Vir tue (Hegira Book 7)


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Of course, this scene itself resembles a fairy tale. Black, the handsome man riding through the city on a horse, is the classic image of a hero, while Shekure gazing out of her window is like a maiden imprisoned in a tower, waiting for a magic spell to unite her with her love. I Am Called Black. Retrieved December 14, Important Quote and Explanation from. Download this Chart PDF. They're like having in-class notes for every discussion! Get the Teacher Edition. My students love how organized the handouts are and enjoy tracking the themes as a class. Which guides should we add? How can we improve?

LitCharts uses cookies to personalize our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and Terms of Service. Discharge, acquittal, vindication, absolution, ap- proval. Charge, indict, arraign, incriminate, impeach, cite, sum- mon, tax, censure, taunt, blame, reproach.

Discharge, acquit, de- fend, vindicate, exonerate, par- don, absolve, condone, release. Habituate, use, be wonted, harden, familiarize, train, addict, drill, break in, discipline. Estrange, wean, alien- ate, dishabituate. Sourness, acidity, tartness, bitterness, roughness, harshness, acrimony.

Sweetness, mildness, softness, gentleness, smooth- ness. Pain, dull or continued pain, anguish, suffering, agony. Pleasure, relief, ease, refreshment, dlight. Accomplish, perform, complete, finish, realize, bring to pass, work out, conclude ; ob- tain, acquire, gain, win, get.

Neglect, undo, mar, omit; fail of, lose. Accomplishment, performance, attainment, com- pletion, consummation ; exploit, deed, feat. Forfeit, failure, negli- gence, frustration, blunder. Recognize, be aware of; admit, concede, al- low, accept; confess, avow; ex- press thanks for; own. Disclaim, disown, deny, repudiate, ignore, dis- avow. Summit, zenith, climax, top, apex, vertex, pinnacle, cul- mination. Base, nadir, depth, ground, foundation, foot, root. Association, fa- miliarity ; friend ; intimacy, companionship, experience, knowledge, friendship, fellow- ship.

Ignorance, inexperi- ence, unfamiliarity, ignoring. Assent, concur, yield, comply, submit, agree, con- sent. Gain, earn, win, reap, obtain, attain, achieve, get, se- cure ; master, learn thoroughly. Lose, surrender, miss, forego, forfeit. Discharge, exonerate, release, absolve, excuse, par- don, exculpate. Charge, condemn, sen- tence, compel, indict, imprison. Discharge, release, deliverance, liberation, abso- lution.

Judgment, punish- ment, penalty, trial, retribu- tion, correction, castigation. Bitterness, sharp- ness, sourness, tartness, sever- ity, asperity, hardness, rancor, ill-temper, spite, unkindness. Gentleness, good na- ture, kindness, sweetness, cour- tesy. Deed, performance, ex- ploit, accomplishment, achieve- ment, effect, movement, trans- action, work. Cessation, inertia, qui- escence, inaction, rest, repose r quiet, deliberation.

Work, do, perform, exe- cute; behave; play, feign, pre- tend, dissemble; operate, have effect; be, realize, actualize. Rest, cease, stop, stay; neglect, omit, mar, undo; ex- pose, reveal, vaunt; be quiescent or latent; fancy; endure, suffer. Exercise, motion, move- ment, deed, performance; agency, force, operation ; battle, conflict ; gesture ; representa- tion, play; subject, plot; law- suit, case. Inertia, torpor, lan- guor; quiescence, rest, passive- ness; harmony, truce, peace.

Agile, brisk, alert, lively, quick, prompt, ready, spry ; in- dustrious, energetic, busy, dili- gent. Dull, idle, indolent, lazy, quiet, slow, stupid. Real, true, genuine, cer- tain, absolute, positive, veri- table, substantial ; present, sen- sible, perceptible. Possible, fictitious, sup- posititious, virtual, theoretical, hypothetical, conjectural. Discernment, penetra- tion, keenness, shrewdness, in- sight, sharpness, sagacity, acuteness.

