The beard with shaven upper lip is also noteworthy ; and compare with Fig. Maspero, Dawn of Civilization , , In spite of the advances in our knowledge of Ancient Egypt which decipherment of many of the monuments of the old Pharaohs has made possible, two basic questions of the first magnitude still remain outstanding in as great uncertainty as in the days of Herodotus. These are the question of the Origin of the Civilization of the Country, and the question of the Dates of its Kings and Dynasties. As regards the former, opinions differ as to whether civilization was indigenous or imposed from without.
And, although on the whole the tendency is towards belief that the Egyptians, like so many other races both ancient and modem, owed their culture to conquest by more advanced and intrusive peoples, yet who the conquerors were and when the invasions took place has remained unknown owing to lack of evidence on which to base a judgment.
And a like absence of evidence as regards chronology has made the dating of the early and most of the later Pharaohs an affair of guesswork, and led equally able and conscientious inquirers to fix the period of Menes and his First Dynasty at dates differing from one another by as much as over two millenniums of years.
In my recently published Makers of Civilization , I showed incidentally the bearing upon Egyptian problems of my collation of the Mesopotamian inscriptions and official King-Lists of the Sumerians the oldest known civilized people with the official King-Lists of the Early Aryans of the " Caucasian race " in the Indian Puranas.
What put me on the track of the new evidence was the discovery that a great deal in the ancient Indian Epics and Vedas regarding the Early Aryans, hitherto considered fabulous is historic. The official King-Lists, Indian and Mesopotamian, show Menes and his predecessors and successors in his First Dynasty in the same chronological order and position, with the names and titles they bear in the Egyptian records. The Sumerian Mesopotamian and Indus Valley script of those kings is the same as that used by the pre-dynastic and First Dynasty Pharaohs in their monumental inscriptions.
The Egyptian Hieroglyphs are discovered to be a slightly modified conventional form of the Sumerian diagrammatic picture-writing which came into use gradually during the rule of Menes and his immediate successors, and to have the same phonetic values as their parent picture-signs in the Sumerian. And the radical words in Ancient Egyptian are of Sumerian origin, though later they became adapted to a large extent to the Semitic speech and idioms of the aborigines. How the culture thus introduced into Egypt acquired a local conventional complexion disguising its exotic source and affinities ; how the Sumerian rulers of Egypt came to be called pre-dynastic Pharaohs ; how Menes, Sumerian crown-prince, and governor of the Sumerian Indus Valley colony, erected Egypt into an independent kingdom and preserved its independence within the Mesopotamian empire when he succeeded eventually to the throne after his father's death ; how, as the Min or Minos sea-emperor of Greek legend, he annexed and civilized Crete and extended his rule westwards to the Pillars of Hercules and Britain, all this as well as the hitherto wholly unknown ancestry and real dates of Menes and his dynastic successors is duly disclosed by the new evidence.
Menes, his emperor-father, and two of his successors in the First Egyptian Dynasty boast in their Egyptian monuments of being descendants of the first king of the First Sumerian Dynasty ; and the name given to this common ancestor in the Egyptian inscriptions is the same as that given him in the Sumerian Kish Chronicle. And in the Indian Epics Manja or Menes , as well as his father and descendants are expressly stated to have been lineal descendants of the first Aryan king of corresponding name to the Sumerian.
The unity as regards type and source of the ancient civilizations of Sumerian Mesopotamia, India and Egypt is in keeping with the physique of the ruling people in all three countries, which is shown by their portraits, sculptures and skeletal remains to have been of the long-headed, fair, grey or blue-eyed type recognized by moderns as marking the Aryan section of the Caucasian race.
Italian, Corsican and Aegean aborigines, i. In the absence of any better name for the broad-browed long-headed type, I have called it " Aryan," after its most characteristic group. In any case, the term " Nordic Race " is quite inapplicable as a synonym for " Aryan Race," as the Norse are only a late specialized branch of one section of the Aryans. And after all, the question of the racial affinity of the Sumerians is wholly secondary to that of their historical identity with the race of Menes and his dynasty in Egypt, now discovered and established. Lastly, the newly found real date for the accession of Menes to the throne in Egypt at about B.
September 1 st, Disclosing Menes as son of the world-emperor " Sargon-the-Great " of Mesopotamia and his Date, about b. Disclosing his Annexation or Reconquest of Egypt, c. His Egyptian Tomb Inscriptions in Sumerian deciphered. Menes' Lost History and Achievements in Egypt recovered: His Seizure of Egypt from his Father-emperor. His establishment of First Egyptian Dynasty, c. Disclosing his Sonship to Menes.
With his Sumerian Inscriptions in Egypt deciphered Indus Valley Seals of Sargon and his father with titles of 44 Pharaoh " and 41 Goth " and mentioning Egypt deciphered. Found at Susa in Elam. After Petrie 20 IV. From photos after Sir J. Lesser Labels from Menes' Tomb. After Sir Flinders Petrie. For decipherment, see App.
Decipherment of Menes' Tomb Lesser Labels Naram Enzu in bas-relief, c. Narmar's Slate Palette of Victory from Egypt, about b. Quibell and Sir F. Plan of Dudu's Tomb in Egypt. From photos after Sir J, Marshall. Sargon's Queen's Tomb Inscription at Abydos deciphered 8. Statue of Manis-Tusu or Menes in alabaster. From Susa in Elam. Menes' Title of Aha or Akha in Egypt. From slate palette Narmar's Slate Palette, Reverse Narmar's Palette Inscription over enemy dead deciphered Inscription on Narmar's Standard No.
