites of Plants and Insects. BLANCH , blanchir To plunge food into boiling water and to boil it until it has softened, or wilted, or is partially or fully cooked.
Food is also blanched to remove too strong a taste, such as for cabbage or onions, or for the removal of the salty, smoky taste of bacon. BOIL , bouillir Liquid is technically at the boil when it is seething, rolling, and sending up bubbles. But in practice there are slow, medium, and fast boils.
A very slow boil, when the liquid is hardly moving except for a bubble at one point, is called to simmer, mijoter. A spoon dipped into a cream soup and withdrawn would be coated with a thin film of soup. Dipped into a sauce destined to cover food, the spoon would emerge with a fairly thick coating. This is an important step in the preparation of all meat sauces from the simplest to the most elaborate, for the deglaze becomes part of the sauce, incorporating into it some of the flavor of the meat.
Thus sauce and meat are a logical complement to each other. To remove accumulated fat from the surface of a sauce, soup, or stock which is simmering, use a long-handled spoon and draw it over the surface, dipping up a thin layer of fat. It is not necessary to remove all the fat at this time. When the cooking is done, remove all the fat. If the liquid is still hot, let it settle for 5 minutes so the fat will rise to the surface.
Then spoon it off, tipping the pot or kettle so that a heavier fat deposit will collect at one side and can more easily be removed. It is easier, of course, to chill the liquid, for then the fat congeals on the surface and can be scraped off. To remove fat from a pan while the meat is still roasting, tilt the pan and scoop out the fat which collects in the corner. Use a bulb baster or a big spoon. It is never necessary to remove all the fat at this time, just the excess. This de-greasing should be done quickly, so your oven will not cool.
If you take a long time over it, add a few extra minutes to your total roasting figure. After the roast has been taken from the pan, tilt the pan, then with a spoon or a bulb baster remove the fat that collects in one corner, but do not take up the browned juices, as these will go into your sauce. Usually a tablespoon or two of fat is left in the pan; it will give body and flavor to the sauce. Another method—and this can be useful if you have lots of juice—is to place a trayful of ice cubes in a sieve lined with 2 or 3 thicknesses of damp cheesecloth and set over a saucepan.
Pour the fat and juices over the ice cubes; most of the fat will collect and congeal on the ice. As some of the ice will melt into the saucepan, rapidly boil down the juices to concentrate their flavor. For stews, daubes , and other foods which cook in a casserole, tip the casserole and the fat will collect at one side.
Spoon it off, or suck it up with a bulb baster. Or strain off all the sauce into a pan, by placing the casserole cover askew and holding the casserole in both hands with your thumbs clamped to the cover while you pour out the liquid. Then degrease the sauce in the pan, and return the sauce to the casserole. An efficient degreasing pitcher now exists: Pour out clear juices—the spout opening is at the bottom of the pitcher; stop when fat appears in the spout.
To fold also means to mix delicately without breaking or mashing, such as folding cooked artichoke hearts or brains into a sauce. A sprinkling of bread crumbs or grated cheese, and dots of butter, help to form a light brown covering gratin over the sauce. Macerate is the term usually reserved for fruits, such as: Marinate is used for meats: A marinade is a pickle, brine, or souse, or a mixture of wine or vinegar, oil, and condiments.
NAP , napper To cover food with a sauce which is thick enough to adhere, but supple enough so that the outlines of the food are preserved. This may be done in a mortar, a meat grinder, a food mill, an electric blender, or through a sieve. This is a most important step in saucemaking. Plain butter cannot be heated to the required temperature without burning, so it must either be fortified with oil or be clarified—rid of its milky residue as described on this page.
If it is damp, a layer of steam develops between the food and the fat preventing the browning and searing process. Enough air space must be left between each piece of food or it will steam rather than brown, and its juices will escape and burn in the pan. TOSS , faire sauter Instead of turning food with a spoon or a spatula, you can make it flip over by tossing the pan.