Dulness, obtuseness, stupidity, bluntness. Sharp, pointed, keen, shrewd; violent, intense; high, sudden, severe, distressing; subtile, ingenious, sagacious, discerning. Dull, blunt, obtuse, stupid, heavy; chronic; stolid. Adjustment, fitness, conformity, suitableness, apt- ness, harmony. Incompatibility, in- congruity, misfit, discord. Sum up, increase, adjoin, append, attach, augment, en- large, amplify, annex, affix.

Deduct, subtract, les- sen, reduce, remove, diminish. Habituated, disposed to, inclined, prone, attached to, devoted, given over to, wedded to. Averse, disinclined, un- accustomed, indisposed, di- vorced from. Accession, enlarge- ment, increase, extension, ac- cretion, augmentation, adjunct. Courtesy, manners, politeness, tact, ingenuity, dex- terity, discretion, adroitness ; discourse, harangue, oration, lecture, speech, appeal, request, suit, solicitation. Clumsiness, rudeness, stupidity, unmannerliness, folly ; refusal. Accost, approach, court, greet, hail, salute, speak to. Avoid, elude, ignore, shun, cut, pass, overlook.

Offer, present, advance ; cite, quote, introduce, name, mention; allege. Withdraw, except, de- duct, suppress, retract. Expert, master, profi- cient, genius, veteran, professor. Novice, tyro, blun- derer, inexpert. Equal, competent, fitted, qualified, suitable, suffi- cient, capable, adapted, satis- factory ; proportionate, com- mensurate. Inferior, poor, useless, worthless, unfit, incompetent. Stick, cling, cohere, hold, cleave; belong, pertain; be attached, fixed, or devoted.

Part, separate, sunder, sever, give way. Tenacity, attach- ment, constancy, fidelity, devo- tion, partisanship; adhesion. Desertion, separation, disunion, unfaithfulness. Near, close, border- ing, adjoining, contiguous, be- side. Separate, distant, re- mote, detached, disconnected. Postpone, delay, de- fer; suspend, interrupt, close, end, dissolve. ANT Despatch, hasten, con- clude, complete, terminate, con- summate.

Addition, appendage, accessory, aid, advantage, help ; colleague, associate. Detriment, impedi- ment, hindrance, obstruction, detraction. Entreat, beseech, pray, supplicate, implore, beg; swear by. Defy, deprecate, re- monstrate, dare, expostulate, warn. Arrangement, dis- posal ; settlement, agreement, understanding; fitting, adapta- tion, conformity; regulation, rectification, accommodation.

Dispense, distrib- ute, supply; direct, manage, control, superintend; offer, proffer, tender. Withhold, refuse, re- tain; betray, mismanage; re- pulse, rebuff. Wonder, approval, love, surprise, astonishment, appreciation, reverence, high regard. Honor, esteem, ap- prove, adore, wonder at, vener- ate, extol, marvel at, applaud, revere, respect. Despise, dislike, exe- crate, hate, abhor, scorn, de- test. Allowable, lawful, permissible, possible, probable. Absurd, preposterous, improper, wrong, unlawful. Admittance, en- trance, access ; avowal, acknowl- edgment, concession, concur- rence, allowance.

Denial, contradiction, rejection, negation. Receive; accept, acknowl- edge, own, confess; permit, al- low, suffer. Exclude, debar; dis- oion, deny ; dismiss, reject, re- pudiate. Advise, warn, cau- tion, counsel, censure, rebuke, reprove; forewarn, remind, dis- suade; instruct, teach, apprise, acquaint. Encourage, urge, coun- tenance, applaud, abet, insti- gate. Caution, warning, advice, counsel, instruction, re- minder, hint, reproof, reprehen- sion.

Applause, encourage- ment, incitement, urging, insti- gation. Trouble, toil, labor, pains; bustle, stir, fuss, noise, tur- moil. Quiet, calm, compos- ure, tranquillity.

Appropriate, assume ; approve, accept, support, main- tain ; affiliate, father. Reject, discard; re- nounce, abandon, disclaim; dis- own, repudiate. Worship, devotion, homage, reverence, veneration, idolatry. Execration, disesteem, abomination, abhorrence, hatred, detestation. Beautify, decorate, em- bellish, ornament, garnish, il- lustrate, gild, bedeck, grace, dignify, honor, exalt. Mar, spoil, deface, dis- figure, deform, denude, strip. Dexterous, expert, skil- ful, apt, handy, quick, clever, ready, deft, ingenious, cunning. Flattery, extrava- gant compliment, fulsome praise, fawning, sycophancy, blandishment, obsequiousness.