Narmar's Standard Inscriptions, Nos. Third King's Name on Sealing deciphered King Dudu or " Den's " Portrait on a label from Abydos Inscription of Dudu or Dundu from lid of a seal box. Inscription of Dundu with title Busahap on seal-box deciphered Line 1 of Col. Line 2 of Col. Line 3 of Col. Tasia or Reshef or "Tascio," the Resurrecting Archangel.
Name on Sealings A deciphered. Egyptian Cross Button Amulets of Sumerian type. Seal of Aha-Mena at Agdu Land deciphered. Seal of Under-King Companion son? Amulet Seal continuation deciphered. Origin and Development of Babylonian Writing. A History of Egypt. History of the Egyptian People.
Book of the Kings of Egypt, I. Classified List of Sumerian Ideographs. Sea Kings of Crete. Cambridge Ancient History, I. Cuneiform Texts in the British Museum. Delegation en Perse Memoires. The Palace of Minos. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. A de la Fuye. Howardy, Lipsia, f. Ancient History of Near East. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.
Chronology of Early Babylonian Kings. History of Sumer and Akkad. Keilschrift text aus Assur. Dictionary of Assyrian Language. Babylonian Tablets, Berens Collect. Sir Flinders Petrie, Royal Tombs, I and II. Radau, New York, Aryan Origin of the Alphabet. Weld-Blundell Collection Cuneiform Texts. Makers of Civilization in Race and History. Seal Cylinders of W. The first clues to these discoveries were gained by my observation that Menes as he was called by the Greeks or Manj as he is usually called in his own Egyptian inscriptions 1 appears in his due chronological position along with his dynasty in the official king-lists of the Early Aryans from the first king onwards, as preserved in the ancient Indian epic chronicles, the Puranas.
In the latter he bears the name of Asa Manja , or 44 Manja the shooter " in the solar version of these lists, and Manasyu or Mawas-the-Uniter in the lunar version. And these identities are confirmed by their own Sumerian inscriptions in Egypt, and by their official seals in their Indus Valley colony, in which most of them bore also the title of " Pharaoh," and mention Egypt by name as being within their empire. Let us now examine the detailed proofs for these identities of Menes or Manj and his 4t predynastic" ancestors in Egypt with those of Manis and his immediate imperial Sumerian ancestors in their contemporary inscriptions in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley and in the Indian epic records of the Early Aryan kings.
Manasyu by Su-Vira's daughter begat three sons Shakta, Samhana and Vagma, all heroes and mighty charioteer warriors.
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Her Indian name substantially equates, as we shall see, with the Mesopotamian name for Sargon's queen of "Lady Ash-nary also read Ash-lal; and l and r are freely interchangeable and Egyptian has the same letter for both. And the fact that he is described as " of the line of the Prabhu " is obviously to denote that his father Sargon before him was also a Pra or Parda or Pharaoh. It equates with the Ancient Egyptian Gebt or Gdbt name for Koptos ; 5 and it survives in the modem " Copt 11 title for native Egyptians as opposed to immigrant Arabs ; and it is clearly cognate with Kopt-os of the Greeks, the name of the oldest immemorial trade-city in Upper Egypt on the Nile, to the east of Abydos see Map I.
It was, presumably, the first capital of Menes in Upper Egypt. On gaining a working knowledge of all three scripts, Sanskritic, Sumerian with cuneiform, and Egyptian, the detailed examinations and comparisons of the critical names in the several texts with the associated histories of the kings thus made possible, fully confirmed the identities of the latter as now demonstrated in detail.
This disclosed identity in all three. The hitherto unknown reason for this, as I have demonstrated in my Aryan Origin of the Alphabet , is that the short vowel a is inherent as an affix in each consonantal letter. But unaware of the reason for this consonantal spelling with its absence of short vowels, they agreed on the expedient of arbitrarily introducing the vowel e after each initial and 1 WSAD. But, as I have shown in my Aryan Origin of the Alphabet , the unexpressed vowel in Ancient Egyptian was not e t but was the a inherent in each consonant as in the other Aryan languages which used this consonantal form of writing.
We thus get the trilingual equation of Menes' name as follows: Similarly is it with the title of Aha or Akha which " Menes " uses sometimes along with his proper personal name of Manj or abbreviated into Man , and giving him a 1 GH, xi. P 7 7 7 7 1 A, A, "Ground, foundation, cl welling. Fid; brazier in enclosure. Here again our trilingual comparison confirms the identity of this title Aha or Akha in all three languages, Egyptian, Sumerian and Indian, in meaning and generally in word- form.
And several of his descendants in the First Egyptian Dynasty likewise claim the same ancestry in their Egyptian inscriptions. Thus the Chronicles state the particular year in which he achieved these conquests, in almost literal agreement with the Omen version, and make the complete conquest to have occurred in the eleventh year of his reign, while the Omens place it in his third year. This is supposed to imply that his first expedition was in his third year and the full conquest in his eleventh. This Chronicle copy reads: Lady Ish-Tar was exalted. And he possessed no foe or rival.
