In the end, "the mother is deprived of an object that she actually never had.
If there is anything perceived as lacking, what is absent is already the symbolic phallus, and the agent of privation is the imaginary father" p. The transgender phenomenon proves that there is nothing natural that would direct us to the opposite sex" p. Because gender is fluid in contrast to the binary structure of sexuality, the human subject is constantly driven to resist the duality of this male-female division, opening up a realm for subjects to cross genders in that in-between space.
The provocation that this binary structure usually poses for the hysteric, whose basic question is whether she is a male or female, becomes a question that is being concretely answered by the transgendered subject. By contrast the transsexual patients do not pose this question.
They believe that they know what they are a man or a woman trapped in the wrong body and their main problem will be finding ways of rectifying that error. I believe that "knowing what they are" locates the transsexual solution more closely to the psychotic structure than the hysteric one.
From the Invention of Hysteria to the Democratizing of Transgenderism (Book Review)
Unlike the hysteric who asks questions and constantly doubts, wavering between positions, the psychotic knows, and has a delusional system that substitutes for the foreclosed name-of-the father. Akin to the psychotic's delusional system, the transsexual tends to insist, as Gherovici's cases illustrate, that an error in nature has indeed occurred and that this error needs to be corrected by surgical and hormonal means. Gherovici characterizes this "error in nature" as a "refusal to accept sexual discourse.
Often the demand for a sex change is meant to rectify this error in the Symbolic register by correcting the error in the real of the body" p. Gherovici disagrees with other Lacanians who have written on the subject of transsexualism, like Catherine Millot and Moustafa Saffouan, who argue that transsexuals opt for a psychotic solution, because the transsexual solution is structurally akin to the psychotic one. The transsexual symptom appears to function as a substitution of the Name-of-the-Father inasmuch as the transsexual aims to incarnate the Woman.
Not one woman in the sense of "not-all," implying that no one could claim to represent All women the transsexual position consists of wanting to be All, all woman, more woman than all woman and representing them all. Gherovici then suggests that some transsexuals' solution may be less pathologically structured than traditional Lacanians have previously suggested. Although she provides many fascinating case examples from her own clinical practice, I think there are moments in her own argument where her desire to depathologize transsexualism outweighs her clinical observations.
To have a solid answer to a hysterical question and to decide for one gender over another seems to me to locate that transsexual solution in the sphere of a psychotic structure. The certainty and the omnipotent thinking that often accompanies the transsexuals' solutions like the man who has now borne two babies leads in my mind to a solution, more closely akin to a psychotic or perverse structure than a neurotic one, like hysteria.
The wish to be it all, or to have it all to be a woman with a penis, or to be a man without a penis but with breasts speaks to an omnipotent solution that wants it all and cannot bear the experience of loss and mark of differentiation. I do think that Gherovici ends up arguing very persuasively that a transsexual solution resembles a new reknotting of the symbolic, the imaginary, and the real, and constructs a new sinthome that holds these three registers together so that the transsexual subject does not descend into a psychosis.
Akin to Lacan's theory that James Joyce's writing saved him from descending into a psychosis, and thus functioned like a patch covering up and over the foreclosed name-of-the-father, so the surgical operation into another gender can function in similar ways as an escape from a psychotic abyss. Unlike the bodily symptom, the sinthome, Gherovici writes, is a "purified symptom, it remains beyond symbolic representation and exists outside the unconscious structured as a language.
In this sense, the sinthome is closer to the Real" p. Likewise, the transsexuals, convinced that they live in the wrong body, are "trapped inside a living chamber of horrors," as one of Gherovici's patients says, and also exist outside the "normal dyadic structure, at which point their journey into the other gender is an attempt to reinsert themselves into a discourse that has left them outside, unspoken for and unsymbolized.
- Spiritual Leadership In A Secular Age: Building Bridges Instead Of Barriers (TCP Leadership Series);
- A Matter of Choice.
I think the fact that Iran, under the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini, has allowed sex change operations while still punishing homosexuals with the death penality says it all. Khomeini's statement that people "have a right to get rid of this body and transform it into the other sex" p. While a sex change operation still strikes many as a high tech, modern solution to an ancient problem, it echoes after all rather conservative values and attempts to erase, as Tim Dean writes, all sexual divisions p.
The man who feels he has lived in the wrong body often transforms himself into the hyperfeminine woman, embodying strikingly traditional ways of representing himself as a woman. Transgendered people may thus become the select subjects who end up promoting and passing on the very models of hyperfeminitity that women who are content living inside their bodies often rebel against.
I think that Please Select Your Gender , in the end, provides a compassionate, inside account of the conflicts transgendered individuals are facing as they escape the body that is imprisoning them. At first glance, its refreshing approach of relating the history of hysteria to clinical vignettes of transsexual experience promises to be a welcome contribution to the field of transgender studies, which is heavily oriented towards literary theory and cultural criticism. For historians of medicine, the most relevant aspect of the book also defines the author's research motivation: In her previous book, The Puerto Rican Syndrome , Patricia Gherovici discovered that the recent psychiatric erasure of hysteria from the official nomenclature is simply a semantic suppression.
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Please Select Your Gender: From the Invention of Hysteria to the Democratizing of Transgenderism
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