The classic example is tossing a pancake so it flips over in mid-air. But tossing is also a useful technique for cooking vegetables, as a toss is often less bruising than a turn. If you are cooking in a covered casserole, grasp it in both hands with your thumbs clamped to the cover. Toss the pan with an up-and-down, slightly jerky, circular motion.
The contents will flip over and change cooking levels. For an open saucepan use the same movement, holding the handle with both hands, thumbs up. A back-and-forth slide is used for a skillet. Give it a very slight upward jerk just as you draw it back toward you. The following list is an explanation of the use of some items:.
As this is difficult to find in America, we have specified smoked bacon; its taste is usually fresher than that of salt pork. It is always blanched in simmering water to remove its smoky taste. If this were not done, the whole dish would taste of bacon. Place the bacon strips in a pan of cold water, about 1 quart for each 4 ounces.
Bring to the simmer and simmer 10 minutes. Drain the bacon and rinse it thoroughly in fresh cold water, then dry it on paper towels. BUTTER , beurre French butter is made from matured cream rather than from sweet cream, is unsalted, and has a special almost nutty flavor. Except for cake frostings and certain desserts for which we have specified unsalted butter, American salted butter and French butter are interchangeable in cooking. But technically any butter, salted or not, which is made from sweet, unmatured cream is sweet butter.
When ordinary butter is heated until it liquefies, a milky residue sinks to the bottom of the saucepan. The clear, yellow liquid above it is clarified butter. It burns less easily than ordinary butter, as it is the milky particles in ordinary butter which blacken first when butter is heated. It is also the base for brown butter sauce, and is used rather than fat in the brown roux for particularly fine brown sauces.
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To clarify butter, cut it into pieces and place it in a saucepan over moderate heat. When the butter has melted, skim off the foam, and strain the clear yellow liquid into a bowl, leaving the milky residue in the bottom of the pan. The residue may be stirred into soups and sauces to serve as an enrichment.
This is because the condition of the foam is a sure indication of how hot the butter is. As it begins to melt, the butter will foam hardly at all, and is not hot enough to brown anything. But as the heat increases, the liquids in the butter evaporate and cause the butter to foam up.
During this full-foaming period the butter is still not very hot, only around degrees. When the liquids have almost evaporated, you can see the foam subsiding. And when you see practically no foam, you will also observe the butter begin to turn light brown, then dark brown, and finally a burnt black. Butter fortified with oil will heat to a higher temperature before browning and burning than will plain butter, but the observable signs are the same.
Thus the point at which you add your eggs to the omelette pan or your meat to the skillet is when the butter is very hot but not browning, and that is easy to see when you look at the butter. If it is still foaming up, wait a few seconds; when you see the foam begin to subside, the butter is hot enough for you to begin. Imported Swiss cheese is of two types, either of which may be used: Petit suisse , a cream cheese that is sometimes called for in French recipes, is analogous to Philadelphia cream cheese. It is not sour. Commercially made sour cream with a butterfat content of only 18 to 20 per cent is no substitute; furthermore, it cannot be boiled without curdling.
French cream has a butterfat content of at least 30 per cent. If it is allowed to thicken with a little buttermilk, it will taste quite a bit like French cream, can be boiled without curdling, and will keep for 10 days or more under refrigeration; use it on fruits or desserts, or in cooking. Stir the buttermilk into the cream and heat to luke-warm—not over 85 degrees. Pour the mixture into a loosely covered jar and let it stand at a temperature of not over 85 degrees nor under 60 degrees until it has thickened.
This will take 5 to 8 hours on a hot day, 24 to 36 hours at a low temperature. Stir, cover, and refrigerate. French unmatured or sweet cream is called fleurette ]. FLOUR , farine Regular French household flour is made from soft wheat, while most American flour is made from hard wheat; in addition, French flour is usually unbleached. This makes a difference in cooking quality, especially when you are translating French recipes for yeast doughs and pastries. We have found that a reasonable approximation of French flour, if you need one, is 3 parts American all-purpose unbleached flour to 1 part plain bleached cake flour.
