The key period of transition from spelt and emmer to rye and barley with lesser amounts of free-threshing bread wheat and oats, was the mid-5th century AD. Pol- len analysis may be misleading in that rye is a species producing an abun- dance of airbome pollen, distinctive and easily identified, and so tends to be over-represented in pollen layers 3. Despite a measure of confusion it is 3 M. At any rate, wheat is hardly mentioned in Anglo-Saxon charters while, in the preamble to the Laws of Wihtraed of Kent, the month of August was called Rugern, after the rye harvest.
However, in the later Middle Ages, according to the most authorita- tive statement, the recently published volume III of the Agrarian History of England and Wales, rye was by no means the pre-eminent grain and over much of the country was grown little or not at ail 4.
CampbeU's estimate of the composition of the grain area in England table 2 below suggests that in the early fourteenth century rye and maslin accounted for well under 10 per cent of total grain production, falling in the early fifteenth century to just 2 per cent. On the assumption that half the barley and oats and three- quarters of the dredge corn mixtures of mainly barley and oats was made into malt or fed to animais, rye represented per cent and per cent respectively of total food grains. In the west Midlands, meanwhile, rye was important in the Severn Valley district of Worcestershire, while in south-west England there were sizeable concentrations on manorial demesnes in mid- and North Devon but, on the other hand, relatively little on the Cornish coastlands or in south Devon 6.
In a separate analysis of 83 agreements, rye and maslin comprised cumulati- vely only 17 quarters 4 lbs out of a total of quarters and 0. Estate wage labourers or famuli, on the other hand, ate far less wheat and barley than retired farmers. The liveries of the famuli on 20 manors in the west Midlands, , show a remarkably high proportion of rye and maslin, about 45 per cent, compared with about 12 per cent of wheat. A fonda- mental change in grain-eating habits, initially from barley to wheat and rye, that is from spring-sown to winter-sown grains, and subsequently from rye to wheat, is evidenced in Dyer's important study of the diets of harvest workers on Norfolk manors in the late Middle Ages Paper read at the Research workshop on agricultural productivity in the European economy in the past.
Bellagio, Italy, March XXXVI , p. The six- teenth century saw a high incidence of harvest failures and, in dearth years, a widespread resort to the cheaper grains, rye and barley, and to grain substitutes, such as beans and turnips n. Between and rye prices rose eight-fold, wheat prices six-fold. On the face of it rye was much more popular in the early modem period than in the later Middle Ages. The rye share was put at 28 per cent by Gregory King in and at 15 per cent by Charles Smith in 12, while according to Chartres, in wheat ac- counted for 20 per cent, rye 14 per cent, barley 40 per cent, and oats 26 per cent of net grain output, inferring that rye was then contributing about one fifth of total food grains Rye production unquestionably 11 W.
IV, , p. EJTCollins rose over the sixteenth century, though to levels much lower than those suggested by Ashley and Chartres, but thereafter declined. It was a significant crop in only a relatively few districts: The Certificates of Corn to Spare for Market, c l , used extensively by Ashley, show large quantifies of rye and rnaslin in the eastern counties -Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Nottinghamshire and the North Riding of Yorkshire - but very little in central and south-west England, or the south Midlands l 6.
This distribution is confirmed by probate inventory analysis. A study of 7, Hampshire inventories shows rye occupying 6 per cent of the grain area in but falling to virtually nothing by the end of the century Thirsk's pioneering research on Lincolnshire emphasises again the low level of rye production even in an established rye-eating county In the period , rye occupied 2. In it was everywhere less than one per cent, excepting the clays with 2.
In , according to Overton, rye occupied 23 per cent of the grain area in Norfolk 15 E. In the s King had placed rye below barley and oats and equal to wheat in terms of production. Thomas Tooke, believed that the major change over to wheaten bread occured in the low-price years The authoritative treatise by the Essex miller, Charles Smith, publis- hed in , concluded that while 'it is certain that bread from wheat is much more generally the food of the common people since than it was before that time Rye was the joint leader in the north and north-east, a close second to barley in Wales, and a respectable third in the midlands and north-centre.
However, other sources - the probate inventories already mentioned, Young's agricultural tours, the Board of Agriculture county reports, and the Privy Council and Home office enquiries of and - suggest that Smith has overstated the importance of rye whilst understating that of barley and oats XXXI , pp. Ashley, The Bread qf ourForefathers, , p. In Cumberland for example, the bread most widely used was made of barley or mixtures of barley and rye Maslin was still very common on the Yorkshire Moors where it was reputed to be more esteemed than wheat alone On Tyneside and Wearside rye and maslin were the staple diet of miners, and still much used in Newcastle itself In south Wales, barley was the common bread in the lowlands, and oats giving way to rye, maslin and in scarce years rye and barley mixtures, in the upper parts of Cardiganshire, Radnorshire and Brecon Adjoining the Continent, in the Channel Islands, barley either alone or mixed with wheat and rye was used by the poor, and wheat and mixtures.