His glory over the world he poured out. The Sea in the East [? West] 5 he crossed. And in the eleventh year the Land of the West or Sunset in full his hand subdued. He united them under one rule. He set up his images in the West. Their booty he brought over as arranged. The reading is as revised by me. On Sakhar Tar v. Ishtar , see WMC. And it now appears that Sargon, with his vast world-empire, had selected for his mausoleum for himself, his queen and his dynasty that relatively cool semi-temperate part of his realm in Egypt on the Mediterranean, presumably because it was a more natural resting-place for him and his Caucasian race than the torrid sun-baked mud plains of Mesopotamia.
And similarly Sety I whose beautiful alabaster sarcophagus is now a chief treasure in the Soane Museum in London , the father of Rameses-the-Great, also begins his list of Egyptian kings with Menes, who was the traditional uniter of the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingship and nation. But Manetho prefixes to Menes a list of ten kings, who it was said reigned before Menes at Thinis near Abydos for a period of years before Menes, and who may be nine pre- Sargonic Sumerian suzerains with Sargon as the tenth. And before these again he prefixes a long list of gods and demigods as kings with fabulous ages, just as did his more or less contemporary Babylonian priest Berosos in his list also compiled for the Seleucid Greek king of Babylon, and somewhat like the Isin priests prefixing fabulous chronology to the historical kings of Mesopotamia.
The early list of Egyptian kings, also on the Palermo stele of the Fifth Dynasty, enumerates ten kings before Menes, the names of whom are mostly illegible. But no inscribed remains of any of these ten legendary pre-Menes kings are said to have been found. And these eight historical r ' Predynastic " kings have been arranged by Egyptologists in serial order according to their supposed relative archaeological ages.
They are now disclosed to be respectively in reality Sargon himself with his father and grandfather; but chronologically they are in the reverse order to what they have been placed by Egyptologists on archaeological grounds—another instance of the unreliability of archaeological dating. It is seen that the Egyptian writing is not in the Transl.
On Puru value cp. This is obviously derived from S. These forms of his name thus equate with the form of his name as the 36th king on the main-line lists in the Indian Chronicles and in the old Sumerian prefixed lists in the Isin Chronicle and on his Indus Valley seal, as is displayed in the following equations: That sign pictures a Sumerian cylinder- seal Tukh or Dukh in its realistic form with its attached loop of string, as contrasted with its diagrammatic form in Mesopotamian Sumerian for rapid writing with straight 1 WMC.
Petrie, Naqada and Balias f Ixxx. The Indian prefixes Vri and Dhri were obviously added for descriptive purposes by the early Indian scribes who converted the Sumerian syllabic pictographic writing into the Indian alphabetic writing. On a jar, after i, 5. As a result these Sargonic inscriptions have hitherto remained undeciphered and unread. In this tomb the queen of this king was buried, and also it seems himself.
In summarizing the discovery and contents of this tomb Prof. It had been entirely plundered anciently; but many cylinder jars of pottery remained in the sand, bearing inscriptions [Fig. On scrutinizing the inscriptions in detail some years later, I found that the writing was radically of the old cursive Sumerian type such as I later found written regularly on the Indo-Sumerian seals of the Sargonic and later period ; and that it was obviously intended to be read with the Sumerian phonetic values of the signs, that is syllabically.
Moreover, it was clear that both inscriptions were to be read in the retrograde direction, as the Sun-Hawk sign in both faced to the right, a feature which indicates the direction for reading to the left through the beak or nose of bird or 1 PHE. At the outset it is noteworthy that the king's Solar title is enclosed within a sign consisting of an upright panelled frame with three vertical bars in its top register compared with two in the queen's inscription and surmounted by the Sun-Hawk, while his solar title occupies its lower register.
The vertical bars have suggested to some Egyptologists that this design, which they call serekh, represented a banner with fringes, because in the later forms the bottom bars 1 Br. And in its developed forms in the stele of the fourth king of the First Dynasty it is figured realistically as a temple or palace see Fig.
The language is Sumerian. The Sha s prefix to his solar title is in series with his name and title spelt Sha-Gin in the Old Sumerian King- Lists above noted and in series with his fuller Indian form of name as Sha-Kuni. In its conventionalized Egyptian hieroglyph form this sign is pictured by two uplifted hands conjoined and is given the phonetic value of Ka, whence Egypto- 1 Sha, " The shepherd. And Kad as we have seen was a not infrequent title used by the Phoenicians, and we have seen that Sargon was an Aryan Phoenician.
Possibly his temporal titles were recorded on his main epitaph as in those of his descendant Pharaohs as we shall see which has been lost. Here it should be noted that, this inscription was presumably written by his son Menes, who we shall find revolted against his father and was in revolt against him at the time of the latter's death, and thus lost the immediate succession in Mesopotamia. In such circumstances, if Sargon's body were really buried in this tomb, which was the tomb of his queen the mother of Menes , who obviously died before him, his body must have been embalmed for its transport from Mesopotamia to Abydos to repose beside that of his queen.