Defamation, obloquy, ridicule, satire, sarcasm, de- traction, aspersion, libel. Shadow, outline,, indicate, hint, trace, delineate; typify, represent, symbolize; darken, obscure, hide, conceal. Fulfil, realize, em- body; misrepresent; reveal, il- lumine. Progress, improve- ment, growth ; offer, proposal, overture, tender, proposition ; rise, appreciation. Regress, return, retro- gression; diminution; depreci- ation. Push or send for- ward, propel; promote, ele- vate, dignify, exalt; improve, strengthen, benefit ; propose, offer; furnish, lend, loan; in- crease, augment, raise; pro- ceed, progress; thrive, prosper; accelerate.

Retard, hinder, with- hold, withdraw; suppress, de- grade, depress; oppose, recall, weaken, retreat; lessen, dimin- ish. Benefit, profit, ex- pediency, favorable opportunity, blessing; behalf, account, in- terest; privilege, convenience, assistance, utility, service. Loss, disappointment, frustration, difficulty, dilem- ma. Approach, coming, ar- rival, accession. Departure, exit, exo- dus, retirement. Accidental, inci- dental, extrinsic, non-essential, foreign, casual; redundant, su- perfluous.

Intrinsic, pertinent, regular, proper, necessary, ap- propriate. Chance, hazard, risk, venture, experiment, trial; event, incident, occurrence, con- tingency, crisis. Matter-of-fact, matter- of-course; prospect; monotony, routine. Bold, daring, ven- turesome, rash, reckless, head- long; dangerous, perilous, un- certain; fearless, enterprising. Timid, nervous, hesi- tating, cautious, cowardly.

Foe, enemy, antago- nist, opponent, rival, assailant. Ally, helper, assistant, accomplice, aider, abettor, ac- cessory. Opposite, contrary, conflicting; hostile, injurious, harmful ; unlucky, unfortunate, disastrous. Favorable, friendly, propitious, fortunate, lucky. Calamity, affliction, trouble, disaster, woe, distress, suffering. Success, prosperity, ad- vancement, good luck. Consider, notice, re- mark, heed, attend, refer, al- lude, mention, touch upon; re- gard.

Ignore, pass, drop, overlook, omit. Mindful, regardful, attentive, watchful, observant, thoughtful, considerate, heed- ful. Thoughtless, heedless, inconsiderate, inattentive. Announce, publish, proclaim, declare, circulate, noise abroad ; offer for sale ; in- form, notify, apprise; promul- gate. Suppress, ignore, hush, conceal; mislead, misinform. Counsel, suggestion, ad- monition, instruction, caution; tidings, intelligence, notice; de- liberation, care, forethought; recommendation, exhortation, information.

Remonstrance, re- straint, expostulation, prohibi- tion; deception, delusion. Judicious, expedi- ent, politic, prudent, desirable, beneficial, profitable ; proper, fitting. Imprudent, undesir- able, inexpedient, improper, det- rimental. Accuser, impugner, gainsayer, adversary, opponent. Open, free, frank, un- reserved ; accessible, familiar ; cordial, social, courteous, polite, obliging, urbane, benign, gra- cious, mild, well-bred; conde- cending. Distant, unapproach- able, inaccessible, haughty, con- temptuous, supercilious. Business, concern, func- tion, matter, circumstance, question, subject; event, inci- dent, occurrence, performance; battle, combat, engagement, skirmish, collision, brush, en- counter.

Detail, item, feature, point. Influence, change, trans- form, modify, alter; concern, interest, touch, move, impress; crave, yearn, desire, like; as- sume, adopt, feign, pretend; operate, act on; melt, soften, subdue, overcome. Shun, repel, repudiate, spurn, dislike, eschew. Airs, mannerism, pretension, pretense, foppery, display.

