The First Assassin


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John "Jack" Rackham — , more commonly known as Calico Jack , was a Jamaican-born British pirate who operated in the West Indies during the early 18th century. He was the captain of a schooner called the Royal Phoenix, prior to her destruction in At some point, Rackham began serving as quartermaster under Charles Vane, though he grew to loathe his fellow pirate's hot temper and violent nature over the years. Supported by his crewmates, Rackham seized command in November , deposing Vane as captain and setting him, along with Edward Kenway, adrift in a damaged sloop.

To the frustration of his crew, Rackham possessed limited aspirations as a pirate captain, and soon returned to Nassau to accept the King's pardon. There, he entered into a relationship with barmaid Anne Bonny, who convinced him to return to his previous life in August Together with Mary Read, the duo escaped Nassau and plundered and pillaged for a few months, before being arrested by the British authorities.

Tried and convicted of piracy, Rackham was executed in Port Royal on 18 November He appears in Assassin's Creed IV: Despite his infamy, he was often nicknamed "The Gentleman Pirate", due in part to the fact that he was a moderately wealthy landowner prior to turning to piracy, owning a profitable sugar plantation in Barbados. Despite his contrasting upbringing, Stede became a likeable associate of several well-known pirates based in the Caribbean, including Edward Kenway, Edward Thatch, Benjamin Hornigold and Mary Read.

Woodes Rogers voiced by Shaun Dingwall c. He turned into a Templar with the desire of wanting justice from the Assassins for the deaths of thousands of innocents in the Lisbon earthquake , and is responsible for exterminating the Colonial Brotherhood during the Seven Years' War and the murder of Arno Dorian 's father, which would later be one of the causes of making him an Assassin. He appears as the protagonist of Assassin's Creed Rogue.

Shay's grandson, Cudgel Cormac, appeared is a professional Assassin hunter who continued his grandfather's legacy in protecting the Templar cause. He first appeared as a faceless playable character in Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood 's and Assassin's Creed: Revelations ' multiplayer modes before being fully realized and seen in Assassin's Creed Rogue. A former member of the Finnish Special Forces-turned-mercenary, Berg was approached by Warren Vidic in to join Abstergo, who in return will provide cystic fibrosis treatment for his daughter. By , Berg had risen to the rank of Master Templar, and became the leader of Abstergo's elite commando unit, 'Sigma Team'.

She oversees the genetic research of Shay Cormac's memories during Assassin's Creed Rogue , guiding the researcher and inviting them to join the Templar Order at the game's conclusion. Distracted by Otso and the rest of Sigma Team, they were unable to stop Violet escaping with the Shroud. Violet is later revealed to be a member of the Instruments of the First Will, a human cult devoted to Juno in the 21st century.

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During the Seven Years' War , he assisted the Templars and the British during their campaigns against the French and the Assassins, despite not knowing the true existence of the two orders due to his strict honesty which the Templars decided not to induct him or even tell him about their existence. Lawrence Washington was a sailor of the Royal Navy and high-ranking member of the Templar Order as well as being the older brother of George Washington.

When his brother, George, contracted smallpox, he sailed with him to Barbados in finding a cure as well as finding a First Civilization Temple where an artifact may be found. At the same time, the Assassin Vendredi disturbed the artifact, setting off the Port-au-Prince earthquake and Washington killed him while trying to escape. While returning to the colonies, he built Mount Vernon in memory of his officer, Edward Vernon , and contracted tuberculosis. Just before his death during a garden party, he told his Templar associates Samuel Smith, James Wardrop and Jack Weeks, to keep George out of the Templar cause as he had nothing to do with the order.

Just as he was talking to his guests, he was killed by the Assassin, Shay Cormac, who was ashamed of murdering him since he was already dying which would later be one of the causes of his eventual defection to the Templars and the destruction of the Colonial Assassins. Before the Seven Years' War, he could be considered as Shay Cormac's rival and the two had an instant dislike to each other when Cormac was introduced into the Assassins and was the best sailor of the Colonial Assassins.

He assisted Cormac and his friend, Liam O'Brien in freeing smugglers who were assets of the Brotherhood, though he and Cormac engaged in a fistfight for being late. Later, he chose to become a decoy in order to prevent Shay and the Templars from stopping Achilles and Liam from reaching the Arctic Temple. Though he and his fleet ambushed the Templars in a snowstorm, he met his death at the hands of the now-Templar Shay by throwing him under the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. He rescued Shay Cormac after he betrayed the Assassins and asked for his help in purging Assassin-allied gangs who terrorized New York.