On the other hand, no embalming or mummification is found in Egypt before the Second Dynasty, nor customary till the Third Dynasty, nor has any been found in Mesopotamia or elsewhere in the civilized old world outside Egypt. We now turn to the inscription of the Queen of " Sargon '' found in the same tomb. When arranged for 1 Br. And in the Indian Epics her name as the mother of Manasyu, i. It will be noticed that this royal sealing for a jar or other article of the royal property consists of a tenfold repetition of two alternating signs, namely a circle with matted line interior and a branched twig or reed ; and from exigencies of space for the circles two of the reeds belonging to the lower row of circles are squeezed into the top row of signs.
Now, these signs are the well-known Sumerian Predynastic Mesopot. Shar 2 -u 3 -Gin. Here it is seen that King Gin calls himself Sharu-Gin, suggesting that this seal was for use in Mesopotamia. Now it is significant that the old and usual Egyptian 1 This territorial name has hitherto been conjecturally read Ni-tuk -ki , with the Semitic synonym Dilmun Br.
But the standard Sumerian bilingual glossaries give for the first sign the chief value of I or la Br. And this identity is confirmed in the next chapter. His penetration to Upper Egypt would doubtless follow from his possession of Lower Egypt with his " pre- dynastic " capital there, presumably at Pu or Buto. Sargon on the Nile re his Birth Legend Sargon's later Babylonian title of Ni-lu-ba-ni t which occurs in the Isin literature of about b.
There seems no doubt that this absenteeship of these Mesopotamian emperors in Egypt must have contributed to the usurpation of the Mesopotamian throne by Zaggisi, who dethroned Sargon's father there. It was therefore not surprising to find that no less than six of the great collection of several hundreds of official Sumerian signet-seals, unearthed by Sir John Marshall at the two ancient Sumerian city-ports of the Indus, at Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, were seals of this mighty emperor who held that Indus colony for the greater part of his long reign of fifty-five years.
The reason seems to have been to introduce other meanings, heroic or poetic, into the names, analogous to the Chinese practice by poets of spelling emperors' names by hieroglyphs different from those usually employed for spelling the name so as to yield new poetic or complimentary meanings. In the following literal translations, the writing is given in the usual Sumerian or Aryan direction for reading from right to left. I and 2, for seal and its impression admirably portrays as its central figure the sacred Indian Bull, the Brahmin Bull of modem India, adorned with a wreath or garland as in Indo-Aryan festivals at the present day.
But this Bull is here used as the picto- graph of his title Gut , and the prominence given to it indicates the importance which the king attached to that title. Kad is a Phoenician title which we shall see is used repeatedly by members of his dynasty; and the prominence given to his Gut title here is noteworthy, and in No. The further identity of Sargon's son Manis-Tusu with 14 Menes," the founder of the First Dynasty of Egypt, now requires a special chapter.
His Egyptian inscriptions like those of his father are written in Sumerian script and language and not in the later conventionalized hieroglyphs, and hence have hitherto remained unread. They are now deciphered, and found to be in agreement with his Mesopotamian and Elam records and his official seals from the Indus Valley colony, where he was Sumerian governor before he revolted against his father and annexed Egypt; and they are in general agreement with the Indian chronicles. Culture of Menes identical with that of Manis The fully-fledged culture which Menes and his father and predynastic forefathers introduced into Egypt and which formed the basis and fabric of Egyptian civilization is identical with the Sumerian civilization of the period of Manis-the- Warrior and his dynasty in Mesopotamia.
This agreement in the Egyptian and Sumerian culture of that period comprises amongst many other things similarity in agriculture with plough and hoe and irrigation works, brick buildings with recessed walls, metallurgy and copper chisels, etc. Menes' Sun-worship The Sun-worship of Manis in Mesopotamia is significant with reference to Menes' adoption of the Sun-Hawk in Egypt as his royal line emblem, following in this respect his father and grandfather as predynastic Pharaohs there, and followed by the descendants in his dynasty, and by the subsequent three Egyptian dynasties until the Fifth Dynasty, when the Sun-Hawk was replaced by the Sun-Goose.
Some details of his Sun-worship are given below. The racial type of the early dynastic ruling race with broad foreheads is seen in the sculptured portraits of Menes and his son Narmar or Naram and found also to some extent in the skeletal remains. The forehead and nose are in almost a straight line, the head massive, the ear large and flat, the nose straight with rounded tip and slight slope beneath, the jaw long and square. The head-form, which is the best criterion of racial type, is in the Aryan broad-browed and long-headed.
Colour is of less importance than head-form. The ancient Greeks, who were of this Aryan and non-Mediterranean race, have their heroes and heroines described by their classic writers as tall, golden-haired, and blue or grey or " glaucous " eyed. Manis-Tissu , 2 Uri-Mush, eldest son, r. For continuation of Dynasty, see p. Of his brother Uru-Mush's rule in the Indus Valley colony of the Lower Sea, I have discovered evidence in one of his official seals in the second batch of seals unearthed there. In this seal he calls himself " The One Lord," that is emperor.
This, which is cited in detail below, states that he was disinherited by his father, owing to his having revolted against him. And this revolt now appears to have been his seizure of Egypt from his father, and his declaration of independence there as " Menes " or Manas-yu, King of Upper and Lower Egypt.
This record is in the somewhat expanded sacerdotal form it has been given by the later Brahman priests ; it states 1: His father hoped that as he grew up to manhood he would reform ; but finding that he continued addicted to the same habit Sagara abandoned him. The sixty thousand fed troops? But this sacrifice did not materialize until his grandson's day. And for its recovery other loyal "sons" of Sagara had to dig a chasm in the earth, where the " sons dug downwards each for a league," and were thereafter killed.