Simplicity, artlessness, naturalness, genuineness. Feeling, passion, at- tachment, fondness, tenderness, love; propensity, disposition; endearment, devotion, partial- ity; attribute, quality, charac- teristic, mark. Indifference, repul- sion, disaffection, repugnance. Trust, confidence, hom- age, reliance, betrothal, fealty, faith, plighting. Disloyalty, distrust, treason, suspicion, infidelity. Associate, adopt, join, connect, incorporate, annex.

Sever, transplant, sep- arate, disjoin, dissociate. Relationship, kin, con- sanguinity, propinquity; like- ness, resemblance, relation, an- alogy, connection, correspon- dence; sympathy, attraction. Repugnance, discord- ance, antipathy, antagonism. Assert, swear, state, de- clare, maintain, allege, protest, confirm, ratify, approve, en- dorse, aver, asseverate, assure, avouch, establish.

Deny, doubt, demur, contradict, negative, gainsay, impugn, oppose, dispute. Avowal, declara- tion, statement, assertion, tes- timony, deposition, confirma- tion, ratification, approval, en- dorsement. Doubt, denial, contra- diction, disputation, disap- proval. Join, annex, attach, fasten, connect to, unite to, ap- pend.

Remove, detach, sepa- rate, unfasten. Adversity, misfor- tune, grief, sorrow, distress, tribulation, disaster, trial, mis- ery, calamity, pain, anguish, trouble, hardship. Consolation, relief, blessing, gratification, pleasure. Wealth, fortune, riches, opulence, abundance, plenty, profusion. Want, scarcity, pov- erty, penury, lack, indigence.

Supply, furnish, con- tribute, bestow, offer, confer, bear, endure, support, yield, im- part, administer. Withhold, deny, re- tain, stint, grudge, withdraw. Quarrel, tussle, scuffle, scrimmage, collision, brawl, dis- turbance, fight, rumpus, strug- gle, contest, strife, encounter, feud, tumult. Peace, amity, friend- ship, good will.

Outrage, insult, abuse, annoyance, displeasure, offense, provocation, wrong, vexation, wound, exasperation, irrita- tion. Courtesy, homage, amends, compliment, apology. Ablaze, burning, ignited, aflame. Out, quenched, extin- guished. Adrift, at sea, abroad, loose; happening, betiding, brewing. Moored, anchored, aground, stranded, fixed, stead- fast, firm. Afloat, preparing, forth- coming, ready, brewing, on hand, astir.

Unprepared, unpro- vided for, inactive, sluggish, latent. Above-mentioned, foregoing, preceding, above- named. Folloicing, subsequent, subjoined, forthcoming, after- cited. Fearful, timid, appre- hensive, anxious, alarmed, terri- fied, frightened. Fearless, bold, confi- dent, reckless, venturesome, in- different, secure, hopeful, auda- cious. Anew, again, newly, fre- quently, repeatedly, once more. Subsequent, later; fol- lowing, behind, rear, back, pos- terior; concerning, about, for, in relation to; in imitation, of, in the pattern of. Before, preceding, in- troducing; in front of; oppo- site; facing; previous or prior to, afore; in advance; previ- ously, already.

Anew, afresh, repeatedly ; further, moreover, besides; on the contrary; back, in answer or restitution, in return; once more. Once, continuously, un- interruptedly, uniformly. Opposite, across, ad- verse to, counter to, athwart; facing, fronting, close up to, in contact with; for, in prepara- tion for, in expectation of; in compensation for, in requital of, to match.

With, for, beside, ac- companying, aiding, promoting. Yawning, open-mouthed; wondering, gazing, dazed, amazed ; curious, inquisitive, agog, astare, eager. Listless, lukewarm, in- curious, indifferent. Duration; period, date, epoch, time; maturity, genera- tion; era, century. Infancy, youth, boy- hood, childhood; moment, in- stant. Actor, doer, operator, promoter, performer ; cause, force, power; deputy, factor, attorney, representative, substi- tute; means, instrument. Counteragent, counter- actor, opponent, neutralizer ; chief, principal; originator, in- ventor.

Accumulation, heap, pile, mass, conglomera- tion, cluster. Disprrsion, division, separation, sifting, dissipation. Degrade, impoverish, debase, humiliate, dishonor, lower. Exasperate, pro- voke, wound, make worse, inten- sify, embitter, heighten. Soothe, assuage, palli- ate, diminish, conciliate, allevi- ate. Collection, accu- mulation, mass, heap, pile, amount, total, sum, result, whole, agglomeration.