Be accurate when you measure flour or you will run into cake and pastry problems. Although a scale is ideal, and essential when you are cooking in large quantities, cups and spoons are accurate enough for home cooking when you use the scoop-and-level system illustrated here. For all flour measurements in this volume, scoop the dry-measure cup directly into your flour container and fill the cup to overflowing A ; do not shake the cup or pack down the flour.
Sweep off excess so that flour is even with the lip of the cup, using a straight edge of some sort B. Sift only after measuring. In first edition copies of this volume all flour had to be sifted, and we advised that our flour be sifted directly into the cup; cake flour weighed less per cup than all-purpose flour, and it was a cumbersome system all around. The scoop-and-level is far easier, and just as reliable. See next page for a chart of weights and measures for flour measured this way. Approximate Equivalents scoop-and-level method. They are sometimes coated with sugar so they are not sticky; at other times they are sticky, depending on the specific process they have been through.
Parsley, thyme, bay, and tarragon are the stand-bys, plus fresh chives and chervil in season. A mixture of fresh parsley, chives, tarragon, and chervil is called fines herbes. Mediterranean France adds to the general list basil, fennel, oregano, sage, and saffron. The French feeling about herbs is that they should be an accent and a complement, but never a domination over the essential flavors of the main ingredients. Fresh herbs are, of course, ideal; and some varieties of herbs freeze well. Excellent also are most of the dried herbs now available. Be sure any dried or frozen herbs you use retain most of their original taste and fragrance.
American bay is stronger and a bit different in taste than European bay. We suggest you buy imported bay leaves; they are bottled by several of the well-known American spice firms. If the herbs are fresh and in sprigs or leaf, the parsley is folded around them and they are tied together with string. If the herbs are dried, they are wrapped in a piece of washed cheesecloth and tied. A bundle is made so the herbs will not disperse themselves into the liquid or be skimmed off it, and so that they can be removed easily.
It is prepared as follows:. Stand the bone on one end and split it with a cleaver. Remove the marrow in one piece if possible. Slice or dice it with a knife dipped in hot water. Shortly before using, drop the marrow into the hot liquid. Set aside for 3 to 5 minutes until the marrow has softened. Drain, and it is ready to use. OIL , huile Classical French cooking uses almost exclusively odorless, tasteless vegetable oils for cooking and salads. These are made from peanuts, corn, cottonseed, sesame seed, poppy seed, or other analogous ingredients. Olive oil, which dominates Mediterranean cooking, has too much character for the subtle flavors of a delicate dish.
They are used in sauces, stuffings, and general cooking to give a mild onion taste. The minced white part of green onions spring onions, scallions, ciboules may take the place of shallots. If you can find neither, substitute very finely minced onion dropped for one minute in boiling water, rinsed, and drained. Or omit them altogether. They are always expensive. If you have ever been in France during this season, you will never forget the exciting smell of fresh truffles. Canned truffles, good as they are, give only a suggestion of their original glory.
But their flavor can be much enhanced if a spoonful or two of Madeira is poured into the can half an hour before the truffles are to be employed. The juice from the can is added to sauces and stuffings for additional truffle flavor. A partially used can of truffles may be frozen. The following table is for those who wish to translate French measurements into the nearest convenient American equivalent and vice versa:. There are big and little pinches. British dry measures for ounces and pounds and linear measures for inches and feet are the same as American measures.
However, the British liquid ounce is. See table of equivalents and measuring directions. To remove the smell of garlic from your hands, rinse them in cold water, rub with table salt. See the note on garlic about how to remove the smell of onions from your hands. If you have oversalted a sauce or a soup, you can remove some of the saltiness by grating in raw potatoes.
COLD FLAVORED BUTTERS
Simmer the potatoes in the liquid for 7 to 8 minutes, then strain the liquid; the potatoes will have absorbed quite a bit of the excess salt. F RENCH COOKING requires a good deal of slicing, dicing, mincing, and fancy cutting, and if you have not learned to wield a knife rapidly a recipe calling for 2 cups of finely diced vegetables and 2 pounds of sliced mushroom caps is often too discouraging to attempt.
