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Furthermore, some of her solutions resemble those of Gringolts in terms of placement and shape or pitch content. Yet the delivery, the sound of their respective performances is very different, highlighting the difficulty in finding academically meaningful and printable presentations of critical observations—or rather, it underscores the difficulty in making the object of study aurally perceived sound readily available for analysis, for visual and verbal dissection. Both musicians grace the E dotted crotchet with an upper neighbour motion, but Mullova plays the two semiquavers ornamentally i.
In the transcriptions I aimed to convey this by using smaller notes for Mullova and normal semiquavers for Gringolts. Similarly, she plays the upward runs in bars 32 and 10 before the beat, giving emphasis to the downbeat and not affecting the basic pulse. Gringolts, on the other hand, while using a practically identical type of embellishment in b. It sounds more like a gracing of the high B that he introduces as anticipation at the end of the previous bar Figure 4. For other, unembellished versions see Audio example 4. Although the added decorations often fall on the downbeat, their shape, rhythm and delivery tend to function so as to give impetus to the second beat of the measure, which is traditionally accented in sarabandes e.
Being in the French style some players e. Podger also adds short graces, trills and mordents, during repeats. Given its simple structure and many repetitions especially if Menuet I is played again as a da capo after Menuet II and with all repeats , it seems quite reasonable to expect HIP performers to add decorations.
This is not really the case. She performs all repeats in the da capo as well and not twice the same way. What is wonderfully playful about her rendering is that she uses ideas and figures from different parts of the movement to vary other bars. Ornamentation and lilted rhythm in J. However, I need to make one amendment to the data presented in that paper. Since publication I have noticed that Huggett adds soulful embellishments during the first repeat while Beznosiuk and Barton Pine add grace notes and short ornaments in a few bars: Beznosiuk in bars 1, 2, 6 and 21; Barton Pine only on the commercial disk from in bars 4, 6, and Barton Pine adds an appoggiatura in bar 6 and light-fast turn-like graces and trill elsewhere.
In addition Huggett plays most of the semiquavers in the second half, but in particular the coda bb. Isabelle Faust, Pavlo Beznosiuk; repeat of bars Other details, such as the appropriateness of choosing upper or lower appoggiaturas, compound ornaments, and so on discussed in my above mentioned paper seem like moot points. Few listeners are acutely aware of eighteenth-century rules and even fewer would register such minor details when listening to the recordings.
The speed with which such ornaments pass by is frequently quite fast. Accurate transcription is often only possible by repeated close listening and slowing down the recording to half or slower speed with the aid of computer technology: In the Loure the differences in sound effect, in delivery , are hard to convey in transcription. The scale up to the top B in bar 1, for instance, is played quite differently by all 3 violinists who introduce it van Dael, Wallfisch and Mullova.
And this is so even though all three of them use the gesture to create a spritely effect, to point up the rhythm and create energy!
A Musicology of Performance
Speed, bowing, timing, and articulation contribute to the clearly perceivable aural difference. Gavotte en Rondeau, E Major Partita: This excerpt illustrates spectacularly the rich variety of interpretations and individual solutions currently available on record. At least eighteen different solutions can be identified among the thirty-one examined recordings Table 4. Grave, A minor Sonata: The resulting pulsating sound is said to emulate the tremulant stop on the organ. They seem to agree that the wavy line here may be a sign for this tremolo-vibrato effect.
The flattement can be either a finger vibrato striking lightly, repeatedly, and as closely as possible to the fixed finger with the finger adjacent to it , or it can be a wrist vibrato.
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Marais and others use a horizontal wavy line for this. Walther uses repeated notes with a wavy line to indicate this. Altogether approximately eighteen different solutions were found in thirty-one examined recordings; some more subtle than others. These nuances are illustrated through a selection of audio excerpts Audio example 4. Interpretations of the notation at the end of J.
Summary of solutions in the penultimate bars of the A minor Grave.
Meaning of "hi" in the German dictionary
Circling back to such broader issues, the contention that ornamentation should always be improvised is worth unpacking. So far I have argued that the performance should sound as if improvised. How are we to know, really, whether or to what degree an added ornament is pre-planned or spontaneous? Musicians intimately familiar with a particular style are able to play extempore, they just have not been encouraged much to do so until recently.