My Name is Red

Dispersion, dissipation, separation, division ; u n i t ; element, individual, ingredient, item. Attack, invasion, encroachment, assault, injury, offense, onslaught, provocation, intrusion. Retaliation, repulsion, retreat, resistance, evacuation. Dismayed, horrified, terrified, frightened ; amazed, astounded, startled, astonished, dumfounded.

Cool, fearless, indiffer- ent, unmoved, unaffected, un- excited. Nimble, active, lively, smart, prompt, alert, supple, brisk, quick, ready, sprightly, spry. Sloio, heavy, clumsy, bulky, awkward, inert, ponder- ous. Disturb, trouble, shake, jar, convulse; excite, rouse, fer- ment; fluster, hurry, discon- cert; discuss, controvert, de- bate, examine, ventilate, inves- tigate ; deliberate, contrive, de- vise, plan.

Future, coming, here- after, hence.

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Anguish, torture, tor- ment, distress, throe, panga, pain, suffering, woe, excrucia- tion. Assuagement, comfort, relief, composure, ease, enjoy- ment. Accept, assent, approve comply, consent, concur, admit, accede. Contend, disagree, deny ; dissent, dispute, protest, oppose, demur, differ; decline. Suitable, proper, ap- propriate, befitting, accordant, conformable, consonant, wel- come, amiable, pleasing, grati- fying.

Contract, compact, bond, Bargain, covenant, har- mony, ixison, obligation, under- taking, treaty. Promise, understand- ing, parole; discord, dissen- sion. Farming, hus- bandry, cultivation of the soil, tillage. Falloumess, sterility, unproductiveness, waste. Ashore, stranded, not afloat; exhausted in resources. Afloat, loose, abroad, adrift; flush.

In front, forwavi, on- ward, in advance. Abaft, astern, back, be- hind, aft. Help, support, assist, serve, befriend, minister to, relieve, succor; supply, give alms to; foster, protect, encourage, favor. Oppose, discourage, t7iicart, baffle, deter, confront. Sick, ill, indisposed, un- well, feeble, infirm, weakly, delicate, unhealthy, pining. Well, healthy, ener- getic, strong, vigorous. Disease, malady, in- disposition, distemper, com- plaint.

Health, sanity, conva- lescence, vigor, recovery. Direction, course, tendency, bent, proclivity, bearing; inten- tion, purpose, design, scheme; reason ; view, scope, drift, mark, goal, point; endeavor, attempt, aspiration, determination. Deviation, divergence, deflection, digression, aberra- tion; tangent; venture, leap, fluke, chance, hazard, specula- tion; neglect, avoidance, care- lessness, oversight. Atmosphere, gas; breeze, vapor, zephyr, wind; weather; appearance, aspect, manner, sort, style, way, behavior, car- riage, bearing, expression, look, demeanor, mien, fashion; tune.

Aerial, thin, rare, ethe- real; light, subtle, sublimated; sprightly, buoyant, vivacious, volatile, jolly, jovial, light- hearted; graceful, lithe, pliant, flexible, showy, jaunty, flaunt- ing, garish ; windy, empty. Thick, ponderous, heavy, inert, clumsy, dull, sluggish, wooden, slow, cheerless, sullen, doleful, leaden, lugubrious.

Related, allied, homogene- ous, cognate, similar, congenial, sympathetic. Foreign, alien, hostile, heterogeneous, dissimilar. Readiness, briskness, activity, quickness, willingness, promptness, compliance, cheer- fulness, eagerness, gaiety, agil- ity. Sloumess, reluctance, repugnance, aversion, refusal, shrinking, recoil, disinclination. Summons, tocsin, dis- tress signal, war-cry; fear, ter- ror, apprehension, consterna- tion, dismay, dread, affright.