It takes several weeks of off-and-on practice to master the various knife techniques, but once learned they are never forgotten. You can save a tremendous amount of time, and also derive a modest pride, in learning how to use a knife professionally. For cutting and slicing, hold the knife with your thumb and index finger gripping the top of the blade, and wrap your other fingers around the handle.
For chopping, hold the knife blade by both ends and chop with rapid up-and-down movements, brushing the ingredients repeatedly into a heap again with the knife. To slice potatoes or other round or oval objects, cut the potato in half and lay it cut-side down on the chopping board. Use the thumb of your left hand as a pusher, and grip the sides of the potato with your fingers, pointing your fingernails back toward your thumb so you will not cut them. Cut straight down, at a right angle to board, with a quick stroke of the knife blade, pushing the potato slice away from the potato as you hit the board.
The knuckles of your left hand act as a guide for the next slice. This goes slowly at first, but after a bit of practice, 2 pounds of potatoes can be sliced in less than 5 minutes. To slice long objects like carrots, cut a thin strip off one side so the carrot will lie flat on the board.
Then cut crosswise slices as for the potatoes in the preceding paragraph. To cut vegetables such as carrots or potatoes into julienne matchsticks, remove a thin strip off one side of the carrot and lay the carrot on the board. Proceed as for the julienne, but cut the strips, a handful at a time, crosswise into dice. Dicing Onions and Shallots a. Once mastered, this method of dicing onions or shallots goes like lightning. Cut the onion in half through the root. Lay one half cut-side down, its root-end to your left. Cut vertical slices from one side to the other, coming just to the root but leaving the slices attached to it, thus the onion will not fall apart.
Then make horizontal slices from bottom to top, still leaving them attached to the root of the onion. Various methods for cutting mushrooms are illustrated on this page. F OOD , like the people who eat it, can be stimulated by wine or spirits. And, as with people, it can also be spoiled. The quality in a white or red wine, vermouth, Madeira, or brandy which heightens the character of cooking is not the alcohol content, which is usually evaporated, but the flavor.
Therefore any wine or spirit used in cooking must be a good one.
If it is excessively fruity, sour, or unsavory in any way, these tastes will only be emphasized by the cooking, which ordinarily reduces volume and concentrates flavor. If you have not a good wine to use, it is far better to omit it, for a poor one can spoil a simple dish and utterly debase a noble one. White wine for cooking should be strong and dry, but never sour or fruity.
It has all the right qualities and, in France, is not expensive. As the right white wine is not as reasonable to acquire in America, we have found that a good, dry, white vermouth is an excellent substitute, and much better than the wrong kind of white wine. A good, young, full-bodied red wine is the type you should use for cooking. Fortified wines, spirits, and liqueurs are used principally for final flavorings, As they must be of excellent quality they are always expensive; but usually only a small quantity is called for, so your supply should last quite a while.
Here, particularly, if you do not want to spend the money for a good bottle, omit the ingredient or pick another recipe. Dark Jamaican rum is the best type to use here, to get a full rum flavor. These wines should be the genuine imported article of a medium-dry type, but can be the more moderately priced examples from a good firm. If used in place of port or Madeira they tend to give an un-French flavor to most French recipes.
Because there are dreadful concoctions bottled under the label of brandy, we have specified cognac whenever brandy is required in a recipe, as a reminder that you use a good brand. You do not have to buy Three-star or V. P, but whatever you use should compare favorably in taste with a good cognac. And there is always that enjoyable problem of just which of the many possible choices you should use for a particular occasion. If you are a neophyte wine drinker, the point to keep in mind in learning about which wine to serve with which dish is that the wine should complement the food and the food should accentuate and blend with the qualities of the wine.