He assisted Cormac in various activities until the latter rescued him and his troops from an ambush by French-allied Indians led by the Assassin Kessegowaase, one of Shay's former tutors, at the aftermath of the Siege of Fort William Henry. Arno Victor Dorian b. In a memory Arno had experienced after drinking an unknown substance requested by the Assassin Council, he witnessed his father being assassinated, possibly by another hooded Assassin.

He falls in love with her. He found his father dead, and treasures the last thing of his father—a gold pocket watch. He was performed by Dan Jeannotte. After her father's death she partially blames Arno as he had not delivered the anonymous warning of the assassination, parting ways on bitter terms. He later continued helping her find Germain, the Templar Sage who wanted to rebuild the Templar Order.

Germain came to see de la Serre as a complacent Grand Master who had forgotten the Templars' true goals, and had him killed in as part of a coup within the Order. Pierre Bellec Voiced by Anthony Lemke c. Arno Victor Dorian was his student. Victor and his brother Hugo were two blacksmiths living in Versailles during the late 18th century. Hugo mentioned to Arno the reason for his and Victor's imprisonment was stealing a loaf of bread. He forced the beggars of the district to pay him tributes, and to do so they had to pretend to be sick so the rich people would pity them.

He tried to join the templars under the command of Francois de la Serre, but De la Serre rejected him and le Roi vowed to kill him. He was the one to murder De la Serre during the coup, and was assassinated by Arno Dorian two years later. Aloys la Touche was the right-hand man and enforcer of Le Roi des Thunes, tasked with collecting the tributes from the beggars and punishing the ones who couldn't pay. He was assassinated by Arno during an execution mass in She was a templar and a supporter of Germain, aiding him in the coup against De la Serre.

After Germain took over, she was tasked by him to make the people starve, to make the revolution more violent and brutal. Her plans were discovered by Arno Dorian, who assassinated her during a lavish party in He was a leading figure in the Tenth of August and in the September Massacres, where he was assassinate by Arno Dorian. During the revolution, Lessard was bloodthirsty and hungry for revenge against Tussaud, and sent his men to slay her.


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Tussaud escaped however, and sent Arno Dorian to eliminate Lessard, and the Assassin successfully carried out the task. Denis Molinier was a French alchemist and member of the French Templars, tasked with finding Nicolas Flamel 's laboratory. Arno Dorian collaborated to find the lab before Molinier, and stole one of the mechanisms which opened Flamel's lab from Molinier.

It is unknown what happened to him afterwards, either slain in the Revolution, killed by his superiors for his failure or survived safely. He is based on the real life Denis Molinier, who lived from — He also became the new Roi des Thunes, after the former bearer of the title was assassinated by Arno Dorian in He had been held prisoner in the Bastille for several years, but was transferred to another prison shortly before angry Parisians stormed the stronghold. He appears in Assassin's Creed Unity. After experiencing visions of the First Civilization and reading the Codex Pater Intellectus, he took it upon himself to reform the Order, which he believed had grown corrupt after aligning itself with the aristocracy for centuries.

Inspired by Grand Master Jacques de Molay, Germain sought to carry out the "Great Work" and create a capitalist society in which the Templars could more easily control the populace. Germain eventually began turning de la Serre's advisors to his cause, forming a radical faction within the Templar Order. In , he had de la Serre assassinated in the Palace of Versailles, leaving most of the Order under his control. As the French Revolution broke out, Germain and his followers exploited discontent with the monarchy and sought to create as much chaos as possible.

In this way, the aristocracy and clergy would be crushed and the populace would fear the idea of rising against the establishment again.

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Under the Templar Maximilien de Robespierre, the Reign of Terror began, bringing the revolution to a violent and chaotic climax. She and her lover, the Assassin Arno Dorian, eventually eliminated Germain's followers and tracked him down to the Temple in In his final moments, Germain triggered a vision, telling the Assassin that his goals of reforming society and the Templar Order had already succeeded, even if he would not live to see the changes.

Honore Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau voiced by Harry Standjofski — better known as simply Mirabeau , was a French statesman, author, the Mentor of the Assassin Council of the French Brotherhood and a leader of the French Revolution during its early stages. A gifted orator, he criticized France's arbitrary justice system and favored a constitutional monarchy built on the model of Great Britain, being a voice of moderation in the National Constituent Assembly. Unlike most of the Council, he was eager to accept this offer. After his death, it was discovered that Mirabeau had served King Louis XVI as an advisor in exchange for having his debts paid off.