In and again in , crisis years, rye was reported at various points - though again mainly in Cumbria, the eastern counties and the East Midlands Cumberland, , p. Durham, , pp. East Riding of Yorkshire , p. North Riding of Yorkshire , passim. North Wales , pp. South Wales , vol. EJTCollins population still subsisted on spring-sown grains and, to a small extent, rye.
One estimate for puts the wheat proportion at 74 per cent compared with At this late stage, wheaten flour was almost universal but for a little maslin as already men- tioned; occasional mixtures of wheat and barley in south Wales and south- 32 Farmers Magazine, , pp. The short answer is that in the seven- teenth and eighteenth centuries, Britain achieved a rapid expansion in per capita wheat production due to an increasing area under cultivation and rising yields.
From being a net importer, it had become by the early eigh- teenth century, Europe's largest exporter of wheat and second largest ex- porter of rye. Rye was much better adapted than wheat to acid soil of low natural fertility and humus content. In addition, it had a shorter growing season and could withstand both drought and late frosts. Lowland Britain, though, had the benefit of an equable climate and large tracts of chalk, loam and clay soils which, being naturally alkaline, or very slightly acidic, were favourable to the growing of wheat and barley.
In England, a fortuitous combination of climate, soils and far- ming techniques, gave momentum to an already established trend from spring to winter grains, and rye to wheat. By the mid-nineteenth century, rye in Britain was grown neither as a human food nor, as on the Continent, as a horse feed, but as a green manure and spring feed for sheep, or for specialist industrial purposes such as brickmaking, collar making straw plait and thatching.
On the demand side, the most important factor was the high level of real incomes which meant that more people could afford to eat relatively expensive wheat; and infrastructurally, a dense and efficient net- work of inland and coastal waterways, which facilitated inter-regional trade in grains. Wilson, Our farm crops , vol.
I is probably the best contemporary discussion. EJTCollins chemical and physiological characteristics of the two grains. A basic fact of cereal chemistry is that wheat contains large quantities of gluten and non- soluble gliadin, while rye has very little gluten, but high proportions of bran and soluble proteins, and a fibrous coat. Dough made from rye flour differs from that made from wheat flour in that it lacks spring and elasticity and cannot be stretched to form the bubbles essential to the aereation and raising of the loaf.
Compared to wheaten bread, rye bread was heavy and indigestible, and possessed moreover, especially when made with sour dough, a po- werful and distinctive taste. Above ail, rye bread was dark coloured, where wheat varied from white to light brown. By the seven- teenth century, in contrast to most of the rest of Europe, the traditional heavy black sour bread made from wholemeal rye had in most parts of England given way to the lighter, whiter, less strongly flavoured maslin bread, made from a mixture of wheat and rye; 1: By the eighteenth century, or before, rye had ceased to be an item of diet over most of England west of a line from London to Liverpool, the fact of it now almost entirely erased from the folk memory.
In the areas where it was still widely used or had been but very recently given up, it was known to possess certain advanta- ges over wheat. The unique property of rye was that its bran contains a large number of pentosuns long chains of 5-carbon sugars , and com- pounds with a very high water-binding capacity, and thus it remains moist and fresh for much longer, for up to days compared with the wheaten loaf s days, which meant in baking terms a worthwhile economy in fuel and effort Even where wheaten bread was the staple, it was not unusual in summer, when it became quickly dry and insipid, to add a little rye to render it soft and more palatable Precisely on account of its heaviness, rye was reckoned particularly suitable for men engaged in hard labour, such as harvesting or coal-mining, because it stayed longer in the stomach and contributed to muscular strength VII , p.
However, in north Wales, Davies distinguished the greyish bara rhyg, eaten in the uplands, from the bara cann-rhyg, the white rye bread of the lowlands A method of making sourdough rye bread once very popular in east York- shire, is described by John Tuke in his agricultural survey of the county of After each batch, writes Tuke, the dough paste remaining on the sides of the tub became sour, and half the meal would be mixed with wa- ter to stand overnight and generally ferment.
