List of ships of the line of France - Wikipedia
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Under this new system, French major warships were from divided into five ranks or "Rangs"; ships of the line vaisseaux were divided into the highest three ranks. The original rating system was thoroughly reformed under Colbert 's administration two years later, on 24 June , and the overwhelming majority of French warships underwent name changes at that date; vessels are listed below under their original name at time of launching or acquisition, even if they subsequently were better known by the name they were given later. From , the First Rank could be categorised as ships of the line carrying more than 70 carriage guns although other factors also played a part in determining what Rank a ship was given ; in this was limit was effectively risen to ships carrying 80 or more guns.
The largest and most heavily armed First Rank ships, effectively those carrying carriage guns or more, were placed in a sub-category of Vaisseaux de Premier Rang Extraordinaire. Only a few of these were built, but they always provided the flagships of the two Fleets - the Flotte du Levant on the Mediterranean coast of France and the Flotte du Ponant on the Atlantic and Channel coasts. They were all full three-deckers , i. While the smaller First Rank ships also had three full-length gun decks, the uppermost of these before generally carried carriage guns only on the forward section and on the after section of that deck, with a section between them in the waist of the ship where no guns were mounted and no gunports fitted.
These ships had no forecastle or poop, so that the two sections of the upper gun deck served the function of forecastle and quarterdeck, while the nominal quarterdeck was short and served in effect the function of a poop. All First Rank ships built from until had three full-length gun decks, usually plus a number of smaller carriage guns mounted on the gaillards i. Some of the earlier ships built before received extra guns and gunports fitted in the waist section of their upper deck around , to bring them up to 80 guns or more.
Before , the Second Rank consisted of ships of the line carrying from 50 up to 64 carriage guns although there were exceptions ; from this comprised ships of between 62 and 68 guns; in this was comprised ships carrying from 64 to 76 guns again with exceptions , and by even gun ships had been reduced to the Third Rate. Most Second Rank ships were two-decked vessels, i. From , the Third Rank was defined as ships of the line carrying from 40 up to 50 carriage guns; in this was redefined as ships carrying from 48 to 60 guns. Initially during the first part of Louis XIV's reign these were designed and constructed as three-decked ships without forecastles and with minimal quarterdecks, although their upper decks were divided at the waist by an unarmed section of deck; but from about it was ruled that ships with fewer than 70 guns should not be built with three decks, so all subsequent Third Rank ships were two-decked vessels, i.
During the first decade of the 18th century, the remaining Second Rank ships with 64 or fewer guns were down-graded without change of armament to Third Rank. From , this was redefined as vessels armed with from 36 to 46 guns, and those vessels with fewer than 36 guns were re-classed as Fifth Rank ships; in this was revised again to include only two-decked ships with from 40 to 46 guns. While the five Rangs theoretically remained in existence, the construction by had crystallised around a number of distinct types, based on the number of carriage guns which they each carried.
Only four three-decker ships were completed during this reign of nearly sixty years; a fifth was destroyed before completion.
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Decorations intended for Royal Louis Model of the fictitious ship Sans Pareil that defined the type of Royal Louis Ville de Paris in Rochefort, Scale model of Bretagne , on display at Brest naval museum. Large two-deckers, with a weight of broadside equal to the three-deckers of Louis XIV's period, served usually as fleet flagships. These formed overwhelmingly the core of the French battlefleet throughout the 18th century.
Initially these carried just 26 guns - all pounders - in their first lower deck battery and 28 guns in their second upper deck battery, with 16 guns on the gaillards quarterdeck and forecastle - the total of 74 guns being achieved by having 4 small guns 4-pounders on the 'dunette' poop ; this applied to twelve of the first thirteen vessels listed below. The exception in this group was the gun Aimable , which - while having the same number of ports except for the poop, where the 4-pounder guns on other ships were never included - had only pounders in its first lower deck battery.
The 4-pounders were removed from the poop of all active units of this type by about , reducing each to a gun ship. From the Terrible of onwards, the lengthened hulls of new ships meant that they could mount an extra pair of guns on the lower deck and another extra pair on the upper deck; the 4 small guns on the dunette were henceforth abolished. The consequent armament of 28 guns pounders in their lower deck battery and 30 guns pounders in their upper deck battery, with 16 guns on the gaillards , thus became the standard for the next 75 years.
List of ships of the line of France
Note that the Destin and Fendant are included here as they were begun under Louis XV's reign, althoughh neither was launched until after The 60 or 62 later 64 gun ship built from onwards continued the practice of similarly-armed vessels built in the first decade of the century. They were two-deckers with a "first tier" or lower deck battery of twenty-four pounder guns and a "second tier" upper deck battery of twenty-six pounder guns, supplemented by between ten and fourteen 6-pounder guns mounted on the gaillards forecastle and quarterdeck.
Subsequent 64s managed to fit in a fourteenth pair of pounder guns on the upper deck as well, with the number of 6-pounder guns on the quarterdeck reduced to six and still with four 6-pounders on the forecastle. Four further ships were begun before , but were launched in Louis XIV's reign see section below.
Typically each carried 30 x 36pdr guns on the lower deck, 32 x 24pdr guns on the middle deck, 32 x 12pdr guns on the upper deck, and 16 x 8pdr guns on the gaillards , although this armament varied from time to time. Drawing by Pierre Ozanne. Colour engraving of Terrible , 18th century. Each carried 32 x 36pdr guns on the lower deck, 34 x 24pdr guns on the middle deck, 34 x 12pdr guns on the upper deck, and 18 x 8pdr guns on the gaillards.
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Orient , ex- Dauphin-Royal , exploding at the Battle of the Nile. Two ships which were begun before were completed later; see ' Fendant and Destin under — section above. Magnanime class onwards — Designed by Jean-Denis Chevillard.
The first 31 of these, launched before the execution of Louis XVI: The period was divided into the Convention until 26 October , during which effective power was exercised by the Committee of Public Safety , the Directory until 9 November the Directorate was a "Cabinet" of five members ,and finally the Consulate until the proclamation of the Empire on 18 May Dauphin Royal class continued. Formidable in the Action of 13 July Capture of the Guillaume Tell , by Robert Dodd. Franklin as HMS Canopus.
Painting by Michel Bouquet, on display at Brest Fine arts museum. The Empire was briefly restored during the Hundred Days from 20 March to 22 June ; this section of the article includes all ships of the line launched from May to June Montebello photographed around Portrait of Commerce de Paris under construction, by Antoine Roux. This group comprised two small three-deckers built at Rotterdam from for the Batavian Navy , and annexed to France when the Dutch state was absorbed by the French Empire in Both were reclassed as gun ships in April Bucentaure at the Battle of Trafalgar , detail of a painting by Auguste Mayer.
Leftmost ship in the foreground is Neptune , shown alongside the French Redoutable.
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Portrait of Robuste , by Antoine Roux. Launching of Friedland , by Mattheus Ignatius van Bree.
Recruit fighting Hautpoult on 15 April The Battle of Navarino on 20 October ; Scipion is shown in the centre, entangled with a fireship.
Related Combat de Navarin (1842) (French Edition)
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