Synonyms and antonyms of hi in the German dictionary of synonyms
The idea being that the listener will not be able to hear it as improvised, or as an added ornament, because it will recur unchanged in each playing of the record. Richard Tognetti sometimes adds graces during first play and different ones during repeat. Often ornaments are added at less obvious places as well and occasionally they sound jolted rather than smoothly integrated. For me this indicates a spontaneous gesture, not something fully thought through, practised and polished. Such instances are the added trills in bb. Another example is the added embellishment during the repeat of bar 1 of the Sarabande Double.
All this suggests spontaneity rather than relying on premeditated solutions, even if it happens to be a coincidence resulting from post-production editing and selection of takes. If takes are so different, then there must have been spontaneity. That such improvisation can be witnessed in a studio recording goes some way against the much heard assertions that the studio inhibits players, that recordings are not performances and that the spontaneous nature of ornamentation is against the repeatable nature of sound recordings.
You either add a trill, grace note, melodic embellishment or you do not. The decision to add a trill rather than a mordent? To trill from above rather than from the note? To play a trill with or without termination? Or to correctly decide whether the appoggiatura should be short or long? If this were true, my discussion of the recordings would have completely missed the point!
Most importantly, they have to perform the embellishments in a way that truly decorates the music, enhances its character, rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic potential. As soon as we start talking about these aesthetic issues it becomes all too obvious that ornamentation is also interacting with several other performance features in achieving its effect. It is not a simple matter, not an independent element but combines with articulation, rhythm, dynamics, timing as well as bowing and tone production.
Throughout my commentary I repeatedly drew attention to the differences between what transcriptions can convey and what one actually hears. I tried to describe the sound effect, the perceived gesture rather than evaluate the content or type of an ornament and embellishment. Violinists as diverse as Luca, Mullova, Podger, Tognetti, Faust and Gringolts seemed especially to delight in manipulating the material through added trills and slides, appoggiaturas and other graces or even changes in melodic turns, filling in gaps between notes, ornamentally highlighting gestures and, ultimately, re-writing measures and entire passages, as in the Gavotte an Rondeau.
His performance can still strike as appealing and musical—especially if somebody has never heard the pieces before—but not quite appropriate if we desire to preserve the style and compositional aesthetics of Bach as we currently understand these. The choice is wide and the differences among them are as good as ever.
Broadly speaking the topic involves anything to do with the timing of notes and thus it is linked to articulation as well as bowing. In baroque music, rhythm is organized around metrical hierarchies and the underlying harmony. And, as we have just seen while exploring ornamentation, performances that sound improvisatory are achieved through flexible-gestural rendering of notated rhythmic values. First I will focus on these, leaving the broader, more qualitative matters of rhythmic flexibility for later.
However, it will transpire that even the seemingly straightforward matter of playing dotted rhythms is impossible to discuss without reference to tempo and articulation or bowing. Neither close listening nor quantitative measurements can tell the full story on their own as cause and effect are not veridical. Most researchers advocated double or over-dotting in pieces where such rhythms prevail.
For long, the late Frederick Neumann was the only author voicing an opposition. Average dotting ratios in 3 movements where such rhythms prevail; selection of recordings, listed in order of release date. Earlier selective measurements of recordings made between and showed over-dotting becoming the dominant practice by the s, excepting Heifetz. Nevertheless even his average dotting is slightly under-dotted 0. This overall trend towards under-dotting may reflect the view that dotted rhythms within fast triplet motion are to be assimilated into long-short swings because the notation of dotting in such context represents the eighteenth-century way of expressing what later became notated as crotchet-quaver with a triplet bracket over the two notes.
Dotting and accenting in J. Additionally, one could observe a progressively more staccato delivery of dotted patterns in the Allemanda and Corrente while the slower Adagio tended to be played legato. In this movement the dotted notes form multiple stops. The time needed to sound each note of the three or four-part chord has likely contributed to the elongated delivery. They also tend to sound more dotted when the tempo is fast. In other words, the desired effect or musical character can be achieved without much over-dotting, explaining the lesser average ratios found in the B minor Allemanda compared to the C Major Adagio.
But when trying to explain what to do, they may incorrectly emphasize one or the other component as seen in much of the above mentioned literature on dotting in baroque music. The fast tempo most performers chose in this movement compensates for the smoother ratio between the dotted and short notes. In other words a strong sense of pulse propels the skipping effect forward to the next flight of triplets cf. The more sustained style of the earlier version sounds less dotted even though the measured ratios produce identical average dotting in the two recordings.