History views him as a complex man who is not easily understood. Historians disagree on whether he was a great leader who might have prevented the Reign of Terror had he lived longer, a demagogue lacking values or a traitor serving enemies of the revolution. Bellec's decision to murder Mirabeau has also led subsequent Assassins to debate whether or not his attempts to reconcile with the Templars conflicted with the ideals of the Brotherhood. He was notable for starting the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution, and abolishing slavery in France. He rose to power amidst the chaos and political turmoil of the French Revolution.

He was also an acquaintance to the Assassin Arno Dorian. A former concubine of the Zhengde Emperor , she was rescued by the Assassins after the emperor's death, and devoted her life to the Creed as a result. Shao Jun appears in Assassin's Creed: Embers and Assassin's Creed Chronicles: She is voiced by Angela Galuppo in Assassin's Creed: Arbaaz Mir early s —unknown was a member of the Indian Brotherhood of Assassins during the 19th century, active during the time of the war between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company. Arbaaz is father to Jayadeep Mir Aka: Arbaaz Mir appears in Assassin's Creed Chronicles: He is voiced by Johnny Neal.

Nikolai Andreievich Orelov late s— was a member of the Russian Brotherhood of Assassins during the late 19th and early 20th century. Nikolai was notably involved in events such as the Borki train disaster and the Tunguska explosion, and spearheaded the hunt for the Imperial Sceptre of the Russian royal family with aid from Nikola Tesla. He later left the Brotherhood out of fear for his and his family's safety and was hunted down by Assassins working for the FBI after he killed one of his fellow Assassins and a longtime friend in a fit of paranoid madness after they attempted to convince him to return to the Brotherhood with his son, Innokenti.

Orelov appears in Assassin's Creed Chronicles: Born in a time when the Assassin Order in London was at its weakest in over one hundred years, alongside his sister, he appears in Assassin's Creed Syndicate. He is voiced by Paul Amos. Born in a time when the Assassin Order in London was at its weakest in over one hundred years, alongside her brother, she appears in Assassin's Creed Syndicate.

She is voiced by Victoria Atkin. Galina Voronina is a Russian Master Assassin. Like Desmond, she acquired her abilities by reliving her ancestors' memories in the Animus and taking advantage of the Bleeding effect. Forcibly entered into the Animus by her mother, she eventually contacted the Assassin Gavin Banks for help. She was able to escape, but not before the death of her sister and her mother's suicide. Following her prolonged exposure to the Animus, her mental health is in question; Rebecca having admitted to seeing Galina believing she was conversing with her dead sister.

About to kill Otso Berg, she is forced to cover Shaun and Rebecca's escape, after the latter is shot. She crossed paths with Winston Churchill and assassinated Templar agents attempting to prolong the war, one of which was a Sage. She appears within the Helix missions in Assassin's Creed: Henry Green was the India-born leader of the London Assassins during the late s.

Born Jayadeep Mir, the son of Arbaaz Mir, he crossed paths with the Frye Twins, Evie and Jacob during their liberation of London in , aiding them in their final fight against Crawford Starrick and eventually marrying Evie. As a child in India, he was trained by the twins' father, Ethan Frye. He appears in Assassin's Creed Syndicate. As an arrogant individual, he showed great disdain to those who tormented him and eventually saw himself as a ruler among servants. Using his charm, he managed to bend people to his will. After all the members of his inner circle were killed by the Frye twins, Starrick went himself to the location of the Shroud of Eden, where he was killed by the twins.

Lucy was also the Order's expert on Pieces of Eden, and was tasked with finding the legendary Shroud of Eden. After fellow templar Pearl Attaway was killed by Jacob, Lucy relentlessly chased the twins in search of revenge, only to be assassinated by Evie. Although he wasn't a Templar himself, he trained several of Starrick's small-time gang leaders in return for a massive amount of money.

After some of Starrick's lieutenants were killed, Roth proposed a partnership with Jacob's gang, betraying Starrick and helping Jacob's gangsters in freeing the city. The partnership ended shortly after due to Roth's psychopathic behavior, and after he intentionally burned the Alhambra Music Hall during his final act, Jacob stabbed him with his blade. In his final moments, Roth told Jacob that he had carried out the atrocities simply because he wanted and chose to do so.