Lullaby; confidence, quiet, composure, assurance, courage. Lively, prompt, ready, prepared, vigilant, wide-awake, bustling, active, brisk, nimble, watchful, sprightly, agile. Slow, lazy, absent, ob- livious, sluggish, dilatory, drowsy. Citizen, countryman, native, naturalized person. Strange, foreign, hos- tile, remote, distant, contrasted, contrary, unlike, unconnected. Pertinent, essential; domesticated, naturalized; ger- mane, akin, appropriate.

Estrangement, trans- fer, conveyance, disaffection, variance, rupture, breach; re- lating to the mind insanity, aberration, delusion, lunacy, de- lirium, mania, imbecility. Confederacy, coalition, alliance, league, union; sanity, soundness, sobriety, rationality. Perch, settle, drop, lodge; dismount, descend. Soar, spring, ascend, start, mount. Similar, kindred, same, resembling, equivalent, homoge- neous, identical, analogous, uni- form, akin, allied. Different, unequal, dis- similar, unlike, heterogeneous, distinct, various.

Living, quick, subsist- ing, animate, alert, active, breathing; sensitive, suscep- tible; operative; cheerful, joy- ous; brisk. Dead, defunct, lifeless, deceased; inanimate, dull; de- parted, cold; dispirited. P art, piece, share, por- tion. Whole, entire, complete, total ; each, every. Repress, restrain, check, subdue, silence, still, hush, soothe, compose, calm, appease, lull, alleviate, mitigate, solace, abate, relieve, palliate.

Aggravate, arouse, ex- cite, stir, kindle, fan, provoke. Declare, afiirm, claim, maintain, state, asseverate ; advance, aver, introduce; pro- fess, cite. Contradict, gainsay, refute, deny, disprove, quash. Fealty, loyalty, de- votion, homage, faithfulness, obedience. Treason, rebellion, se- dition, disloyalty, disaffection. Parable, fable, myth, story, tale, apologue, metaphor, illustration, simile. History, fact, narra- tive, chronicle, record. Abate, mitigate, re- duce, relieve, lessen, assuage, re- move, soften, moderate, lighten. Augment, increase, heighten, intensify, magnify, ag- gravate, enhance, embitter.

Connection, relation- ship, affinity; confederacy, league, union, treaty, copartner- ship, coalition; affiliation, simi- larity. Separation, estrange- ment, divorce; antagonism, dis- ruption, enmity, hostility, schism, secession. Divide, apportion, dis- tribute, deal out, dispense; as- sign, grant, give, appoint, des- tine.

Refuse, retain, misdeal, deny, confiscate, appropriate, seize, withhold. Grant, own, confess, ad- mit; permit, let, authorize; suffer, tolerate, endure; yield, give, grant; approve, sanction, abate, remit. Protest, refuse, deny, disapprove, forbid, disallow, reject, withstand, resist. Leave, permission, sanction, approval; admission, acknowledgment, assent; com- mission; qualification, excep- tion; ration. Refusal, disapproval, denial; ratification, confirma- tion.

Admixture, adultera- tion, deterioration, debasement, disparagement, drawback. Genuineness, enhance- ment, purity, integrity. Intimate, insinuate, point, refer, suggest, signify, hint, imply, indicate, mention. Decoy, entice, coax, at- tract, tempt, inveigle, seduce. Dissuade, repel, warn, chill, damp, drive away, deter, alarm, terrify. Hint, suggestion, inti- mation, reference, implication, innuendo. Mention, demonstra- tion, specification. Assistant, helper, aider, friend, associate, colleague, partner, accessory, accomplice.

Opponent, adversary, foe, enemy, antagonist. Above, skyward, heaven- ward, overhead, in the air. Solitary, sole, single, isolated. Lengthwise, onward, for- ward; together, beside, simul- taneously. Across, sidewise or sideways, lateral; apart, tan- dem. Apart, distant, away, off. Close, near, together, unitedly. Distinctly, audibly, vo- ciferously, clamorously, sonor- ously.

Softly, silently, inau- dibly. As well, likewise, too, sim- ilarly, withal, besides, in addi- tion, in like manner. Nevertheless, notwith- standing, on the contrary, but, yet, in spite of, on the other hand. Change, turn, vary, mod- ify, shift, substitute, remodel, transform, convert.