The following day it would be worked up stiff with the other half of the meal, often with the feet, made into large loaves and baked for hours. It was usual by this method to make at least loaves per baking. Maslin bread was made in the same manner as wheaten bread, that is, with fresh-kneaded dough and yeast. In some parts of England before the end of the Middle Ages, in others not until aie eighteenth century, rye was a reserve grain, the ultimate resort in much the same way as was millet in the Mediterranean, buckwheat in Brittany and Russia, and maize in the wheat-eating parts of south east Europe, the Balkans and Iberian Peninsula.
Since the Middle Ages, Danzig in parti- cular had exported large quantifies of rye to the Low Countries and in dearth years into eastern England to make good the shortages From the fourteenth century the Lord Mayors of London had organized grain imports from Prussia and the Baltic when London grain prices were high.
Northumberland , p. Exports fluctuated with the size of the En- glish harvest, the flow being reversed in rare years, such as , when over 20, tonnes of rye from Danzig and the Dutch ports was taken in following a harvest failure in eastern England, and from the s ge- nerally, as population increased.
In the crisis years of the s, there were record shipments of rye into the east coast ports, c. From time to time grain movements from the Baltic were disrupted by war, but continued at relatively high levels until about when they fell away to nothing. Indeed, since the six- teenth century, shortages of wheat, and the prospect of being forced back onto the cheaper grains, posed a threat to public order.
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Much more than oats or even barley, rye not only carried the stigma of poverty but was thought unhealthy. In Britain, it came in- creasingly to be regarded as a disease of Continental Europe where rye was much more widely eaten and agriculture less advanced. VI, , pp. Wilbraham, Tbe Englisbman'sfood , p.
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EastLotbian , pp. Neither was it much used in brewing or distilling. The sight of a carter eating a slice of the same rye cake as was fed to his charges, common throughout northern Europe until recently, was unknown in Britain. In England, rye has no place in folk-lore, having gone out of favour in or before the eighteenth century, and become largely extinct by the s. It re-entered the diet later in the nineteenth century as a specialist health food esteemed for its laxative properties. Like oatmeal which, after long disuse, was re-introduced into southern England from the United States in the late ni- neteenth century as a health food, rye too was transformed by a seachange from an inferior into a modem high status food The making ofthe modem Brttisb diet , pp.
Aussi est-il de tradition en Ardennes de faire du pain d'avoine en cas de disette 8. Nous pouvons cependant identifier une zone ou le seigle fournit l'essentiel de l'alimentation humaine: Retenons cependant que les distilleries utilisent principalement du seigle, puis de l'orge et enfin un peu d'avoine. Cette situation s'explique par la mise en culture d'une grande superficie de terres en friche. Luxembourg, session de , p. Une page de son histoire et de son folklore.
Ses- sions de , , La Wallonie, le pays et les hommes. Bruxelles, La Renaissance du Livre, , pp Le produit physique de la Belgique Charle- ville, Imprimerie du Petit Ardennais, Paris, Imprimerie Royale, Statistique de la Belgique. Bruxelles, Librairie Albert Dewit, Renaud Zeebroek Figure 1 Seigle: Dantzius est mort en Inutile de souligner que je ne partage pas cet avis. DEMAN sur ce sujet. La principale forme de consommation du seigle est la panification.
La belle gravure du seigle cf. Il faudra attendre le dernier ouvrage de Matthiole, le Compendium de plantis omni- bus Corinne Beutler Figure 2. De medica materia, Venise, , impr. Au demeurant, leurs observa- tions sont bien connues dans l'ensemble de l'Europe, les oeuvres de Crescenz et de Matthiole et leur diffusion en font foi.
Il va de soi que l'appellation n'avait aucune incidence sur l'identifi- cation de la chose. Giuseppe, La nuova, vaga e dilettevole villa, cf.
Celibacy and Transmutation of Sexual Energy for Deeper Meditation
Venise, , seconda giornata, fol. Corinne Beutler Annexe 2. Strasbourg, , Buch DC, Kap. De medica materia libros V, Venise, lib. Liberprimus -octavus de materiali medicina, Venise, lib. Strasbourg, Buch II, Kap. De medica materia libros V, lib. Leyden, , Boek XVI, cap. Corinne Beutler Trad. Fatto di greco in italiano, Venise, lib. De medica materia libri V, Flo- rence, lib.
Le seigle, secale cereale, histoire et ethnologie | Jean-Pierre Devroey - tevopaleqopi.tk
De medica materia, Venise, lib. Stuttgart, , Buch V, Kap. De medicinali materia libri V, Paris, libU, cap. De medicinali materia libri VI, cf. Actes du colloque de Bielefeld, novembre , Paris, , p. Par contre, 4 B. Kobert, dont la publication est malheureusement introuvable en Belgique. Masson et Cie, , p. Kritiscbe Gesamtausgabe, Weimar, , p.