Attaway was business rivals with Malcolm Millner, another Templar. Starrick initially choose Millner as the man controlling the bus transport, due to tensions with Attaway, but after Attaway collaborated with Jacob Frye, who didn't know that she was a Templar, Starrick gave the reins to Attaway and they both orchestrated Millner's elimination. Jacob subsequently found out Attaway's true colors, and killed her in her train station. Rupert Ferris was the owner of Ferris Ironworks, a large steel-mill in the city of Croydon near London, effectively controlling the small city with his wealth.

He was also one of Starrick's lieutenants. Ferris was killed by Jacob Frye in his factory. He orchestrated various robberies within the bank to fund the Templars, and during one of these raids, Twopenny was assassinated by Jacob Frye with the help of inspector Abberline. Charles Robert Darwin , born on 12 February , is best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. Darwin neglected an education in medicine at the University in Edinburgh in order to pursue his interests in nature. Darwin's detailed journal of his voyage aboard HMS Beagle made him famous in scientific circles.

Darwin's On the Origin of Species was published in I'm talking about America. Darwin was in international celebrity, who is remembered for providing a unified theory of the life sciences that explains the wide diversity of life on this planet. Charles Dickens — was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era.

Karl Marx — was a German philosopher, economist, communist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist. He asked Jacob and Evie Frye's help to expand his unionistic ideas to the people of London. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 22 May — 7 July , known as Artie in his younger years, was a Scottish writer and physician, famous for his fictional stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes. In , while still a young boy, his love for detective stories led him to team up with the penny dreadful writer Henry Raymond and the Assassins Jacob and Evie Frye to solve murders.

Alexander Graham Bell — was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who was credited with inventing the first practical telephone. He was on friendly terms with Henry Green, who nicknamed him, "Aleck". Her reign of sixty-three years became known as the Victorian era; marked by the Industrial Revolution and Pax Britannica, it was a period of great expansion for the British Empire, and was consequently a period of significant cultural, political, scientific, and military change across the globe.

He was also an associate of, and great-uncle to, the Assassin Henry Green. Exiled to Britain when he was fifteen, Duleep befriended Queen Victoria, who would go on to become the godmother to several of his children. After his mother died in , he began to lobby for India's independence from the British Empire. Jack unknown— , formerly known as Jack the Lad during his youth and widely feared as Jack the Ripper , was a member of the British Brotherhood of Assassins, active in the Whitechapel district of London up until Jack became infamous in following a series of gruesome murders of young women, which were fellow Assassins trying to stop his madness; these murders, in conjunction with Jack's control over London's criminal enterprise, threatened the very existence of the Assassins in London.

He is killed by Evie Frye. He is assassinated by Evie Frye and his experiments on the Piece of Eden grow unstable, resulting in an explosion that buries his underground laboratory. Elliotson created "Starrick's Soothing Syrup", a highly-addictive tonic made from opium and hallucinogens used to keep the working classes under control. He is assassinated by Jacob Frye, but his death comes with consequences; the borough of Lambeth is flooded with counterfeit medicinal and sub-standard medical care. James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan , a member of the House of Lords who opposes Benjamin Disraeli and the Corrupt Practices Act as he tries to keep political power in the hands of the nobility.

Although he is a part of Starrick's conspiracy to control London, it is implied that he is an unwitting puppet, easily manipulated but otherwise incompetent because of his role in the Siege of Balaclava and the Crimean War. Callum Lynch portrayed by Michael Fassbender [52] [53] [54] b. After being rescued from his own execution by Abstergo, he is placed in the Animus to relive the memories of his ancestor Aguilar de Nerha and find the Apple of Eden.

After reconciling with his father, who murdered his mother to keep her out of Templar hands, he joins the Assassin Order, retrieves the Apple, and kills Alan Rikkin. He eventually managed to escape with the Apple and passed it on to Christopher Columbus for protection. He had sent several e-mails to Warren Vidic, one of which that details several Pieces of Eden that they believe to be nothing more than mythical tales, including the Holy Grail. He eventually discovers the Apple in the tomb of Christopher Columbus and attempts to perform a ritual to remove human free will, but he is assassinated by de Nerha's descendant Callum Lynch, who recovers the Apple.

