This amounts to around 1, hours of sunshine annually. The local topography , however, also contributes significantly to the low insolation. A study published during the early s  indicated that sunshine recording instruments remained significantly obscured throughout the year and entirely obscured during June.
This illustrates the effect the Allardyce range has in breaking up cloud cover. The highest recorded temperature was Conversely, the highest recorded temperature at Bird Island on the windward western side is a mere The seas surrounding South Georgia are cold throughout the year due to the proximity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. They usually remain free of pack ice in winter, though thin ice may form in sheltered bays, and icebergs are common. The South Sandwich Islands are much colder than South Georgia, being farther south and more exposed to cold outbreaks from the Antarctic continent.
They are also surrounded by sea ice from the middle of May to late November even longer at their southern end. Executive power is vested in the Monarch of the United Kingdom and is exercised by the commissioner , a post held by the Governor of the Falkland Islands.
The current commissioner is Nigel Phillips , who became commissioner on 12 September A chief executive officer Martin Collins deals with policy matters and is director of SGSSI Fisheries, responsible for the allocation of fishing licences. An executive officer Richard McKee deals with administrative matters relating to the territory. Also, an environmental officer Jennifer Lee and a marine and Fisheries officer Katherine Ross are appointed.
The financial secretary and attorney general of the territory are appointed ex officio similar appointments in the Falkland Islands' government. As no permanent inhabitants live on the islands, no legislative council and no elections are needed. The UK Foreign Office manages the foreign relations of the territory. Since , the territory celebrates Liberation Day on 14 June. The constitution of the territory adopted 3 October , the manner in which its government is directed and the availability of judicial review were discussed in a series of litigations between and see, in particular, Regina v.
Although its government is entirely directed by the UK Foreign Office, it was held that, since it was acting as an agent of the Crown in right of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands rather than in right of the UK, its decisions under that direction could not be challenged as if they were in law decisions of a UK government department; [ clarification needed ] thus the European Convention on Human Rights did not apply.
Commercial sealing occurred on the islands between and During that period 20 visits are recorded by sealing vessels. Fishing takes place around South Georgia and in adjacent waters in some months of the year, with fishing licences sold by the territory for Patagonian toothfish , cod icefish and krill. Fishing licences bring in millions of pounds a year, most of which is spent on fishery protection and research. The certificate places limits on the timing and quantity of Patagonian toothfish that may be caught.
Tourism has become a larger source of income in recent years, with many cruise ships and sailing yachts visiting the area the only way to visit South Georgia is by sea; there are no airstrips on the Islands. The territory gains income from landing charges and the sale of souvenirs.
Cruise ships often combine a Grytviken visit with a trip to the Antarctic Peninsula. Charter yacht visits usually begin in the Falkland Islands, last between four and six weeks, and enable guests to visit remote harbours of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Sailing vessels are now required to anchor out and can no longer tie up to the old whaling piers on shore. Yachts visiting South Georgia are normally expected to report to the Government Officers at King Edward Point before moving round the island.
A large source of income from abroad also comes from the issue of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands postage stamps which are produced in the UK. A reasonable issue policy few sets of stamps are issued each year along with attractive subject matter especially whales makes them popular with topical stamp collectors. There are only four genuine first day cover sets from 16 March in existence. They were stamped at the South Georgia Post Office; all those in circulation were stamped elsewhere and sent out, but the only genuine ones were kept at the Post Office on South Georgia.
These four sets were removed during the Falklands War by a member of staff of the British Antarctic Survey in the few moments the Argentinians allowed them to gather their belongings. The pound sterling is the official currency of the islands, and the same notes and coins are used as in the United Kingdom. For more information on British currency in the wider region, see Pound sterling in the South Atlantic and the Antarctic. Although the territory has no permanent residents, the domain suffix has some popularity for website registrations, with approximately 6 million instances as of November The parts of the islands that are not permanently covered in snow or ice are part of the Scotia Sea Islands tundra ecoregion.