And the chasm which Sagara's " sons " had dug was called " The Ocean" Sagara , a false Brahmanist etymology of Sagara's name,] This is obviously a somewhat allegorical tradition of the successful revolt by prince Manis-Tusu Manis-the-Warrior or Menes , against his father, and his retention of Egypt against the expeditions sent by his father; so that the complete "world-monarchship," including Egypt, was not 1 WVP. And we have seen that Sargon, in his record of his attack on King Zaggisi, speaks of his canals for military purposes. Thus the cutting of a relatively short canal might have connected it with the Mediterranean sufficiently for the passage of the galleys of those days.
For Lower Egypt was presumably not originally under Menes ; but had to be conquered by him later on, and probably continued to be held by Sargon's governors for a time. What seems to be historical confirmation of Manis-Tusu's quarrel with his father, Sargon, is found in a record which states Manis-Tusu, King of Anshan i. Sham" 2 —for Shar- Gani or Sargon is often confounded with his great-grandson of the former name. And Sargon's son, Manis-Tusu, we shall find was King of Anshan as well as governor of the Indus Valley to its east in the reign of his father, Sargon, as attested by his own seals recently unearthed in the latter region, and now deciphered ; and numerous contemporary statues of him have been unearthed in Elam in S.
Persia of which he was for a time governor and latterly emperor. From the inscription engraved upon it, it was Fig. See Frontispiece for photograph. The staring effect of the eyes is owing to the eyeballs having been made of white limestone inset into the eye- sockets of the alabaster image, and to the inlaid iris and pupil being lost.
The iris was inlaid it is believed with lapis lazuli stone, as is found in other similarly inlaid eyes, to represent the blue eyes of the early Aryan race. But in the Indus Valley I have discovered his seals there as crown prince governor of that colony before his attainment of kingship as detailed below, and see Plates IV and V. Most of his original inscriptions in Mesopotamia are characteristically carved on the extremely hard mineral called diorite, a stone not found in Mesopotamia and brought there by sea, as we shall find, from the north of the Red Sea via the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf.
Others are inscribed on votive vases and on a stone-mace-head, on a cruciform monument, and on the famous Black Obelisk, while others are certified copies in the old Sun-temple at Nippur. Before examining this record of his vast reconquests with the important geographical information they contain of the extent of his empire, it is necessary here to refer to my discovery of his official seals in the Indus Valley.
With those keys to the script, I experienced little difficulty in deciphering the freshly-found seals. The previous Indus Valley seals disclosed that it was a custom of the Mesopotamian emperors to send the crown prince for a time as governor of that rich and favourite crown colony on the Indus. The first element in this title, namely, Shag , Shab or Sha t is very interesting. Its pictograph see initial sign in Plate V, Nos. This title of Shag-man thus means literally " The Under-King Companion," and so is the equivalent of our modern " Viceroy.
For decipherments and translations, see pp. Umun-man a-ha mar sha-ga-ni bara gu-edin-ash. Shag-man ma-anshu bara gu-edin or ag-du -ash. Umun-ash a-ha mar gut gin gu-ag-du-ash. Man, son of the Priest- Seer Esh-tar Gin. A-ha sig uku mush. Aha, The Overthrower of King Mush. Shag-man Aha ma- es -gan-mush. A-ha men-a gu uri-du or ki- -ash. Aha Mena at Uriki Land. The place-name on the smaller seals does not always clearly differentiate the name Edin from the very similar pictograph of Agdu, or 44 Agadu " or Agade.
The fullest text of this inscription is preserved in a series of certified copies set up in the old Sun-temple at Nippur, which are found to be in literal agreement with the texts of his campaign records on his original monuments, as far as the existing fragments of the latter go. The fullest text reads as follows 2: Thirty-two kings of cities on the other side of the sea had rallied to battle and he defeated them, and their cities he smote, and their lords he cast down, and the whole country. The mountains beyond the sea, their diorite stones he broke and his statue 1 PHT.
The Sun- god and Zagaga. Who shall destroy this inscription, may Lord Sakh and the Sun-god tear out his foundations and destroy his seed. This great conquest of the thirty-two confederate kings on the Arabian coast-land was esteemed by Manis-Tusu so important an achievement that he records it in identical words in the monuments he set up in the chief cities and temples all over Mesopotamia.
His point of crossing the Lower or Arabian Sea was probably effected at the Straits of Oman, where on the peninsula the first pitched battle with the confederate kings was likely to be fought, and with his fleet he could attack them in the rear, in a battle which, judging from the great number of kings engaged, must have been one of the greatest in the old world. The statement that he reached the diorite mountains " beyond the sea," i.
Magan, the Land reconquered by Manis-Tusu, a Name for the Sinai Peninsula Magan, 1 the famous sea-port of the mountainous country whence the Sumerians obtained by sea their diorite blocks for statues, is located by Assyriologists in the Sinai Peninsula at the head of the Red Sea. It was so very distant from Mesopotamia by sea that King Gudia, about four centuries after Manis-Tusu, records that the voyage took a whole year to and from Magan to bring back diorite blocks and precious woods and stones to the sea-port of Lagash in Mesopotamia, by way of the Persian Gulf.