In October , Sofia came into contact with Callum Lynch, a criminal whose Assassin ancestry was of interest to the company. During their time together the pair formed a connection but when Lynch's escape from the Foundation led to the death of Alan Rikkin at his hand, Sofia dedicated herself to chasing down her father's killer. Maria portrayed by Ariane Labed unknown— was a member of the Spanish Brotherhood of Assassins during the 15th century, as well as a close ally of Master Assassin Aguilar de Nerha.

In , she and her fellow Assassins sought to prevent Prince Ahmed of Granada from being captured by the Templars, fearing that his father, Sultan Muhammad XII of Granada, would relinquish the Apple of Eden in his possession in exchange for his son's safety. Alicia Vikander was originally considered for the role of Maria, but scheduling conflicts with Jason Bourne eventually caused the actress to drop out, with Ariane Labed being cast instead.

Bayek possessed a symbiotic relationship with the eagle, Senu, which allowed him to see the world through Senu's eyes - a more literal predecessor to the Eagle Vision of later Assassins. He is also regarded as the founder of the organised Assassin Order. There, she killed the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt using a venomous asp. By the Renaissance , Amunet was respected as a great Assassin, and a statue of her was placed in the Assassin Sanctuary of Monteriggioni. This was first believed to be the actual burial site of the Assassin, until her mummy was found in the same cave as Bayek's mummy.

It has since been confirmed that the sarcophagus in Venice did not contain Amunet's remains. She initially shared power with her father, and later, her brothers, whom she married. With the help of the Templars, she became the sole ruler of Egypt. This also helped her become an ally of Julius Caesar. After Caesar's death, she allied herself with Mark Antony , whom she had a relationship with. Soon afterwards, Cleopatra was poisoned by the Assassin Amunet with an asp.

The First Assassin

He played a key role in transforming the flagging Roman Republic to the seemingly unstoppable Roman Empire. He was killed due to his Templar affiliations. Caesar gained his fame on military campaigns in Gaul , where he conquered what is present-day France , Germany , and Belgium.

In 50 BC, Caesar was called back to Rome, and he feared he might be prosecuted for insubordination and treason. Caesar brought one of his legions with him and started a civil war. During this conflict, Caesar was made Dictator of Rome. Roman Senators feared Caesar's in increasing military power, and also hated him due to the fact he was supported by the Templars. The Senators thought that by ending Caesar's life, they had helped save Rome , but they actually put Rome in chaos.

For the next thirteen years, civil war raged through the Roman Republic. The outcome was the birth of the Roman Empire, and the fall of the Egyptian Pharaohs. He was also the first known human to discover the Colosseum Vault. Gaius Cassius Longinus c. Two years later, he committed suicide with Brutus in Phillipi, after a battle with Caesar's allies went disastrously. Layla Hassan born is a former employee at Abstergo Industries [62] and has some affiliation associated with the Assassin Brotherhood.

She was also a close acquaintance with Sofia Rikkin until the latter repeatedly refused to land her a job in the Animus Project and took the credit for Layla's Animus design. The main characters are Alexios and Kassandra, both being playable characters. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs additional citations for verification.

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While "Assassins" typically refers to the entire sect, only a group of acolytes known as the fida'i actually engaged in conflict. During the rule of Imam Rukn-ud-Din Khurshah , the Nizari state declined internally, and was eventually destroyed as the Imam surrendered the castles to the invading Mongols. The Mongols destroyed and eliminated their Order. Mentions of Assassins were preserved within European sources — such as the writings of Marco Polo — where they are depicted as trained killers, responsible for the systematic elimination of opposing figures.

The word " assassin " has been used ever since to describe a hired or professional killer, leading to the related term " assassination ", which denotes any action involving murder of a high-profile target for political reasons. The Nizari were acknowledged and feared by the Crusaders. The stories of the Assassins were further embellished by Marco Polo.

The origins of the Assassins can be traced back to just before the First Crusade , around in Alamut, north of modern Iran, during a crisis of succession to the Fatimid caliphate. However, it is possible to trace the beginnings of the cult back to its first Grandmaster, Hassan-i Sabbah s— A passionate devotee of Isma'ili beliefs, Hassan-i Sabbah was well-liked throughout Cairo , Syria and most of the Middle East by other Isma'ili, which led to a number of people becoming his followers.

Using his fame and popularity, Sabbah founded the Order of the Assassins. While his motives for founding this order are ultimately unknown, it was said to be all for his own political and personal gain and to also exact vengeance on his enemies. Because of the unrest in the Holy Land caused by the Crusades , Hassan-i Sabbah found himself not only fighting for power with other Muslims , but also with the invading Christian forces.