In total there are 26 species of vascular plant native to South Georgia; six species of grass , four rushes , a single sedge , six ferns , one clubmoss and nine small forbs. There are also about species of moss , 85 of liverworts and lichens , as well as about 50 species of macrofungi. The largest plant is the tussock grass Poa flabellata. Other grasses include the tufted fescue Festuca contracta , the Alpine cat's-tail Phleum alpinum and Antarctic hair-grass Deschampsia antarctica , and one of the commonest flowering plants is the greater burnet Acaena magellanica. South Georgia supports many sea birds, including albatross , a large colony of king penguins , Macaroni penguins  and penguins of various other species, along with petrels , prions , shags , skuas , gulls and terns.
Seals frequent the islands, and whales may be seen in the surrounding waters. There are no native land mammals, though reindeer , brown rats and mice were introduced to South Georgia through human activities. Rats, brought to the island as stowaways on sealing and whaling ships in the late 18th century,  have caused much damage to native wildlife, destroying tens of millions of ground-nesting birds' eggs and chicks.
While previously the island's glaciers formed a natural barrier to the spread of rats, these glaciers are now slowly melting as the climate warms.
Reindeer were introduced to South Georgia in by Norwegian whalers for meat and for sport hunting. In February , the authorities announced that due to the reindeer's detrimental effect on native species and the threat of their spreading to presently pristine areas, a complete cull would take place, leading to the eradication of reindeer from the island. The seas around South Georgia have a high level of biodiversity. In a recent study — , South Georgia has been discovered to contain one of the highest levels of biodiversity among all the ecosystems on Earth. This was scaled down during the s until the last detachment left South Georgia in March , after a new station had been built and occupied by the British Antarctic Survey.
A handful of British naval vessels patrol the region, visiting South Georgia a few times each year and sometimes deploying small infantry patrols. She carried out hydrological and mapping work as well as assisting with scientific fieldwork for the British Antarctic Survey, film and photographic units, and youth expedition group BSES Expeditions.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British overseas territory in the Southern Atlantic Ocean. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Monarch Queen Elizabeth II. Sovereignty dispute Falkland Islands Dependencies. Flag Languages Postal History. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.
July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Military of the Falkland Islands. Geography portal South America portal United Kingdom portal. Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 31 May Bird Island has a year round complement of four BAS personnel who undertake long-term monitoring of seabirds and marine mammals.
TIME Magazine: The American South
The South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited, though an originally undetected, and subsequently allowed, manned Argentinean research station was located on Thule from to Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on The original quote in Spanish is: The Official History of the Falklands Campaign: The origins of the Falklands war. Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey: Archived from the original PDF on 7 September Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 10 December Climate Data for Selected Stations in Danish. Archived from the original PDF on April 27, Retrieved January 19, The Island of South Georgia.
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford. Retrieved 19 May The Life of Birds.
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South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands. Archived from the original on 3 August Retrieved 8 July Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 3 July Archived 12 June at the Wayback Machine. Largest protected area in the world. Portsmouth, 11 January Retrieved 2 August Former ice patrol ship to be scrapped". Retrieved 8 October Countries, territories and dependencies of the United Kingdom. England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales.
South (United States of America) - Wikitravel
List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom. Occupied jointly with the United States. South is one of the four cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. By convention , the bottom side of a map is south, although reversed maps exist that defy this convention.
Alternatively, in the Northern Hemisphere outside the tropics , the Sun will be roughly in the south at midday.
Southern United States
True south is the direction towards the sun end of the axis about which the Earth rotates, called the South Pole. The South Pole is located in Antarctica. Magnetic south is the direction towards the south magnetic pole , some distance away from the south geographic pole. Roald Amundsen , from Norway , was the first to reach the South Pole , on 14 December , after Ernest Shackleton from the UK was forced to turn back some distance short. The Global South refers to the socially and economically less-developed southern half of the globe. It "lacks appropriate technology, it has no political stability, the economies are disarticulated, and their foreign exchange earnings depend on primary product exports".
Use of the term "South" may also be country-relative, particularly in cases of noticeable economic or cultural divide. For example, the Southern United States , separated from the Northeastern United States by the Mason—Dixon line , or the South of England , which is politically and economically unmatched with all of the North of England.
Rarely does the meaning broaden to Bolivia , and in the most restricted sense it only covers Chile, Argentina and Uruguay. The country of South Africa is so named because of its location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four formerly separate British colonies.
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