Conserve, perpetuate, preserve, arrest, solidify, retain. Change, variation, modification, shifting, muta- tion. Changelessness, iden- tity, fixity, permanence. Dispute, conten- tion, controversy, difference, quarrel, wrangle, dissension. Concord, agreement, compromise, reconciliation, unanimity, harmony, conso- nance. Reciprocal, every other one, one after another, in turn, interchangeable, mutual. Continuous, successive, consequent, proximate, sequent. Choice, option, preference, election, pick, re- source.

Compulsion, quandary, necessity; fixity, changeless- ness. Albeit, even if, sup- posing, grant that. Height, elevation, lof- tiness, ascent, eminence. Depth, declivity, de- scent, abasement.


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Collectively, con- jointly, wholly, quite, com- pletely, totally, utterly, en- tirely, thoroughly, fully, in the mass. Partially, piecemeal, by instalments, partly, incom- pletely, by halves, wanting; in- dividually, separately. Philanthropy, unself- ishness, public spirit, devotion to others, self-sacrifice, self-for- getfulness, generosity. Selfishness, self-indul- gence, worldliness, meanness; egoism.

Now, momently, in- stantly, suddenly; sometimes, occasionally. Mix, commingle, unite, combine, blend, com- pound, incorporate, join, fuse, consolidate. Disintegrate, decom- pose, disperse, separate, dissi- pate, analyze. Ephemeral, perishable, mortal, fading. Accumulate, heap up, collect, gather, hoard, store up. Disperse, divide, scat- ter, spend, squander, loaste, dis- sipate; portion, distribute, par- cel.

Astonishment, be- wilderment, wonder, marvel, stupefaction, confusion, per- plexity, awe. Anticipation, calmness, coolness, familiarity, prepara- tion, stoicism, self-possession, steadiness, composure. Astonishing, astound- ing, wonderful, surprising, mar- velous, prodigious, strange, mi- raculous, stupendous, extraor- dinary.

Common, familiar, triv- ial, commonplace, frequent, hackneyed, usual, customary. Winding, devious, sinuous ; tortuous, indirect, eva- sive, circuitous; diffuse, dull, tedious; dubious, enigmatical, vague. Direct, straight, frank, open, simple, straightfoncard, plain, clear, lucid, unmistak- able. Minister, envoy, legate, deputy, plenipotentiary. Surrounding, encom- passing, enfolding, circling, in- vesting. Penetrating, infiltrat- ing, permeating, intervening. Doubtful, dubious, uncertain, indefinite, vague, ob- scure, indistinct, equivocal, en- igmatical. Obvious, plain, clear, lucid, unmistakable.

Emulation, rivalry, aspiration, competition, opposi- tion. Contentment, moder- ation, indifference, satisfac- tion. Amendment, im- provement, promotion, better- ing, elevation. Degeneration, deterio- ration, injury, detriment. Liable, responsible, answerable, accountable; open, impressible, pliant, docile. Obstinate, irrespon- sible, independent, autocratic.

Improve, mend, repair, ameliorate, reform, correct, rectify. Harm, corrupt, spoil, debase, aggravate. Compensation, atone- ment, expiation, recompense, in- demnity. Insult, injury, fault, offense. Softness, mildness, suavity, gentleness, refinement, amiability. Austerity, ungracious- ness, discourtesy, moroseness. Agreeable, gentle, good- natured, pleasing, winsome, at- tractive, charming, lovable. Crusty, hateful, sullen, surly, crabbed, cruel, unlovely, gruff, disagreeable, ill-tempered. Cordial, kind, friendly, harmonious, peaceable, propi- tious, favorable, sociable, ami- able.

Unkind, cold, distant, hostile, adverse, unfriendly. There was also hope that Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy leading a group of Muslims in Medina could be won over by diplomacy. In the battle of Uhud, the Meccans had collected all the available men from the Quraysh and the neighboring tribes friendly to them but had not succeeded in destroying the Muslim community.

In order to raise a more powerful army, Abu Sufyan attracted the support of the great nomadic tribes to the north and east of Medina, using propaganda about Muhammad's weakness, promises of treasure, memories of the prestige of Quraysh and straight bribes. Muhammad's policy in the next two years after the battle of Uhud was to prevent as best he could the formation of alliances against him. Whenever alliances of tribesmen against Medina were formed, he sent out an expedition to break it up.

