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The serial's DVD release features a reconstruction of the original episodes, directed by Ian Levine. The production rebuilds the deleted scenes using CGI, footage from elsewhere in the serial, and re-recorded dialogue from Carole Ann Ford, William Russell, and actors impersonating the rest of the cast. In the years since the BBC archive was first audited in , a number of episodes then absent have been returned from various sources. These film-originated masters were stored in the Film Library, rather than in the Engineering Department with the videotapes.
The Film Library also held high-quality original film sequences made for insertion into videotaped episodes. Following the establishment of the Film and Videotape Library, an audit of the Engineering Department found 60 of the Third Doctor episodes starring Jon Pertwee , which in addition to the Film Library's copies of the film-originated Spearhead from Space , brought that Doctor's episode count up to 64 out of In , Ian Levine located another 65 episodes from the show's first six seasons plus fourteen previously existing episodes , at the BBC Enterprises film vault at Villiers House in London.
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The episodes comprise 17 full serials, mostly from seasons 1 and 2. According to Levine, many of the prints were flagged to be junked that very day. Death to the Daleks and Invasion of the Dinosaurs , Episodes 1. In August , ten years after Levine's and Malden's visits, Episodes 1 and 4—6 of the six-part story The Ice Warriors , were discovered in a cupboard at Villiers House when the Corporation was in the process of moving out of the building. Shortly after the junking process was halted and the BBC established its Film and Videotape Library for the purpose of storage and preservation, archive selector Sue Malden began to audit what material remained in the BBC's stores.
Episodes 4 and 5 of The Dominators originated from a foreign broadcaster, and had been slightly edited; the missing footage was restored later, through a mix of censor clips and more complete prints held by private collectors. An appeal to broadcasters in other countries who had shown the programme notably Australia and African nations such as Nigeria produced "lost" episodes from the archives of their television companies.
Nigerian television has been a particularly fruitful source for episode recovery; a total of 15 out of the 50 episodes recovered since have been reclaimed from Nigeria, leading to the completion of three full serials The Time Meddler , The War Machines , and The Enemy of the World. In late , copies of all 4 episodes of The War Machines and all 4 episodes of The Time Meddler two of which previously existing, The War Machines episode 2 which was already found from Australia in and The Time Meddler episode 2 which was retained in the BBC Film and Videotape Library from a television relay station in the city of Jos , Nigeria , this completing both serials.
They were duly returned in early , Episodes 2, 3 and 4 of The War Machines and all 4 episodes of The Time Meddler all had cuts to their film. Episodes 1, 2 and 3 of The Time Meddler were completely restored with the other copy of episode 2 which was complete and complete copies of episodes 1 and 3 that were later returned in while Episodes 2, 3 and 4 of The War Machines were mostly restored due to a combination of the other and complete copy of episode 2, material used in a promotional item on the BBC's Blue Peter and censored clips from Australia where the films were originally aired from.
Some of the restored footage did not have its accompanying soundtrack, and so the missing sound was restored from the off-air recordings. This leaves episodes 3 and 4 of The War Machines and episode 4 of The Time Meddler incomplete, although the DVD release restored the episodes to their original length by using footage from the other episodes. They were duly returned early in and the recovery was formally announced in July of that year.
Cyprus did not screen The Reign of Terror broadcasts ended with the showing of episode six of The Sensorites on 25 November As a result of these episode recoveries only two episodes parts 4 and 5, "The Tyrant of France" and "A Bargain of Necessity" remain missing; although copies of these episodes had also been held in Cyprus, they were destroyed in the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
The Tomb of the Cybermen was prepared for release in early on cassette as part of the "Missing Stories" collection, with narration by Jon Pertwee. Then in late , telerecordings of all four episodes were returned to the BBC from the Hong Kong -based Rediffusion company. Between and , the serial was believed to be the only complete story from Season 5 and the only complete serial to feature Deborah Watling before the complete run of The Enemy of the World was returned from Nigeria in Following months of rumours,    in October a BBC press conference announced the return of 11 episodes two of which previously existing from a television relay station in the city of Jos , Nigeria.
The return of the nine missing episodes was the single largest recovery of Doctor Who episodes in 25 years,  resulting in only the second full serial from Troughton's first two seasons to be restored to the BBC. Both serials were promptly released on iTunes, with DVD releases following over the next few months. Episode 3 had been part of the same find, but by the end of protracted negotiations for the return of the film cans, the episode had disappeared from the cache, with the presumption that it was sold to a private collector.