The version bottom pane shows more gaps between note onsets indicating staccato playing. Articulation and perceived dotting in J. She has 3 recordings of the B minor Allemanda Figure 4. The earliest, version is slow, the bow strokes are long and even, giving it a sustained and broad feel. The version is more staccato but not much faster. It sounds a little more dotted overall, partly because of the shorter bowing and more detached style.
The most recent, version is faster, even more staccato and sounds the most dotted. Inspection of spectrograms shows lots of kerning; both the dotted and the short notes are sharply articulated with clear gaps between note onsets Figure 4. When one compares the measured dotting ratios of the three recordings the difference is very little, with the averaged dotting ratio found to be the least over-dotted in the most recent version: It must be the faster tempo and staccato delivery that contribute significantly to nevertheless perceiving this last recording as the most dotted of the three.
The middle pane and bottom pane versions show increasing gaps between note onsets indicating progressively more staccato playing. Instead they occur in isolation but at prominent melodic or metrical moments. Furthermore, both the dotted crotchet—quaver and the dotted quaver—semiquaver combinations are common. Importantly, the Loure is perhaps the most diversely performed movement of the whole set of the Six Solos.
The many languid, lyrical, and melodically conceived interpretations evidence this approach. However, long-held traditions die hard and performances of the Loure seem to occupy an open field: What is interesting to note therefore is not so much the dotting ratio per se , but the interconnection of tempo, articulation, phrasing and dotting. Hahn, Khachatryan, Fischer tend to be less over dotted, with the average dotting ratio being somewhere between 0. The more staccato versions of the Loure, whether faster or similarly slow, have a sharper average dotting ratio, around 0.
Tempo, articulation and musical character in J. First I found that the dotted quavers tended to be played less dotted than the dotted crotchets except for Khachatryan and Fischer, among a few others. Score analysis revealed the reason Figure 4. Since the dotted notes are in essence the resolution of the dissonance, they are delivered softly and under the same bow as the suspension note that these two notes are slurred throughout by Bach. Furthermore, since in terms of harmony these dotted quavers are concluding points, their semiquaver pair actually functions as an anacrusis to the following note.
So it is not so much the dotted note that catches the ear but the short note as it leads quickly into the next main note. This explains why these patterns are not particularly over-dotted; rather they are articulated in a manner that highlights melodic direction and adds rhythmic momentum. In particular, a lilted-dotted manner of performing the quavers in the two E Major Menuets e. Luca and Mullova in during repeats are noteworthy. This lilting also adds variety and contrasts well with the shifted accentual pattern Bach creates through the prescribed slurs from bar 20 onwards.
In bars 21 and 23 Bach even marks them with the indicative slur descending pairs of slurred notes. So here we have an example when score and performance analyses go hand in hand rather than being in a hierarchical relationship. The cause and effect are reciprocal. Dotting is first introduced in the prima volta bar 8 where he plays the first quaver short and then the next two as a dotted dyad. For instance, the similar gesture in bar 2 is played as written but in bar 4 it is dotted again. The first four quavers in bar 3 are played straight but the last two are dotted, and so on.
This constant variation and fluidity lends an ornamental quality to these rhythmic alterations. Mullova also plays notes in a dotted manner in in b. In these movements, like elsewhere, the difference in interpretation may largely depend on how flexible a violinist may shape certain gestures, how she or he may project the pulse of the dance, the harmonic architecture of the piece. Sturdy style of evenly emphasized beats in J.
Slightly stressing moments by holding over harmonically or metrically important notes, or the first note under a slur and then slightly hurrying the remaining notes within the same beat or until the next significant harmonic-metric moment occurs, creates subtle nuances and local ebb and flow. It is not just how the dotted rhythms are delivered in the D minor Corrente that catches the attention.
But whether the running triplets are grouped by metric units i. Playing these notes staccato makes them sound almost linked to the previous crotchets; as if they were slurred to the down-beat. This feature of her interpretation is more striking and memorable than the question of how she delivers the dotted notes cf.