Ceux-ci sont pour une part de nature psychique. Les crampes, on l'a dit, peuvent persister. Je reviendrai ci-dessous sur cet as- pect de la question. Enfin, le Claviceps paspali Stev. L'opinion soutenue par H. Sur les effets psychologiques du LSD, cf. Bauer en Ce laconisme frustrant des sources a conduit E. Les cinq livres des ses histoires, , Paris, , p.
- Shards (The Glass Table Book 1).
- The Stone Man and the Poet.
Bischof Ulrich von Augsburg und seine Verehrung. Il ne fut pas le seul. Il n'est donc pas impossible que l'ergotisme, sous sa Jahrbuch des Vereins fur Augsburger Bistumsgeschichte, 7 , bibliographie exhaustive pour aux p. L'historien de l'ergotisme G. Knaut 8 3 et I. Ce dont l'auteur des Annales urbis Misnae ne dit pas un mot. On verra ci-dessus, dans la contribution de C. Dodoens suspectait le seigle de provoquer la maladie que les allemands appelaient scorbucH voir ici p. Le laconisme dont font preuve ces deux chroniques ne permet pas vraiment de trancher.
Die Cbroniken der deutscben Stddte, t. Auch kamen gar vil leut die rot ruer an Turin, , p. Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum, Ce dernier se nommait Ruthart et Ed. Ein Mirakel des Festschrift Johanne Autenrieth, Sigmaringen, , p. Deux indices vont dans ce sens: Ils ne s'appaisaient que lorsqu'on leur comprimait l'abdomen avec force. Le Cbronicon Moguntinum n'envisage pas d'autre explication. Reste que, pour autant que l'on sache, il est exceptionnel que l'ergotisme convulsif se tra- duise par des douleurs abdominales insupportables.
Le squelette est celui d'une femme d'environ vingt-cinq ans. L'auteur de la fouille, V. Un assolement biennal n'est en effet pas suffi- sant: Les deux estimations partent du principe que la consommation moyenne de farine est de g par personne et par jour. Sigaut a et b. Le premier concerne la Grande-Bretagne.
John Creasey, de l'Institute of Agricultural History Reading a bien voulu se charger de cette recherche. Je savais cela, mais rien de plus, et cela ne me paraissait pas assez pour faire le contenu d'une communication. Il arrive pourtant que nous soyons servis pas la chance. Je ne le nie pas. Mais quid du reste de l'Europe? Cette largeur du spectre adaptatif du seigle, par comparaison avec celui du froment, est un point qu'on ne doit pas sous-estimer. Le passage suivant, que j'extrais de L'agriculture de l'Ouest de la France, d'O.
Les es- sais entrepris par quelques personnes sur le seigle de la Saint- Jean ou le seigle multicaule n'ont eu aucun retentissement. Jamais on ne leur fait subir de chaulage. Il le fait dans trois passages du livre 18 de l'Histoire naturelle qui sont les suivants. Sed frigidioribus regionibus puluerationem faciunt, quant uocant rustici occationem, cum omnis glebas in uineis refringitur et resoluitur in puluerem Col.
Occatio est cum rustici satione facta bubus dismissis grandes glebas caedunt ac ligonibusfrangunt Etymologiarum, XVII, 2. Il pouvait certes s'agir de herses. Sed et compluribus iterationibus sic resoluatur ueruactum in puluerem, ut uel nullam uel exiguam desideret occationem cum seminauerimus. Nam ueteres Romani dixerunt maie subactum agrum, qui satis frugibus occandus sit. Le fait que Pline parle au ch. Et que si- gnifie exactement la phrase secale En Ardenne, nous apprend H. Il nous cite en effet ch 50 plusieurs cultures qui, comme le seigle et le farrago, se contentaient d'un minimum de soins: Faba runcari non gestit.
Quoniam euincit herbas lupinum, occatur tantum. Milium et panicum occatur et saritur, non iteratur, non runcatur. Silicia etphasioli occantur tantum. Franjou, la bruine n'est autre que la nielle ou carie. La chose n'a rien de bien surprenant. Dans un travail pionnier sur ce sujet, paru en , G. Mais il s'agit ici de tout autre chose. Ce sont les enclosures d'Angleterre, les Verkoppelungen d'Allemagne, les remembrements bocagers de France. Je ne veux pas entrer ici dans une discussion qui manquerait de bases solides.
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