Roger Stevens was working for the BBC as a film editor in the s, and one morning, as he was travelling to work by train, he bumped into a BBC co-worker and they began to talk about Doctor Who episodes. The Reign of Terror was recovered by Bruce Campbell when he attended a film fair in the s and began chatting to a stall holder who informed him that one of his regular customers had in their possession The Reign of Terror episode six.
In , a cinema owner in Brighton persuaded Hendry to lend him the films, so as to screen the episodes for profit while the Panopticon VI convention was being held in the town. Saied Marham, an associate of Hendry's, visited Panopticon to generate interest in the showing, only to be dismissed as a hoaxster, and the screening did not go ahead. So Marham kept the films to himself. After the event, Paul Vanezis spent 15 months attempting to retrieve the episodes from Marham. Eventually, in , after Vanezis got the episodes back from Matham, a charity fundraising convention called Tellycon aired The Faceless Ones , episode 3, in tribute to the recently deceased Patrick Troughton.
Although the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation received copies of The Crusade , it never broadcast the story due to a prohibitive rating from the censor board. In the mids, former ITV engineer Terry Burnett purchased episode 3 of Galaxy 4 and episode 2 of The Underwater Menace from another collector, unaware of their value the only extant episode of the former serial, and one of just two from the latter. The Daleks' Master Plan never was sold abroad;  only Australia requested viewing copies excepting Episode 7, " The Feast of Steven " , and eventually declined to purchase the serial.
Nevertheless, three out of the serial's twelve episodes have been recovered. He had come across the film in the s, while clearing a projector testing room at the BBC's Ealing Studios. Instead of disposing of the film as instructed, he brought it home — eventually to return it to the Corporation when he realised the value of the material. Of the 50 recovered episodes, several are missing short segments — due either to overseas censorship or to damage to the surviving film print. The following table shows all affected episodes, and the total duration of missing material.
Of the 97 missing episodes, 36 are represented by short "orphan" clips, recovered from various sources. These clips span 17 of the 26 serials affected by missing episodes, 7 of which are otherwise completely missing. The following table shows all recovered excerpts, together with which pertinent episodes, format of the clips, and the source of recovery. Some overseas viewing prints were physically edited for content by local censor boards, before transmission for reasons such as excessive violence, fright-inducing material, and, in some cases, the conservative personal views of the censors.
Hence, episodes recovered from these sources Australia, New Zealand are missing these segments. Later discoveries turned up a large number of excised clips, held by interested parties as proof of the edits. The clips from The Underwater Menace , episode 2 were later found to precisely match the edits to the print discovered in late , suggesting that the recovered episode was exactly the same print that had been censored decades before.
In an interview for the fanzine The Disused Yeti , Shanahan stated that although he and Parry had found paper records relating to the censoring of early to mid William Hartnell stories, the excised portions for all stories from An Unearthly Child to The Gunfighters had been destroyed some time before Shanahan and Parry's investigation. A fan in Australia has returned small excerpts of off-screen footage, recorded from repeat showings using an 8mm cine film camera.
Due to the show's habit of repeating cliffhanger footage, sometimes missing episode material can be found in surviving neighbor episodes. Episode 2 of The Daleks uses a prefilmed reprise from the original recording of Episode 1, which later had to be remounted; the original version of Episode 1 is presumed to have been destroyed. Episode 1 of the latter serial begins with the characters in period costume, briefly frozen in place. An off-camera cough heard on both soundtracks shows that the clip was a filmed insert from the previous and currently missing episode.
In its lead-in to an upcoming repeat, The Wheel in Space episode 6 contains a short three-frame clip from The Evil of the Daleks episode 1, alongside a reprise from the existing episode 2 of that serial. Other episodes contain straight excerpts from earlier serials, such as episode 10 of The War Games , which employs model shots from the first episodes of Fury from the Deep , The Web of Fear and The Wheel in Space.
Clips from some missing episodes also survive due to their use in other surviving programmes. The clips, lasting less than 10 seconds each and on film as opposed to film recordings , came to light when the Tomorrow's World segment was broadcast as part of the 11 September edition of the clip-based nostalgia show Sunday Past Times on BBC Two. The documentary Whose Doctor Who indirectly led to a lengthy excerpt from "Four Hundred Dawns", episode 1 of the serial Galaxy 4.