It is possible that his omission to mention Egypt by name, if it be not the missing name in all the copies of his victory inscriptions, may have been owing to his having for so long held the Land of the Nile outside of, and independently of, the Mesopotamian empire as his personal possession, that he wished his favourite land to continue so ; or that it probably remained faithful to him when all the other lands revolted.
But we have seen that Sargon in one of his Indus seals No. In this the succession is recorded as here shown on the left, and on the right are placed their usual titles for identification: Mu, in whose r. Kish was smitten by weapons — Mush or Uru-Mush , s. The Greeks called Egypt sometimes Khemia or Khlmia. It seems to be a later phonetic spelling of this name for Egypt.
The country of Kimash is placed by Assyriologists " to the west of Babylonia," 4 and there is no inhabited country west of Babylonia until Sinai and Egypt are reached. Menes re Manis-Tusu as Sun- worshipper Menes was essentially a Sun-worshipper, as evidenced by his inscriptions in Egypt. Also spelt Qam, There it is stated S. And on the back of the great ebony label in Menes' tomb is painted with red pigment a Sun-Cross like a pedestalled Red Cross of St George. Self-excellent, grant us a sheltering home, a house that wards off fierce heat!
One by thy Name wins the boon his heart is set on: He who bestirs himself by thy Name shall bring the thing to pass. Translation based upon Griffith's. The heart of him who praiseth Thee trembles not in fear, when his hymn is sung by the pure in heart. The Sun- Hawk, girth-stretching, is the full source of the prayed-for boons as by the libations of the all-bestowing Mayin and Yayati. It was discovered by M. The text occupies sixty-nine closely-written columns, and records the purchase of several large estates in the neighbourhood of 1 This old Indian Pali name here, is Sanskritized as usual in the modern Vedic MSS.
And all the names of the sellers, with their addresses, as well as their receipts with the names and addresses of the witnesses, are all duly recorded. And the names and duties are detailed of the forty-nine government overseers entrusted with the administration and cultivation of the lands thus purchased by King Manis-Tusu or Menes. We have seen from the Indian Chronicles that King Manis-Tusu as the crown-prince Asa-Manja revolted from his father Sargon, in his early manhood ; and this tradition, along with the historical evidence we have gained regarding him, appears to provide material for reconstructing the outline of the lost chapter on his mode of seizing Upper Egypt and the route by which he effected it.
As crown prince of the Sumerian empire, Manis, as we have found, was governor of the Indus Valley colony of that empire. And at Koptos exist the oldest known statues of a god in Egypt, indicating the Red Sea route of their erectors.
Egyptian Civilization: Its Sumerian Origin and Real Chronology (1930)
The form of the ships is seen in the hieroglyphs of his ebony-label tomb inscription. In the Third Dynasty King Snefru sent a fleet of forty ships to a Syrian port for cedar wood, and the length of one of these was no less than feet. His worship continued down to the Roman period. And its Red Sea seaport was Kosseir see map , which thus seems to have been the probable port of debarkation of Menes and his Sumerian invading army.
What Menes appears to have done was to vastly increase the elements of sporadic Sumerian civilization introduced by his father and other predynastic kings, and to have established it firmly for the first time. Significantly, the civilization that he brought with him 1 phe. Manu in Indian legend was son of the Sun-god. The Aryan race also of Menes and his dynasty and dynastic ruling people is evidenced by their physical type on their monuments and in their skeletons unearthed from their tombs.
This reveals them to be of the Aryan type, tall, long-headed, with relatively broad brows and large brains, straight bridge to the nose and of a very vigorous type of face, as already noted. Date of Menes' Invasion of Egypt, about b. In Egypt several inscriptions of Menes have been found by Sir F.
And I have shown that this Aha hieroglyph with its phonetic value and meaning of Warrior are derived from the Sumerian. VI, e-f , as in Ancient Britain and Troy. The largest and longest inscriptions of Menes in Egypt are engraved on the ebony and ivory labels found at Abydos, of which three of the smaller are shown in Plate VI, and the largest in Plate VII in duplicate.
All of these, with the exception of the smaller ivory label deciphered below, are funereal and now prove to relate to the circumstances of his tragic death as we shall see later on. This small ivory label is of critical historical importance, as in it he uses his title of Tusu in Egypt, instead of the usual Aha. The high seat of Egyptian throne compared with the low in the diagram in Mesop. It reads in the retrograde direction, but in the annexed decipherment table I have arranged its signs for convenience from left to right.
In ebony and ivory from photographs by Sir F.
Egyptian Civilization Its Sumerian Origin & Real Chronology - L. a. Waddell - Google Книги
For decipherments and translations of a, see pp. This would give him a total reign in Egypt of thirty-five years independently, and thereafter conjointly with Mesopotamia of fifteen years, or in all fifty years. But the Egyptian traditional chronology of Manetho, which we shall find is proved by the Kish Chronicle to be grossly exaggerated for the successors in Menes' Dynasty, gives him a reign in Egypt of sixty-two years as seen in the chapter on Chronology. The Indian epic accounts describe him, as Asa Manj a, as meeting a violent death ; and this is in agreement with the Egyptian tradition, which is now fully confirmed by the actual contemporary inscriptions unearthed from his tomb in Egypt.