This slight hurrying towards the end of bars is also perceptible in bars 4 and 6. The effect is assisted by minor shifts in dynamics. As discussed under ornamentation, an even more playful Menuet is created by Faust who makes many alterations both rhythmic and ornamental cf. Older and MSP violinists use a broadly uniform, seamless bowing with mostly even portato strokes, e. HIP violinists tend to use shorter bow strokes and the uneven distribution of weight of their period bows makes the difference between up and down strokes more prominent. Accordingly, the performances of the younger and HIP-inspired players and especially those using a baroque apparatus display a less on-the-string bowing and less even tone.
They use a great variety of strokes and a more articulated style with faster note decay. In these recordings one can hear more rhythmic projection, a greater emphasis on the dance character, on meter and pulse. This is achieved primarily through the more lifted bowing; the uneven bow-strokes delineate metric-harmonic groups. The effect can be emulated, to a certain degree, with a modern bow as demonstrated by Lev, Buswell, and more obviously by Zehetmair, Schmid, Tetzlaff , St John, and others cf. In the liner notes to her recording Mullova captured this shift from long, even strokes to a bouncier, metrically orientated bowing eloquently, as cited earlier chapter three.
These two opposing aesthetic views contribute to considerable aural differences. However, recording technology cannot be ignored when wondering about timbre. What is possible is to comment on certain local effects within the same recording. These are most likely achieved through bowing and thus reflective of interpretative decisions rather than technological artefact.
It is therefore interesting to note the many nuanced differences in bowing among HIP players alone. Not surprisingly age seems to matter in this regard. Beznosiuk has also tended to use longer bow strokes, especially when performing multiple voices. The differences among HIP versions are quite palpable even though all period violinists play the opening in a detached style. Still, the length of bow strokes varies across players who also often stress different notes or stress the same ones but to a different degree.
Different bowings within HIP style in J. Kuijken uses the shortest, crispiest strokes in both of his recordings until b. Podger and Huggett play in a detached manner but with somewhat longer strokes. While Podger tends to emphasize, through longer strokes, the third beat of bars, Wallfisch often stresses the first as well as the third beats.
Huggett tends to lean on more notes than anybody else not necessarily in the first six bars. They tend to emphasize the first and third crotchet beat of bars. Wallfisch arpeggiates the chords in bars , the others tend to play the triple stops in a fast bow-stroke. Bars also show differences within a basically detached style in each recording. Podger plays the top notes much shorter, with less resonance than the pedal note.
Indicative transcriptions are provided in Figure 4. Most commonly the first two and a half bars are played in an arpeggiated manner while the double stops over the D pedal as written or with playing the D after every double stop forming semiquaver groups. Van Dael, Huggett, Holloway and Tognetti introduce a different arpeggiation at bar Summary of basic differences in executing bars of G minor Fuga. Different interpretations in J. Within these basic similarities among groups of violinists there were many important differences.
Here she drops the dynamics to very soft levels and starts the new arpeggiation pattern slowly and gradually, giving it a tentative feel cf. Others have also played around with the dynamics of this episode. Quite a few violinists e. Kremer, Tetzlaff chose to drop the volume to p or pp in b. A crescendo often ensued from half-way through b. Perlman, in contrast, played the whole passage forte while others started mf and gradually built up the volume to the beginning of b.
But of course the most striking difference comes from whether the passage is arpeggiated or not and if so how. More pertinently, the question arises when such a playing tradition may have started. The recorded history of the works indicates no arpeggiation in this episode until the s. In my collection of over 60 versions, proper arpeggiation is found only in those listed in column 1 of Table 4. The alternative among these versions is a rapid delivery, making the notes sound more chord-like.
In such cases a noticeable sound quality results, especially in the fugues: In more recent recordings of younger violinists the bowing is lighter and the sound less forceful Mullova, Faust, Barton Pine, St John, Gringolts, Ibragimova. The lower bridge of the baroque violin also makes string crossing easier.
HIP players less so Kuijken and those influenced by historical performance practice research are more likely to arpeggiate three and four-note chords to a varying degree. Tognetti and Tetzlaff, for instance, tend to break chords faster while Huggett and Wallfisch slower. Depending on the musical context, they highlight the bottom, the top, or none of the notes. Finally, in polyphonic textures with the subject in the lowest voice some violinists play the chords from top note down e.