The film's producers used an excerpt from a viewing print of the episode, which they further cut down in the editing. Rather than discard the unused portion, the film's advisor Jan Vincent-Rudzki asked to keep the film trims. Later in the s, Vincent-Rudzki returned the clip to the archives. Also from the latter serial exists some raw footage from the filming of Episode 6, featuring some alternate camera angles from what was eventually broadcast.
Although numerous episodes are still missing, full-length audio soundtracks for all missing episodes are held by the BBC. In November , Jon Pertwee recorded link narration for a planned spring cassette release of the then missing serial The Tomb of the Cybermen. With the serial no longer being lost, the cassette release of the soundtrack was then delayed for a year until mid , and then released due to contractual obligations. The two coffee bar scenes from Episode 1 of The Evil of the Daleks had to be removed due to songs by The Seekers and The Beatles playing in the background. The following year in the summer of , Tom Baker did first person link narration as the 4th Doctor recalling earlier adventures for the cassette releases of The Power of the Daleks and Fury from the Deep , a style which he also did when narrating the never recorded bits on the VHS release of Shada.
This first person style of link narration was in complete contrast to his previous narration on The Evil of the Daleks cassette release, which had been done in the third person as Tom Baker. In , The Macra Terror was re-released as part of the Collections 4 boxset, and included new more detailed linking narration by Anneke Wills. On the CDs, there are also some slight pauses and slightly rejigged sequences for reasons of clarity, and with overdubbed linking narration.
The Lost TV Episodes". For the first eleven seasons of Doctor Who , often the surviving materials are in a very different format or condition from their original broadcast masters. Surviving s material is recorded on film stock of varying quality, while early s material is available in a patchwork of professional and consumer formats. To present the material in a form approximating its original broadcast masters requires extensive technical work, and a certain amount of invention. In its original form, the videotape used to record Doctor Who captures images at 50 interlaced fields per second, resulting in a smooth, "live" feel to motion.
To transfer the episodes to film, the film camera is timed to combine two video fields in each frame, converting 50 fields to 25 frames per second; on playback, the omission of in-between images results in a choppier "film" style motion. To recreate the original "live" video feel, early telerecorded episodes are processed through a digital tool known as VidFIRE , which approximates the missing motion between film frames. In addition to the telerecorded material, some early s material survives only, or in colour only, on NTSC videotapes produced for North American transmission e.
The conversion process used in the s was primitive by modern standards, resulting in a noticeable amount of picture and motion loss. To rectify the problem, in a new Reverse Standards Conversion process, which attempts to unpick the original video conversion, was introduced for the DVD release of The Claws of Axos. Several early s colour serials, starring Jon Pertwee, were retained only as black-and-white film prints. In addition to the motion issue shared by all telerecorded episodes, for years the loss of colour presented a major challenge for restoration. Some of the telerecorded Pertwee episodes also survive on NTSC colour videotapes, recorded over-air on consumer hardware.
In the early s, an early form of the Doctor Who Restoration Team attempted to pair the low-resolution colour signal from these sources with the high-resolution black-and-white signal from the black-and-white film recordings. In , BBC archive specialist James Insell established the Colour Recovery Working Group,  an online project to find new ways of restoring black-and-white telerecordings to colour.
In , Reverse Standards Conversion inventor Richard Russell , developed a technique involving the use of chroma dots embedded in the black-and-white signal to recreate the missing color. This technique was initially used as part of the recolouring process on episode 3 of Planet of the Daleks ; the chroma dot process was used alongside a computer-based colourisation process to match together the differing qualities of colour recovery. Subsequently, chroma dots were used to restore the colour to Episodes 2—4, 6, and 7 of The Ambassadors of Death and episodes 2—6 of The Mind of Evil.
Episode 1 of Invasion of the Dinosaurs presented a unique challenge, in that the chroma dots only contained red and green colour filter information, requiring that the blue filter to be added manually. Given the rough result, the DVD includes both the reconstructed colour and the black-and-white version.
Unfortunately, episode 1 of The Mind of Evil contains no colour information. In principle, BBC engineers were supposed to filter out the chroma dots upon telerecording, to create a cleaner and nicer picture. In most cases they failed to do so properly, allowing the colour recovery process to work. For this one episode, the filter had been correctly applied — so there was no colour to recover. To complete the serial for DVD, the episode was manually colourised by Stuart Humphryes and Peter Crocker  — thereby returning the final Pertwee episode to its original colour presentation.