For apart from Naram being the son of Menes, we find from Narmar's i i. Naram's own Egyptian record in his Slate Palette victory 1 tablet, that Mannu-Dannu was an aboriginal, uncivilized chief of Magan and not of Egypt. And it is stated that that " tomb " was only the place of 41 the bored tablet of hanging wood dedicated. Petrie in at the empty tomb of King Mena or Menes at Abydos, 2 is said to show " the earliest known use of hieroglyphs for continuous writing in Egypt.
And no Assyriologist has hitherto perceived the very transparent resemblance to, and identity with, the Sumerian hieroglyphs in its writing. For convenience of reference I give here my careful transcript of the inscription from the photograph 1 wmc. But we have seen that his father Sargon's tomb inscriptions are earlier. Egyptian hieroglyphs, with their radical language, were derived from the Sumerian, I several years ago proceeded to re-examine this important sealed label inscription for its decipherment by our new keys.
In duplicate from photographs by Sir F. For decipherment and translation, see pp. The full details of my decipherment and literal translation of this extremely important historical inscription are given, sign by sign, and line by line in Appendix IV, with each of the signs deciphered through the Sumerian, along with their phonetic values and literal meanings ; and each and all duly attested from the standard Sumerian lexicons, as in the case of all my previous decipherments.
He completed the inspection of the Western Lands, He built there a holding or possession in Urani Land. Indeed, their record is so thoroughly modern that it might well have been composed and written at the present day. The Fatal Hornet which slew King Menes This contemporary historical account of the death of King Menes by the sting of a Hornet or Wasp is significantly confirmed all unsuspectedly by the Egyptian tradition of his death.
In Egyptian tradition or legend, Menes is said, after a glorious reign of sixty to sixty-two years in establishing and developing civilization in Egypt, to have been killed by a Kheb beast which came forth from the waters of the Nile. This clearly portrays it to be a winged insect of the Wasp or Hornet kind; and it has the same general form in the somewhat abraded label see Plate VII A.
These two pictographs are shown in the accompanying Figure No. In the Chaldean version of the Deluge, the Chaldean Noah says: The swallow went and turned about, A resting-place it did not settle upon and it returned. The later Greek myth-mongering bards on the other hand, who were unaware of the identity of King Minos of Crete with Pharaoh Menes or Minash of Egypt and Mesopotamia, yet aware that he met a tragic end whilst on a sea-voyage to the West, made King Minos to be treacherously and miserably murdered in 1 See footnote to decipherment in App.
Houghton, Natural History of Ancients, We have already seen that Sargon, the father of Menes and the predynastic Pharaoh who immediately preceded him in Egypt, records that the Tin Land, which lay beyond the Upper or Western Sea or Mediterranean, and thus in the Atlantic beyond the Pillars of Hercules, was tributary to him and sent him the products of its mines. Moreover, I have adduced evidence showing that the Tin Land referred to by Sargon was in Cornwall, which was thus already a recognized part of Sargon's empire before the accession of Menes to that empire.
And from its uplands the still further western land of Erin is sometimes visible. But Menes, the greatest admiral of the Old World, who, as we have seen, had repeatedly made with his fleet the long deep-sea voyage of about three thousand miles from the Persian Gulf and Indus Valley to Egypt by the Arabian and Red Seas, and who, as King Minos was the most famous sea-king in Greek tradition, expressly embarked on his last great voyage of exploration, as we are officially told in this 1 There were relatively poor ancient tin-workings in South-western Spain to the west of Gades outside the Strait of Gibraltar, but it is doubtful if they were worked in the Sargonic period.
For it was the accepted theory of his day, and a theory which continued down through the ages till the comparatively modem time of Copernicus in the fifteenth century a. This " End of the Sunset Land," which was thus reached by ships, lay clearly beyond the Tin land of Cornwall, which was already a colony of the empire and well known. And the furthest land to the west of the latter is the land of Erin—for at this period the Sumero-Phoenicians had evidently not yet reached the Azores or America, which latter now appears to be " The lost Atlantis " of a later age of Aryan-Phoenician explorers.
The name Urani, for this furthest west land reached by Menes or Manj or Mena, thus appears to me to be the original form of the old name " Erin " for Ireland; and we have seen that the vowels freely interchange in Sumerian and 1 WPOB. Most unfortunately, however, those venerable engraved stones of this immensely important monument of hoary antiquity were two years ago cleared from their dense incrustation of lichens of thirty years' growth, by coating them with caustic chemicals for some days followed by vigorous scrubbing with brushes and water.
Since then, the subsequent photographs now show little or no trace of the majority of the finer inscriptions, and in the larger stone especially a great many defacing additional initials carved 1 WPOB. Coffey, New Grange, The stone of these boulders is composed of millstone grit, a friable rock consisting of grit concreted with natural cement ; and the action of caustic soda and lime tends to dissolve the cement and set free the grit which with the hard scrubbing tends to remove part of the surface of the stone, and with it the loss of the finer lines of the inscriptions.
The detailed decipherments are given in Plate VI. The record of label B reads literally: See photographs in PI. The bright Field of Tas Tasia. The unmarked phonetic values have been given in previous tables. It is significant that Sir A. Evans, the brilliant explorer of Cretan antiquities, equates the beginning of his Early Minoan Period I, when Cretan civilization suddenly begins at the end of the New Stone Age, with the beginning of the First Dynasty Period in Egypt; yet no one ever appears to have suggested that Minos and Menes themselves might be personally related or identical.