After creating the Order, Sabbah searched for a location that would be fit for a sturdy headquarters and decided on the fortress at Alamut in what is now northwestern Iran. The Alamut castle was built by the Justanid ruler, Wahsudan b. Marzuban, a follower of zaydi Shiaism, around AD. After laying claim to the fortress at Alamut, Sabbah began expanding his influence outwards to nearby towns and districts, using his agents to gain political favour and to intimidate the local populations. Spending most of his days at Alamut producing religious works and developing doctrines for his Order, Sabbah would never leave his fortress again in his lifetime.

He had established a secret society of deadly assassins, which was built on a hierarchical structure. It was the Lasiqs who were trained to become some of the most feared assassins, or as they were called, "Fida'in" self-sacrificing agents. However, it is unknown how Hassan-i-Sabbah was able to get his "Fida'in" to perform with such fervent loyalty. One theory, possibly the best known but also the most criticized, comes from the reports of Marco Polo during his travels to the Orient.

He recounts a story he heard of a man who would drug his young followers with hashish , lead them to a "paradise", and then claim that only he had the means to allow for their return. Perceiving that Sabbah was either a prophet or magician, his disciples, believing that only he could return them to "paradise", were fully committed to his cause and willing to carry out his every request. With his new weapons, Sabbah began to order assassinations, ranging from politicians to great generals.

Assassins would rarely attack ordinary citizens though, and tended not to be hostile towards them. Although the "Fida'yin" were the lowest rank in Sabbah's order and were only used as expendable pawns to do the Grandmaster's bidding, much time and many resources were put into training them.

How Did Bayek Begin The Assassin Order When He Wasn't The First?

The Assassins were generally young in age, giving them the physical strength and stamina which would be required to carry out these murders. However, physical prowess was not the only trait that was required to be a "Fida'i". To get to their targets, the Assassins had to be patient, cold, and calculating. They were generally intelligent and well-read because they were required to possess not only knowledge about their enemy, but his or her culture and their native language. They were trained by their masters to disguise themselves and sneak into enemy territory to perform the assassinations, instead of simply attacking their target outright.

The "Asasyun" plural, literary Arabic, official texts, proper form were as defined in Arabic; people of principle. Asasi singular and asasin pronounced "asaseen" plural, literary variation as well as regular spoken Arabic, more commonly used The term assassin can easily, however unlikely in this instance, be thought as finding its roots in "hashashin" hashish smokers or users. It is far more likely to be a mispronunciation of the original Asasyun.

However, not a mispronunciation of "asaseen". One can therefore see how its origins became assassin in Western languages. Originally referring to the methods of political control exercised by the Asasyun as defined by their activities and Later, the almost identical borrowed term assassin s used in several languages to describe similar activities anywhere.

The Assassins were finally linked by the 19th-century orientalist scholar Silvestre de Sacy to the Arabic word hashish using their variant names assassin and assissini in the 19th century. Citing the example of one of the first written applications of the Arabic term hashish to the Ismailis by 13th-century historian Abu Shama, de Sacy demonstrated its connection to the name given to the Ismailis throughout Western scholarship.

This label was quickly adopted by anti-Ismaili historians and applied to the Ismailis of Syria and Persia. The spread of the term was further facilitated through military encounters between the Nizaris and the Crusaders , whose chroniclers adopted the term and disseminated it across Europe. During the medieval period, Western scholarship on the Ismailis contributed to the popular view of the community as a radical sect of assassins, believed to be trained for the precise murder of their adversaries.

By the 14th century, European scholarship on the topic had not advanced much beyond the work and tales from the Crusaders. While he assembled the accounts of many Western travellers, the author failed to explain the etymology of the term Assassin. Many scholars have argued, and demonstrated convincingly, that the attribution of the epithet "hashish eaters" or "hashish takers" is a misnomer derived from enemies of the Isma'ilis and was never used by Muslim chroniclers or sources.

It was therefore used in a pejorative sense of "enemies" or "disreputable people". This sense of the term survived into modern times with the common Egyptian usage of the term Hashasheen in the s to mean simply "noisy or riotous". It is unlikely that the austere Hassan-i Sabbah indulged personally in drug taking The name "Assassin" is often said to derive from the Arabic word Hashishin or "users of hashish ", [2] which can be used as a derogatory term in Arabic and it is the equivalent of "drug addict", in this case, "hashish addict" was originally applied to the Nizari Ismaelis by the rival Mustali Ismailis during the fall of the Ismaili Fatimid Empire and the separation of the two Ismaili streams, [3] there is little evidence hashish was used to motivate the assassins, contrary to the beliefs of their medieval enemies.