From the s to the s, Cura was hired by various interested parties to document the transmission of many popular TV programmes, including Doctor Who. In many cases, they form the only remaining visual record of missing television programmes. Since the late s, fan groups such as Loose Cannon Productions have reconstructed the missing episodes, using original camera scripts to match Cura's tele-snaps and other visual material to the surviving audio tracks. When played on a home PC, the disc contained the same audio content as the previous audio CD release, synchronized with a Macromedia Flash slideshow of tele-snaps and publicity photographs.
For technical reasons, the surviving clips could not be included. Due to poor sales, future planned releases in this format were abandoned. In several cases, producers of the Doctor Who DVD range have commissioned original black-and-white animation, synced to the programme's original audio tracks.
Early commissions served to "complete" serials with only one or two missing episodes, allowing the full serials to be sold as a commercial product. The first such effort, Cosgrove Hall's animation of The Invasion episodes 1 and 4, was released to DVD alongside the surviving episodes in November Despite the DVD's success, the sales were not high enough to offset the animation cost for any future collaboration. In June , 2 Entertain announced that the missing episodes 4 and 5 of The Reign of Terror would be animated by Planet 55 Studios, using the "Thetamation" process.
In December , 2 Entertain commissioning editor Dan Hall mentioned that Planet 55 had again been commissioned to complete The Underwater Menace , for what he hoped would be an early release. In September it was announced that the completely missing serial The Power of the Daleks would be animated and released via the BBC Store on 5 November , the 50th anniversary of the serial's first broadcast, before it was released on DVD 21 November  and Blu-ray 6 February In , after future collaboration with Cosgrove Hall had been rejected due to expense, 2 Entertain was approached by David Busch of US animation studio Titmouse, Inc.
The episode chosen was " Mission to the Unknown ", as it was a self-contained episode featuring the Daleks with a limited number of characters and sets, thus keeping the budget down. With the advent of ever-more-powerful home computers and more specialist programs for them, many fans are also working on unofficial animations of the missing episodes, and this is widespread with many clips being shown on-line. From to , five audio box sets were released by BBC Audiobooks. The sets collected the full, unaltered soundtracks to the Doctor Who stories which did not exist in video form up to that point.
A small number of the episodes included linked narration, and all of the five sets contained exclusive interviews with former cast members. The first collection was released on 5 August and the fifth was released on 1 August BBC Audiobooks—which later became AudioGo—went into administration in and ceased production officially in In some cases missing episodes are bridged by narration to the camera — often by a surviving actor from the serial, occasionally in-character. Although the BBC has invested in the reconstruction of episodes using animation, it has never attempted to do anything in the way of complete re-staging of missing episodes; the closest that it has come to this was the recreation of parts of various serials, including the completely missing Marco Polo , in the docudrama An Adventure in Space and Time produced for the 50th anniversary in Reimagined convention in September Between and , each missing Doctor Who serial was novelized and published by Target Books.
Doctor Who's Missing Episodes Telos Publishing , explores in detail the paper trail and recovery efforts surrounding the hunt for missing episodes. A revised edition was published in March From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. BBC portal Doctor Who portal. Copies of episodes 4 and 5 were also held by PIK , but were destroyed during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in Unedited copies of Episodes 1 and 3 were later returned to the BBC in Only the copy Episode 1 was found unedited, Episodes 3 and 4 were edited.
It is unclear if this is an error, a different copy, or if the can was misplaced at the time of the audit and subsequently rediscovered. Additionally, a copy of episode 3 was also part of this cache, but subsequently disappeared before being returned to the BBC. Both copies were high quality 2-inch colour videotape. Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 14 October The Handbook—The Second Doctor. International Federation of Television Archives. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 14 May Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 24 April BBC Doctor Who news.
Archived from the original on 4 December Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 12 May Archived from the original on 12 December Retrieved 13 December Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 8 October A Brief History of Time Travel. Retrieved 11 October We saw how being a candidate can be deadly, found a new way to reunite with the dead, and discovered a new meaning for the phrase "Man in Black. For those who still don't regret the last six years, "Lost: It Only Ends Once" takes one final look at the end, and all that came after.
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