On the contrary, the rich harvest of art treasures unearthed at Crete by Sir A. He was like Menes or Manis a votary and priest of Zeus or Zagg. He was a sea-emperor of the Mediterranean and laid Greece, including Athens, under tribute, just as Menes or Fig. Note his cognomen of Wild Bull's head in upper register duplicated for symmetry, and at bottom the king personified as Wild Bull destroy- ing citadel of his enemy, the king of Magan. Note giraffes' necks forming pigment well.
Minos was a great sailor, an admiral and builder of ships, just as Manis was. He promulgated wise laws, which he received from Zeus, just as the Sumerians ascribed their laws to King Zagg or Sax, and Manis himself was a famous establisher and observer of constitutional law. Minos' death also was tragic in a sea-voyage in the West, just as Menes 1 was. The culture, art and civilization of Minos and his period was generally similar to that of Menes or Manis. Both kings were of the Bronze Age.
Both used finely wrought stone bowls in diorite or other hard mineral. Both had black hand-burnished ceramic ware and decorated and painted pottery of the same forms. Both used writing on clay tablets with a style, and the Minoan script resembles many of the signs in the linear script of Sargon and Menes and his dynastic successors in Egypt my decipherments of the relatively few inscriptions found in Crete I hope to publish in a later work. The button-seals of Crete resemble those found in the Sumerian colony of the Indus Valley in the Sargonic period, 3 and also in Mesopotamia, and cylinder seals 4 and clay sealings were used by both.
And the differences which latterly developed in the mannerisms and local style of Cretan artists are no greater than those which latterly arose in Egypt and other colonies of the Sumerians under local inspiration. Funeral rites and cults of Minoan Crete were similar to Egyptians of Delta. It is found in the inscription of Manis-Tusu's grandfather; 1 and it is obviously a fuller form of the diagrammatic axe-sign in Sumerian, which has the phonetic value of Zag or Sag, and is defined as " axe, sceptre, two-edged sword.
Son of god Zeus. Votary and priest of Zeus. Sailor and builder of fleets. Law-giver direct from Zeus. His son was a Bull-man Mino- Taur. Writing on clay tablets in linear script generally resembling Sumerian and linear Egyptian. Used seal-impressions on clay for sealing. Funeral rites similar to Egyptian delta. Double-Axe emblem of Zeus. Physical type of Minoans is Aryan. Death tragic on sea-voyage in West. Son or descendant of Zagg or Sax Zeus. Votary of god Zagg and ex officio high-priest.
Sailor with fleets of ships. Law-establisher with code credited to Zagg. Writing on clay tablets in linear and cuneiform Sumerian script. Used seals for clay sealing. Culture and Art of Sumerian or Aryan type. Funeral rites of delta similar to Cretan. Physical type is Aryan. Death of Menes tragic on sea- voyage in West. Ner-gal from his fatal smiting still later became the God of the Underworld. Date of Minoan Civilization about b. We thus obtain a mass of cumulative evidence for the identity of the legendary King Minos of Crete with the historical King Menes of Egypt and the Sumerian or Aryan King Manis, the sea-emperor of the Mediterranean.
We also gain for the first time a relatively fixed initial historical date for King Minos of Crete at about B. As the successors of Menes in his First Dynasty of Egypt are now discovered to be identical with the successors of Manis-the-Warrior in Mesopotamia and in agreement with the Aryan kings in the Indian Lists, this discovery requires a separate chapter. These identities moreover disclose that Egypt was held as a colony of the Mesopotamian empire from the epoch of Sargon onwards to at least the end of his dynasty ; with the exception of the reign of Menes or Manis himself, in which it was held independently of Mesopotamia as a separate kingdom by Manis or Aha Men personally.
Indeed, the Indian King-Lists and Chronicles make it clear that his younger brother Mush did not reign there, as they omit his name altogether from the main-line Aryan kings, and obviously considered him to be a usurper. In column 2 are added the forms of the names of those kings as actually found in their own contemporary monuments in Mesopotamia, which is also confirmed by their names in their Indus seals in Plates XI, etc. Mush Uru- , s. Manis-Tusu or Manasyu, s. Abha-Yada, Ansu-mat or of And we thus obtain additional evidence of the identity of the Sumerian and Aryan history.
Again, as regards the traditional Egyptian list of names of the kings, of Manetho, etc. The results of these revised readings are given in the first column of the annexed Comparative Table. In columns 2 and 3 are given the names as read respectively by the leading Egyptologists, Sir F.
Petrie 1 and Sir W. And in columns 6 and 7 1 PHE. The chronological order of the kings also is essentially identical. It is absolutely identical in all three lists— Egyptian, Babylonian and Indian, as far as and inclusive of the third king, Shar-Guni or Gin-Eri , the Kenkenes of Manetho and Khent of Egyptologists and Kunti-jit of the Indian lists ; and the last king who ended Menes' Dynasty is the same in all three lists: Of the other kings of Manetho's list and the monuments.
The reason for the extra kings in the Egyptian lists is disclosed to be evidently the anarchy in Mesopotamia which followed on the death of the third king, Gani-sharri, as detailed in the Babylonian Chronicles. Your request to send this item has been completed. Citations are based on reference standards.
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