A robust wine overpowers the taste of a delicate dish, while a highly spiced dish will kill the flavor of a light wine. A dry wine tastes sour if drunk with a sweet dessert, and a red wine often takes on a fishy taste if served with fish. Great combinations of wine and food are unforgettable: Knowledge of wines is a lifetime hobby, and the only way to learn is to start in drinking and enjoying them, comparing types, vintages, and good marriages of certain wines with certain foods.
Wine suggestions go with all the master recipes for main courses. Here is a list of generally accepted concordances to reverse the process. As this is a book on French cooking, we have concentrated on French wines. They may range from noble and full bodied to relatively light, depending on the vineyard and vintage. Sweet white wines are too often neglected. In the old days sweet wines were drunk with oysters. Local wines, vins du pays , often fall into this category. Serve with fish, poultry, and veal in cream sauces.
White Burgundy can also be drunk with foie gras, and it is not unheard of to serve a Meursault with Roquefort cheese. Many of the regional wines and local vins du pays can also be included here. Serve Bordeaux with roast chicken, turkey, veal, or lamb; also with filet of beef, ham, liver, quail, pheasant , foie gras, and soft fermented cheese like camembert. Serve with duck, goose, kidneys, well-hung game, meats marinated in red wine, and authoritative cheeses such as Roquefort. They are called for wherever strong-flavored foods must meet strong-flavored wines. Or it may accompany the whole meal.
Sweet champagne is another neglected wine, yet is the only kind to serve with desserts and pastries. Except for champagne, which has sugar added to it to produce the bubbles, great French wines are the unadulterated, fermented juice from the pressings of one type of grape originating in one vineyard during one harvest season. Lesser wines, which can be very good, may also be unadulterated. On the other hand, they may be fortified with sugar during a lean year to build up their alcoholic strength, or they may be blended with wines from other vineyards or localities to give them more body or uniformity of taste.
The quality of a wine is due to the variety of grape it is made from, the locality in which it is grown, and the climate during the wine-growing year. In exceptional years such as and , even lesser wines can be great, and the great ones become priceless. Vintage charts, which you can pick up from your wine merchant, evaluate the various wines by region for each year. Fine wine is a living liquid containing no preservatives. Its life comprises youth, maturity, old age, and death.
When not treated with reasonable respect it will sicken and die. If it is left standing upright for a length of time, the cork will dry out, air will enter the bottle, and the wine will spoil. Shaking and joggling are damaging to it, as are extreme fluctuations of heat and cold. If it is to be laid down to grow into maturity, it should rest on its side in a dark, well-ventilated place at a temperature of around 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
If it is to be kept only for a year or two, it can be laid in any dark and quiet corner as long as the temperature remains fairly constant and is neither below 50 degrees nor over Even the most modest wine will improve if allowed to rest for several days before it is drunk. This allows the wine to reconstitute itself after its journey from shop to home.
Great wines, particularly the red ones, benefit from a rest of at least two to three weeks. Red wines, unless they are very young and light, are generally served at a normal room temperature of around 65 degrees Fahrenheit. At lower temperatures they do not show off their full qualities. At least four hours in the dining room are required to bring them slowly up from the temperature of a degree cellar.
Never warm a wine artificially; an old wine can be ruined if the bottle is heated. It is better to pour it out too cold, and let it warm in the glass. As a rule, the sweeter the wine, the colder it should be. A Sauternes or sweet champagne will take four to five hours in the refrigerator. For other white wines, two to three hours are sufficient; if they are too cold, they lose much of their taste. Many authorities recommend that these be uncorked and poured at once, then one waits upon them in the glass, tasting them as they develop. Some fine old reds fade within a few minutes of opening, while other wines are utterly wasted if drunk before they have had time to bloom forth in the glass.
If you know your particular bottles from previous tastings, you can, of course, judge the pouring and drinking of them accordingly. Old red wines that throw a deposit in the bottom of the bottle must be handled so as not to disturb the deposit and circulate it through the wine. Either pour the wine into a decanter leaving the deposit behind, or serve it from a wine basket where it will remain in a prone position. When serving from a basket, pour very smoothly so the wine does not slop back into the bottle and agitate the sediment.