A minor Fuga bb. Its delivery illustrates at least three basic differences in approach: Huggett and Holloway play the opening chord with emphasis on the low G followed by a moderately slow arpeggiation and then a pause on the high G. The third type of delivery aims to make it sound like a chord, generally with a fast break between the bottom and top two notes e. Perlman, Shumsky, Buswell, Ehnes, Fischer and holding out the top dyad.
Matthews plays the bottom two notes then the Bflat and eventually the top G; these last two notes are delivered in a slowly arpeggiated manner Audio example 4. Performance of multiple stops in J. It provides a good example of how these features combine to create differences within broadly similar interpretative approaches Table 4. Summary of modifications in the B minor Sarabande within the two essentially differing approaches.
Increasingly lighter bowing, less legato articulation and stronger pulse in J. Ehnes, Khachatryan, Perlman, Shumsky. Fast chords, soft and short lower notes can also be observed in many other versions, including some HIP, where the melody is foregrounded Matthews, Holloway, Barton Pine. But as one can hear in the Audio examples, there are many subtle variations within this general legato style. The gaps between the chords make the melody sound less legato while the fluctuation of the dynamics enhances the sense of pulse.
At times there seems to be a slight pushing forward of tempo; just moving on rather than speeding up. As we have seen earlier Audio example 4. As was noted earlier, she alternates the rhythm by adding dotting like Luca in her recording and delivers increasingly flexible, expressive, and ornamented versions in and Terraced dynamics was quite common, especially for repeats or between the A and B materials of binary form movements e.
Khachatryan in D minor Giga. Zehetmair also used terraced dynamics but for sections within the A and B parts of these movements. Fugues also tended to be structured through dynamics. Apart from large-scale crescendos, violinists, especially MSP musicians, quite commonly played episodes or certain fugal statements softer or louder than the surrounding material e. Shumsky, Kremer, Ehnes in the G minor Fuga. HIP players used less contrastive dynamics; their volume generally stayed within a narrower band than those of older MSP violinists. Dynamics could also reflect the thickness and register of the musical texture with higher or denser material tending to sound louder.
The prescribed terraced dynamics in movements such as the A minor Allegro, E Major Preludio, and the gigues were generally observed by all studied performers to a greater or lesser extent probably contributing to a potential sense of uniformity of interpretation in certain movements.
In his Harvard Lectures in he jibbed: The sin against the spirit of the work always starts with the sin against its letter and leads to the endless follies […] Thus it follows that a crescendo , as we all know, is always accompanied by a speeding up of movement, while a slowing down never fails to accompany a diminuendo.
The difference in affect is profound. The former may come across as sentimental, a pleading to and manipulation of emotions; or perhaps aggressive, forceful and demanding. The latter may strike as a genuine first-person story-telling, impassioned and authentic, or intimate and self-orientated. It does not force a reaction; it simply conveys a compelling account.
The readings of Shumsky, Poulet, Mintz, Perlman and Hahn, among others, exemplify the legato approach where cadence points are subdued into ever continuing melodic lines. Tempo is relatively steady but the dynamics definitely have an arching profile, gradually building with each subsequent sub-phrase to climactic high notes and dropping only towards major structural moments, like b.
In contrast, Wallfisch, Zehetmair, Huggett and others articulate almost every harmonic figuration and make audible many temporary cadence points Figure 4. In contrast, Wallfisch, Zehetmair and Huggett seem to relish the silences and create pauses even where there is none notated. In their reading, the four groups of semiquavers in bar 3 each has its own little dynamic and tempo arch and there is a little rallentando and pause on beat 3 of the next bar cadence marked with trill in the manuscript.
Typically they separate the sequential repetitions of bars and create another mini cadence on the down-beat of bar 6. The next sequential repetition bars is again separately articulated and the second statement is not linked to the four semiquavers on the second beat of bar 7. Comparison of tempo and power dynamics in bars of the Largo from the C Major Sonata performed by from top to bottom Wallfisch, Huggett, Zehetmair, Poulet and Shumsky.
Beat level tempo is indicated by the smoother line near bar and beat numbers. Power dynamic is indicated by the volatile slopes. Note the longer and clearer power arches in the bottom two panels as opposed to the near constant shifts in the more locally articulated versions above.