Muhammad's attempts to prevent formation of confederation against him were not successful, although he was able to augment his own forces and keep many tribes from joining the confederation. Abu Sufyan, the military leader of the Quraysh, with the help of Banu Nadir, the exiled Jewish tribe from Medina, had mustered a force of numbering 10, men. Muhammad was able to prepare a force of about 3, men.

He had however adopted a new form of defense, unknown in Arabia at that time: Muslims had dug trenches wherever Medina lay open to cavalry attack. The idea is credited to a Persian convert to Islam, Salman. The siege of Medina began on 31 March and lasted for two weeks.

During the Battle of the Trench, the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza who were located at the south of Medina were charged with treachery. After the retreat of the coalition, Muslims besieged Banu Qurayza, the remaining major Jewish tribe in Medina. The Banu Qurayza surrendered and all the men, apart from a few who converted to Islam, were beheaded, while all the women and children were enslaved.

Peters , a western scholar of Islam, states that Muhammad's treatment of Jews of Medina was essentially political being prompted by what Muhammad read as treasonous and not some transgression of the law of God. Economical motivations according to Peters also existed since the poorness of the Meccan migrants was a source of concern for Muhammad. He adds that some Jews from other families were, however, allowed to remain in Medina.

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In the siege of Medina, the Meccans had exerted their utmost strength towards the destruction of the Muslim community. Their failure resulted in a significant loss of prestige; their trade with Syria was gone. Aisha was exonerated from the accusations when Muhammad announced that he had received a revelation, verse4 in the An-Nur sura, [53] confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses.

Although Qur'anic verses had been received from God commanding the Hajj , [55] the Muslims had not performed it due to the enmity of the Quraysh. In the month of Shawwal , Muhammad ordered his followers to obtain sacrificial animals and to make preparations for a pilgrimage umrah to Mecca, saying that God had promised him the fulfillment of this goal in a vision where he was shaving his head after the completion of the Hajj.

Muhammad evaded them by taking a more difficult route, thereby reaching al-Hudaybiyya, just outside Mecca. Negotiations commenced with emissaries going to and from Mecca.

Muhammad in Medina

While these continued, rumors spread that one of the Muslim negotiators, Uthman ibn Affan , had been killed by the Quraysh. Muhammad responded by calling upon the pilgrims to make a pledge not to flee or to stick with Muhammad, whatever decision he made if the situation descended into war with Mecca. This pledge became known as the "Pledge of Good Pleasure" Arabic: Many Muslims were not satisfied with the terms of the treaty.

However, the Qur'anic sura Al-Fath The Victory [63] assured the Muslims that the expedition from which they were now returning must be considered a victorious one. These benefits, according to Welch, included the inducing of the Meccans to recognise Muhammad as an equal; a cessation of military activity posing well for the future; and gaining the admiration of Meccans who were impressed by the incorporation of the pilgrimage rituals. After signing the truce, Muhammad made an expedition against the Jewish oasis of Khaybar.

The explanation given by western scholars of Islam for this attack ranges from the presence of the Banu Nadir in Khaybar, who were inciting hostilities along with neighboring Arab tribes against Muhammad, to deflecting from what appeared to some Muslims as the inconclusive result of the truce of Hudaybiyya, increasing Muhammad's prestige among his followers and capturing booty. Buhl however holds that the real reason "seems to have been that he wished to bring the Christian or pagan Arabs living there under his control.

The truce of Hudaybiyya had been enforced for two years. These were the following [72]. The Meccans replied that they would accept only the third condition. Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign. In , Muhammad marched on Mecca with an enormous force, said to number more than ten thousand men. With minimal casualties, Muhammad took control of Mecca. Some of these were later pardoned. Soon after the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad was alarmed by a military threat from the confederate tribes of Hawazin who were collecting an army twice the size of Muhammad's.

The Hawzain were old enemies of Meccans. In the same year, Muhammad launched an expedition against northern Arabia, the battle of Tabouk , because of their previous defeat at the battle of Mu'tah, as well as the reports of the hostile attitude adopted against Muslims.

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