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Modern versions of this word include Mahashish used in the same derogatory sense, albeit less offensive nowadays, as the use of the substance is more widespread. Idries Shah , a sufi scholar using Arkon Daraul as a pen name , described them as 'druggers' that used hashish "in stupefying candidates for the ephemeral visit to paradise ".

In pursuit of their religious and political goals, the Ismailis adopted various military strategies popular in the Middle Ages. One such method was that of assassination, the selective elimination of prominent rival figures. The murders of political adversaries were usually carried out in public spaces, creating resounding intimidation for other possible enemies. In the Ismaili context, these assignments were performed by fida'is devotees of the Ismaili mission.

The assassinations were committed against those whose elimination would most greatly reduce aggression against the Ismailis and, in particular, against those who had perpetrated massacres against the community. A single assassination was usually employed in contrast with the widespread bloodshed which generally resulted from factional combat. Hashashin are also said to be adept in furusiyya , or the Islamic warrior code, where they are trained in combat, disguises, and equestrianism. Hashashin never allowed their women to be at their fortresses during military campaigns, both for protection and secrecy.

This is a tradition first made by Hassan when he sent his wife and daughters to Girdkuh when a famine was created during the Seljuk siege of Alamut. The first instance of murder in the effort to establish a Nizari Ismaili state in Persia is widely considered to be the killing of Seljuq vizier , Nizam al-Mulk. To treat one belief as absolute is to not only submit oneself to the irrationality of blind faith, but also to cloud oneself from the perspectives of inevitable dissenters.

The second component of the creed, "everything is permitted" is an extension of this principle of uncertainty. Because the quantity of variables is infinite, it follows that theoretically, anything within nature is possible, for as long as there is no absolute answer to any query, no impossibility can be ascertained.

Therefore, one must remain vigilantly open-minded to the unexpected and unknown, drawing to a conclusion while being ever mindful of that conclusion's plausibility of error. Beyond being a further vessel for pluralism, Assassins are taught to be watchful of pretensions and their own capability to achieve either great dreams or great destruction. In essence, this corollary commands one to take responsibility for one's actions towards oneself and society at large. Though the maxim as a whole is actually descriptive, not normative, it nevertheless serves as the threshold into Assassin ethos, wherein reason, not divinity or society, is the source for guidance; [3] dogmatism is discouraged for its potential to brew prejudice and violence, [9] and diversity of thought is respected as the closest conduit to reaching truth.

According to Haytham Kenway , the Templar Order was "born of a realization" that humanity is fundamentally corrupt, necessitating strenuous control for it to be guided to peace. It is aforementioned that the Assassins' justify perspectivism with the view that it is logical and realistic, but it is further reinforced ethically by their ardent belief in the "sanctity of life" and each individual's humanity. Assassins perceive societal norms and conventions as artificial structures that can hinder one's partiality and lead to prejudices.

These false boundaries include but are not limited to national borders, gender, ethnicity, social class, and race. As a result, Assassins oppose discrimination of virtually every kind, with physical abuse and slavery being especially abhorrent. In the Assassin view, peace is a product of education, not force, [3] and this is only possible without the stringent control over information and society that authoritarians advocate. Ironically, in spite of the Assassins' optimistic view of humanity as a whole, they do not always retain the same faith for adversaries of human rights; this is the guiding force behind their operations, of which assassinations take primacy.

For many members, compassion has acted as a key motivation, which has paradoxically translated into objectives very often revolving around murder. The Assassins' devotion to free will and their assertion of moral relativism can indeed invite questions of whether or not they and their creed are nihilistic or anarchic. Their liberal belief system, along with their support of cultural expression and life, [5] [1] [15] would indicate otherwise. The creed itself, however, implies that all values are meaningless. A contradiction thus arises, which can be summarized as "why do Assassins adhere strictly to beliefs while asserting that none are true?

In addressing this paradox, Ezio explained that the creed itself is more akin to that of a scientific theory, rather than a doctrine in itself, and therefore it is neither meant to be followed nor obeyed, but merely understood. When Ah Tabai redirected them back to him, the former pirate answered that "it might be that this idea is only the beginning of wisdom, and not its final form.