The bottle is stood upright after the wine is poured. The bigger the wine, the bigger the glass. A small glass gives no room for the bouquet to develop, nor for the drinker to swirl. It should be filled to just below the halfway mark. And combined according to your own taste, a good homemade soup in these days of the can opener is almost a unique and always a satisfying experience.
Most soups are uncomplicated to make, and the major portion of them can be prepared several hours before serving. Here is a varied handful of good recipes. Blenders and processors chop up and serve forth tough woody vegetable bits, while a vegetable mill holds them back to give you a fiber-free brew. A pressure cooker can save time, but the vegetables for a long-simmered soup should have only 5 minutes under 15 pounds pressure; more gives them a pressure-cooker taste.
Then the pressure should be released and the soup simmered for 15 to 20 minutes so it will develop its full flavor. Leek and potato soup smells good, tastes good, and is simplicity itself to make. It is also versatile as a soup base; add water cress and you have a water-cress soup, or stir in cream and chill it for a vichyssoise.
To change the formula a bit, add carrots, string beans, cauliflower, broccoli, or anything else you think would go with it, and vary the proportions as you wish. For about 2 quarts serving 6 to 8 people. Either simmer the vegetables, water, and salt together, partially covered, for 40 to 50 minutes until the vegetables are tender; or cook under 15 pounds pressure for 5 minutes, release pressure, and simmer uncovered for 15 minutes. Mash the vegetables in the soup with a fork, or pass the soup through a food mill. Off heat and just before serving, stir in the cream or butter by spoonfuls.
Pour into a tureen or soup cups and decorate with the herbs. This simple version of water-cress soup is very good. See also the more elaborate recipe. Ingredients for the leek and potato soup, omitting cream or butter enrichment until later. Decorate with the optional water-cress leaves.
This is an American invention based on the leek and potato soup in the preceding master recipe. Simmer the vegetables in stock or broth instead of water as described in the master recipe. Stir in the cream. Season to taste, oversalting very slightly as salt loses savor in a cold dish. Using the master recipe for leek and potato soup a cup or two of one or a combination of the following vegetables may be added as indicated. Proportions are not important here, and you can use your imagination to the full.
Many of the delicious soups you eat in French homes and little restaurants are made just this way, with a leek-and-potato base to which leftover vegetables or sauces and a few fresh items are added. You can also experiment on your own combinations for cold soups, by stirring a cup or more of heavy cream into the cooked soup, chilling it, then sprinkling on fresh herbs just before serving. You may find you have invented a marvelous concoction, which you can keep as a secret of the house.
To be simmered or cooked in the pressure cooker with the potatoes and leeks or onions at the start. Peeled, seeded, and chopped tomatoes ; or strained canned tomatoes. Half-cooked dried beans, peas, or lentils, including their cooking liquid. Fresh or frozen diced cauliflower, cucumbers, broccoli, Lima beans, peas, string beans, okra, or zucchini. Diced, cooked leftovers of any of the preceding vegetables. Tomatoes, peeled, seeded, juiced, and diced.
Here is a fine, rich, mushroom soup either for grand occasions or as the main course for a Sunday supper. Cook the onions slowly in the butter for 8 to 10 minutes, until they are tender but not browned. Salt and pepper to taste. Off heat, beat in the boiling stock or broth and blend it thoroughly with the flour.
Stir in the mushroom stems, and simmer partially covered for 20 minutes or more, skimming occasionally. Strain, pressing juices out of mushroom stems. Return the soup to the pan. Melt the butter in a separate saucepan. When it is foaming, toss in the mushrooms, salt, and lemon juice. Cover and cook slowly for 5 minutes. Pour the mushrooms and their cooking juices into the strained soup base. Simmer for 10 minutes. Reheat to simmer just before proceeding to the step below, which will take 2 or 3 minutes.