I used Sonic Visualiser to prepare this analysis. What is important to note, too, is that Wallfisch and others e. Ibragimova manage to keep the line going even though their articulation is very detailed and their phrasing locally nuanced. They manage to avoid the pitfall of creating a fragmented and over-accented reading that lacks flow.
Their over-legato approach geared towards a long-spun melody becomes most obvious from bar 4 onwards. One hears their performances as pushing ahead, using the momentum of the pairs of sequences. Continuously increasing intensity, vibrato and volume, they reach a climax on the high A of bar 7 where they slow down to emphasize the trilled cadence resolving on beat 1 of bar 8. They foster the perception of released tension by softening the dynamics. I wanted to see the degree of homogeneity present across these recordings and whether particular characteristics could be linked to time and place or violin school.
As this is the overarching aim of the entire book, I will draw only partial conclusions here. Additional information will come to light in the remaining chapters.
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Beyond this very broad generalization however, it was difficult to categorize players and performances. The overlap reflected generational differences: Investigation of tempo showed a greater alliance among HIP-inspired violinists with MSP customs in that they too tended to choose more extreme tempos than HIP violinists.
On the other hand, ornamentation proved to be a strong indicator of HIP influence, with several MSP players considerably outperforming their period specialist colleagues in embellishing and ornamenting many movements of the Six Solos, especially since the mids. The masking effect of articulation and tempo on the perception of dotting was re-confirmed; the complex and interdependent impact of bow-strokes, articulation and dynamic nuance together with its contribution to diverse aesthetic affect was repeatedly noted.
These are realistic scenarios for potentially different conclusions, but research into string quartet practice also seems to point towards diversity 77 and important variations have been noted among pianists performing nineteenth-century music. But in orchestral music I hear considerable differences between the interpretations of various conductors, like Simon Rattle, Claudio Abbado, Philippe Herreweghe or Nikolaus Harnoncourt, in repertoire as diverse as Berlioz, Mahler, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and Brahms.
The striking differences between two almost concurrently released recent versions of the Bach Solos Ibragimova and Faust, both recorded in should really make commentators rethink the validity of claiming uniformity in contemporary music performance. Whereas Ibragimova uses extreme tempos very fast allegros and rather languid slow movements , adds no embellishments, plays with no vibrato and fairly softly almost all the time, Faust provides a varied, energetic reading full of bounce and a multitude of ornaments and embellishments.
The expression implies that a performance or recording is supposed to be a representation of the work. The question then is: Or rather, to what extent readings must differ from each-other before one starts talking about homogeneity in performance? Only when we have many more detailed studies available of diverse repertoires, artists and periods shall we be in the position to answer these questions.
For now, it seems cautionary to note the variety and beauty that the studied violinists bring to their interpretations, deepening and broadening our understanding of these seminal pieces composed by Bach. To put it another way, analysis of individual interpretations seems more productive for an understanding of music as performance and creativity in performance, while establishing and examining trends maybe useful when thinking of music as culturally embedded communication. Conversations with Performers New York: Oxford University Press, , p.
Taruskin noted both the acceleration of tempo choices over time and some slower than historically documented tempos chosen by HIP performers, although in relation to orchestral or ensemble music Richard Taruskin, Text and Act: Essays on Music and Performance New York: Oxford University Press, , pp. From his discussions it transpires what other, less often cited writers also note, namely that some early twentieth-century musicians often chose much faster tempos than what we are accustomed to today.
Among the 55 versions of the E Major Preludio in my collection the fastest was recorded in The performer is nineteenth-century virtuoso Pablo Sarasate. Just how much faster than anybody else he plays is indicated by his Standard Deviation score: University of Toronto Press, Ashgate, , pp. Another issue is the perception of tempo. As Harnoncourt pointed out many years ago, well-articulated music will always sound faster. Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Baroque Music Today: Music as Speech Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press, , p.
Musik als Klangrede , trans. It is a measure of variance explained. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. I calculated a simple linear regression of tempo choices over time. It shows how much variation there is from the mean. Generally three standard deviations account for When SD is close to 0 this indicates that the data points are very close to the mean. In the current study negative values indicate a deviation slower than the mean score while positive values are faster than average. I did not include a tabulation of SD values here but the information can be provided upon requests. Indiana University Press, The tempo of dance movements are discussed in many recent books on baroque music, including David Ledbetter, Unaccompanied Bach: Performing the Solo Works New Haven: Yale University Press,
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