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Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants. Around Johann Bernhard Bach , Johann Sebastian's second cousin, copied 12 of the concerto transcriptions in a single manuscript. The sequence of the concertos in this manuscript is possibly as intended by the composer. For the organ transcriptions there is no known sequence that may go back to Bach's time. Wilhelm Friedemann Bach later wrote on this manuscript that it was one of his own compositions, copied by his father.
In the 20th century the assertion by the son was shown to be incorrect, and the transcription was attributed to the father. The publication of these transcriptions by C.
Bach, J S: Keyboard Concerto in C major (after Vivaldi), BWV (page 1 of 1) | Presto Sheet Music
Peters in the s and by the Bach Gesellschaft in the s played a decisive role in the Vivaldi revival of the twentieth century. Bach's concerto transcriptions reflect not only his general interest in and assimilation of musical forms originating in Italy, in particular the concertos of his Venetian contemporary Antonio Vivaldi , but also the particular circumstances of his second period of employment — at the court in Weimar.
Wilhelm Ernst's Lutheran piety contrasted with his younger brother's alcoholism. On Johann Ernst's death in , he was succeeded as coregent by his elder son Ernst August , who lived with his younger stepbrother, Prince Johann Ernst , outside the ducal Wilhelmsburg in the Rotes Schloss.
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A talented amateur musician, from an early age Prince Johann Ernst had been taught the violin by the court violinist Gregor Christoph Eilenstein. Johann Ernst studied the keyboard with Bach's distant cousin Johann Gottfried Walther , after he became organist at the Stadtkirche in Weimar in The following year, when Bach himself was appointed as organist in Weimar in the ducal chapel or Himmelsburg , he not only had at his disposal the recently renovated chapel organ but also the organ in the Stadtkirche.
In the Wilhelmsburg , Wilhelm Ernst had already revived the court orchestra, of which Bach eventually became Concertmaster in As well as music-making in the Wilhelmsburg , Bach was almost certainly involved in the parallel more secular musical events in the Rotes Schloss organised by August Ernst and Johann Ernst. Harpsichords were available to Bach at both venues.
After the death of their father in , Wilhelm Ernst and his younger brother Johann Ernst had become the co-ruling Dukes of Saxe-Weimar. In Bach had served for a few months as a violinist in Johann Ernst's orchestra. When Johann Ernst died in he left two sons: By that time Duke Wilhelm Ernst had become, all but in name, the only ruler of the Duchy. In Bach applied before the Duke, and entered into service as organist and chamber musician, on the expense of both the Wilhelmsburg and Rotes Schloss courts.
Weimar concerto transcriptions (Bach)
He tutored Ernst August, who, on attaining majority in , became the co-ruling Duke. His half-brother had even more musical talents: Bach's cousin Johann Gottfried Walther , who had become organist at Weimar's town church in , taught the Prince keyboard, and, from , composition. The first documented evidence of Bach's engagement with the concerto genre can be dated to around , during his second period in Weimar, when he made a hand copy of the continuo part of Albinoni's Sinfonie e concerti a 5 , Op.
Earlier compositions had been brought back to Weimar from Italy by the deputy Capellmeister , Johann Wilhelm Drese , during his stay there in — In the virtuoso violinist Johann Georg Pisendel visited Weimar: G2, of Georg Philipp Telemann , a work that he might have acquired through Pisendel. Bach would also have known Telemann well then since he was court musician at Eisenach , Bach's birthplace. Telemann also had a documented social connection with Bach: A keen amateur violinist, he is likely to have brought or sent back concerto scores from Amsterdam , probably including the collection L'estro armonico , Op.
Once back in Weimar, he studied composition with Walther, concentrating on the violin concerto. In July , however, poor health forced him to leave Weimar to seek medical treatment in Bad Schwalbach: A number of his concertos were published posthumously by Telemann. Johann Ernst's enthusiasm for the concerto fitted well with Bach's own interests.
Although Bach served as Concertmaster in Weimar from —, when he is presumed to have composed his own instrumental concertos, the only surviving works in Italian concerto-form from this period are his transcriptions of works by other composers. At the same time, Bach's cousin Walther also made a series of organ transcriptions of Italian concertos: Bach and Walther arranged different sets of concertos: Bach favoured the more recent ritornello form, less prevalent in the earlier concertos transcribed by Walther. Schulze has given the following explanation for the transcriptions: Since the court concerts gave Bach an opportunity to know the works in their original form, the transcriptions are not so much study-works as practical versions and virtuoso 'commissioned' music.
Schulze has further suggested that during his two-year period studying in the Netherlands, Prince Johann Ernst is likely to have attended the popular concerts in the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam where the blind organist Jan Jakob de Graaf performed his own transcriptions of the most recent Italian concertos. It is possible that this could have led to Johann Ernst to suggest similar concerto transcriptions to Bach and Walther. Asking for permission to stay longer in Weimar, he states that Prince Johann Ernst,.
I know too that when the new organ in Weimar is ready, Herr Bach will play incomparable things on it, especially at first Commentators have found Schulze's arguments persuasive, but nevertheless point out that not all the transcriptions need have been made in the period from July to July when the Prince was back in Weimar.
While this could be true for the simpler harpsichord transcriptions, some of the more virtuosic organ transcriptions could date from later, possible composed as a memorial to the prince, after his untimely death. The Nekrolog contains the famous statement about the Duke, Wilhelm Ernst, encouraging Bach as an organist-composer, quoted at the start of this section.
- Keyboard Concerto in C Major, BWV 977: Sarabande (arr. J.V.A. Guillou).
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In the often quoted passage from his biography, Forkel wrote The translation in the text follows Terry's translation with some slight modifications: Lacking any instruction to point him towards his goal, he had to do what he could in his own way, like others who set out without a guide. Most beginning composers let their fingers run riot up and down the keyboard, snatching handfuls of notes, assaulting the instrument in an undisciplined way Such composers can only be "finger composers" or "keyboard cavaliers" as Bach called them later on in his life: Bach abandoned that method of composition when he observed that brilliant flourishes lead nowhere.
He realised that musical ideas need to be subordinated to a plan and that a young composer's first need is a model to guide his efforts. Vivaldi's violin concertos, which had just been published, gave him the guidance he needed.
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