Beat the egg yolks and cream in the mixing bowl. Then beat in hot soup by spoonfuls until a cup has been added. Gradually stir in the rest. Return the soup to the pan and stir over moderate heat for a minute or two to poach the egg yolks, but do not let the soup come near the simmer. Off heat, stir in the butter by tablespoons. Pour the soup into a tureen or soup cups, and decorate with optional mushrooms and herbs.
Cook the onions slowly in the butter in a covered saucepan for 5 to 10 minutes, until tender and translucent but not browned. Stir in the water cress and salt, cover, and cook slowly for about 5 minutes or until the leaves are tender and wilted. Off heat, beat in the boiling stock. Return to saucepan and correct seasoning. Reheat to simmer before proceeding. Blend the yolks and cream in the mixing bowl.
Beat a cupful of hot soup into them by driblets. Gradually beat in the rest of the soup in a thin stream. Return soup to saucepan and stir over moderate heat for a minute or two to poach the egg yolks, but do not bring the soup to the simmer. Off heat, stir in the enrichment butter a tablespoon at a time. Pour the soup into a tureen or soup cups and decorate with optional water-cress leaves.
Omit final butter enrichment and chill. If too thick, stir in more cream before serving. The onions for an onion soup need a long, slow cooking in butter and oil, then a long, slow simmering in stock for them to develop the deep, rich flavor which characterizes a perfect brew.
Though the preliminary cooking in butter requires some watching, the actual simmering can proceed almost unattended. Cook the onions slowly with the butter and oil in the covered saucepan for 15 minutes. Uncover, raise heat to moderate, and stir in the salt and sugar. Cook for 30 to 40 minutes stirring frequently, until the onions have turned an even, deep, golden brown. Off heat, blend in the boiling liquid. Add the wine, and season to taste. Simmer partially covered for 30 to 40 minutes or more, skimming occasionally. Rounds of hard-toasted French bread see recipe following.
Just before serving, stir in the cognac. Pour into a soup tureen or soup cups over the rounds of bread, and pass the cheese separately. Place the bread in one layer in a roasting pan and bake in a preheated degree oven for about half an hour, until it is thoroughly dried out and lightly browned. Olive oil or beef drippings A cut clove of garlic. Halfway through the baking, each side may be basted with a teaspoon of olive oil or beef drippings; and after baking, each piece may be rubbed with cut garlic.
Brown under a hot broiler before serving. A fireproof tureen or casserole or individual onion soup pots. Bring the soup to the boil and pour into the tureen or soup pots. Stir in the slivered cheese and grated onion. Float the rounds of toast on top of the soup, and spread the grated cheese over it.
Sprinkle with the oil or butter. Bake for 20 minutes in the oven, then set for a minute or two under a preheated broiler to brown the top lightly. A final fillip to the preceding onion soup may be accomplished in the kitchen just before serving or by the server at the table. Just before serving the soup, lift up an edge of the crust with a fork and remove a ladleful of soup.
In a thin stream of droplets, beat the soup into the egg yolk mixture with a fork. Gradually beat in two more ladlefuls, which may be added more rapidly. Again lifting up the crust, pour the mixture back into the soup. Then reach in under the crust with the ladle and stir gently to blend the mixture into the rest of the soup. Fortunately, this soup is not confined to summer and fresh vegetables, for you can use canned navy beans or kidney beans, fresh or frozen string beans, and a fragrant dried basil.
Other vegetables in season may be added with the green beans as you wish, such as peas, diced zucchini, and green or red bell peppers. If available, 2 cups fresh white beans, and omit the navy beans farther on. Either boil the water, vegetables, and salt slowly in a 6-quart kettle for 40 minutes; or pressure-cook for 5 minutes, release pressure, and simmer uncovered for 15 to 20 minutes. Twenty minutes before serving, so the green vegetables will retain their freshness, add the beans, spaghetti or vermicelli, bread and seasonings to the boiling soup.
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