It is not, however, the dogma of the Assassins, for it can be said to be the scientific introduction to a belief system, one that only formulates the framework of an ideology, but not the completed complex of ideals itself. As such, while "nothing is true," and all beliefs and moral values can not be validated from an objective standpoint, it does not follow that morals and beliefs should be perceived as false from an ethical standpoint.

While "everything is permitted" from a naturalistic perspective, it does not follow that everything must necessarily be ethically permissible. Thus, the creed is descriptive, not normative; it does not reject the notion that there is an absolute truth, nor assert that it does exist. The Assassins regard the creed as an exposition to their concept of wisdom, in that they believe that one must first understand the subjective origins of all beliefs and values before devising his or her own ideology, so as to remain open-minded and unprejudiced, but the relativity of beliefs does not make beliefs insignificant.

While explaining why the creed is not meant to support nihilism or anarchism, it does not resolve the paradox that Assassins murder in the name of peace or kill those that disagree with their own ideals in the name of free will. Throughout the long centuries of war between the Assassins and Templars, members of both factions often mused on the similarity of their goals and the contrast between their means.

Accordingly, precision was a guiding principle behind the Assassins' technique and a factor behind their focus on stealth and discretion. By reducing collateral damage and the chance of open conflict, casualties would be minimized. Such a tactic aligned with their traditional respect for humanity and life, and in theory though not always in practice , assassinations were to be carried out only in cases of utmost necessity. Once a target had been killed, agents were dissuaded from rejoicing in the death, and some even adopted the practice of paying last respects, no matter how vile they held them to be.

Although not every Assassin operated on the level of perfectionism exhibited by Francesco Vecellio , [17] prodigious information was expected to be gathered before an assassination is attempted. Previously, it was common practice for the Levantine Assassins to perform high-risk, near suicidal, yet awe-inspiring assassinations in crowded, public areas.

Thus, security was another reason for the Assassins' policy of stealth. Despite this, it was not unknown for Assassins even after the High Middle Ages to resort to open conflict, and these uncommon tactics could range from the instigation of riots, employment of mercenaries, or even a direct militaristic assault on enemy bases. As a result, at first much of their activities revolved only around the elimination or sabotage of those they believed threatened the rights of humanity.

With their dream that humanity arrive at utopia through free will, their way of guidance was often indirect, with an emphasis on individuals learning through self-experience. For instance, their way of teaching Ezio against the path of vengeance involved allowing him to experience that journey personally. Over time, the brotherhood's policies evolved and during the Italian Renaissance , the Assassins under the leadership of Ezio Auditore became more active at winning the hearts of the public.

Accordingly, the Assassins' campaign in Rome was prolific in rehabilitating a city crumbling under the weight of Borgia corruption, such as funding renovations, sponsoring merchants, and rescuing civilians.


  1. The Horses We Love, The Lessons We Learn.
  2. See a Problem?.
  3. Yom Kippur in Amsterdam: Stories (Library of Modern Jewish Literature)!
  4. .
  5. The First Assassin by John J. Miller.
  6. Better, And Bitter Days - A Collection of Historical fiction.
  7. Der Aufstieg (German Edition);
  8. The order continued to adapt and reform gradually through the centuries, and by the 20th century, their activities began to shift over to non-violent social reforms rather than aggressive enforcement. The transition was tenuous: It was only after World War II that the Assassins definitively refocused their activities towards inspiring change through example. Assassinations became far rarer, and until the Great Purge of , the shadow war with the Templars defused to one waged through covert tampering of political elections instead. There were two ways of entering into the Order: After declaring oneself an Assassin under the Creed, a trainee would be tested to prove their worth over an unspecified period of time.

    For example, Ezio was tasked with hunting down Templar conspirators over years before he was officially inducted, [5] whereas Assassin apprentices had to gain enough experience in their contract missions across the world before joining the Assassins Guild as fully-fledged members. The Assassins spent their entire lives training to kill. Combat skills were essential and focused on bladed weaponry. However, the most important consideration in the Assassins' training was concealment.

    Stealth was the greatest weapon of the Assassins, and everything about their lives emphasized a devotion to it. Another significant focus of an Assassin's training was maneuverability.

    The First Assassin The First Assassin
    The First Assassin The First Assassin
    The First Assassin The First Assassin
    The First Assassin The First Assassin
    The First Assassin The First Assassin
    The First Assassin The First Assassin

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