Living off land, Griego family incarnates type of Hispanic existence that lasted into 20th century. As much as autobiography, Good-bye is costumbristic and qualifies as Mexican for its pre Guadalupe Hidalgo portrayal. Journalist, lawyer and politician, author has been intimate with politics for over thirty years: Cristiano Mario Guerra Leal analyzes political system more than other memoirists. Images of favorites among presidents rarely harmonize with official histories. Although action takes place mainly in s, Guerra Leal reflects upon earlier decades of history.
Lawyer, professor, writer, rector of University of Guanajuato, supreme court justice, and senator, Guerrero was born in Guanajuato. Memoirs are as much of place as of person. Texas Tech University Press, Born in Coahuila in , author spent first seven years of life in Mexico. Guerrero is success story of Mexican immigrant who survived in Anglo culture: Forum, he was also radio host and county commissioner.
First of three-volume autobiography, compiled with aid of three anthropologists communicates life of self-taught man of people who witnessed later years of revolutionary process in home state. In land redistribution the ejido , local hostility such as cristeros inhibited ideals of movement. Volume II continues struggle for land reform. After events of Nemmias q. The new agrarian policies are seen as reflected in places he visits. Episodios de la Guerra Cristera y He evaluates results of Cristero movement from perspective of 50 years. Author involves self and family in rendering life and details of martyred brother Adolfo C.
In , Federals took him from prison and shot him. Imprenta de la Escuela Presbiteriana Panamericana, Presbyterian minister born in Jiliapan, Hidalgo. Paraphrase from him gives both purpose and tone of book. He admires wife and other Presbyterian women who work to honor the Lord. He mingles autobiographical data with praise for women and with fervor for religion. Impresores de Morelos, Upon returning to Mexico in , she recorded impressions of European reactions to Mussolini and to Hitler. Anecdotal, vignettes of fascist Europe suggest indignation of free world towards aggression precipitating WWII.
Collected articles form a type of memoir. Clearly in pessimistic book his writing self is dark shadow. Both experiences, menacing and victimizing, form core of autobiography. Reyes, detailing antipathy for politics, penned best and most autobiographical letters in from Rio de Janeiro. Curiel superbly edited collection. Postmarked Cuba, Spain, France, Argentina and Brazil, letters disclose mainly intellectual life but also portrays family, surroundings and opinions on political events both abroad and in Mexico.
With congenital eye problem, jurist was unable to receive normal education. However, even self taught, he managed to acquire sufficient learning to become lawyer. He relives 97 days of blindness. Much philosophical dialogue as in thoughts on suicide. Although written as letters, collection actually suits characteristics of memoir. He and other aristocratic exiles connived to stem republicanism in Mexico by imposing a European monarch.
Hidalgo moved in best circles writing gossipy letters about royalty and fellow emigres. Record of cultured Mexican in Europe. Telephone operator, union organizer, artist, Marxist, painter, world traveler and mother, Elena Huerta led exciting life. Born in Saltillo at end of Porfiriato, she traveled to U. A determined woman, she was successful due to own initiative. Unintended as autobiography, selection functions as lifewriting because in editorial essays he makes known much of self: Pervasive humor and sarcasm.
Always with caustic humor, journalist locates self in writings. Like Salvador Novo, he makes travel writing a form of autobiography by not distancingy himself from foreign experience with guide-book prose. In centering on Mexico City, Acapulco and Revolution through family's hacienda, he brings forth self. Much that Iduarte writes is autobiography. He collects biographical sketches published between and As humanist scholar and teacher of Spanish American literature at Columbia University, Iduarte personally knew many of intellectual contemporaries usually from Americas.
In sketching them, he presents self leaving remnants of autobiographical data throughout 42 pieces. Ateneo de mis mocedades. Isunza Aguirre nostalgically views adolescent years in Saltillo's Ateneo Fuente School in Saltillo and sympathetically portrays curriculum, professors, school chums and self.
Covers history of Ateneo Fuente in first two chapters. Occasionally compassionate family man emerges. Collection complements Apuntes para mis hijos. University of Nebraska Press, Ediciones Corunda,  Krauze traces immediate Jewish ancestry from czarist Russia to Mexico. Forced to attend Jewish school, Krauze resents her heritage. Alfonso Reyes; avant-propos de Marcel Bataillon, introd. Value of collection, in addition to Reyes's love of literary themes and delight in friendship, resides in uniqueness of epistolary exchange between Reyes and correspondent from non-Hispanic culture.
Poet and novelist, Godoy in as-told-to-another autobiography concerns self more with values and existential thoughts than concrete reality.
Hispania. Volume 77, Number 4, December 1994
Leal, conscientious of position of autobiographer of another, explains use of Godoy's voice which carries narration. Interrogator and recorder of Godoy, Leal taped last decade of conversations. Materials cohere in associational form. Journalist, telegraphist and Villista, Leduc tells about youth without intervention of another as in Renato y sus amigos q. An antidote to nostalgia for Portiriato, Leduc realistically recounts schooling, early work, Revolution, friendships and love affairs.
Readable autobiography influenced by journalism. Accused of plotting to kidnap, but with no substantiating evidence, author was in detention for six days. Playwright speaks frankly of experiences in theater. A continuation of volume I's q. Historia de una gran infamia. Resuming active career upon return in , he pens memoirs typical of politician for absence of chapters on childhood and family. Insertion of too many documents inhibits reading. Through long memoir she discloses aspects of society. Aside from infrequent returns to birthplace, author spent life as teacher for 46 years in San Antonio.
A female version of Horatio Alger, but in education, she struggled to finish high school and college to become pioneer in bilingual education. Story reflects invisibility of border in continuation of Mexican culture into Southwest. Refreshing innocence and gusto. Describing journey from Mexico City to Veracruz to Habana and back, he creates autobiography. Documents comprise portion of volume I and all of volume II. Two volumes on Egypt and Palestine fall into category of travel autobiography: Author, as twelve-year old boy, recalls Revolution in Zacatecas. Pancho Villa and Army of North in a bloody battle destroyed Huerta's army.
Correa y otros escritos juveniles . Guillermo Sheridan in discovered unpublished works pages of letters and 94 pages of poetry and essays of Zacatecan poet. Sheridan, superbly editing collection, noted in introduction its contents: Confessional writings suggest workings of political system and frustrations with national government. Loustaunau narrates chronologically life in two worlds, childhood and adolescence in Chihuahua and Sonora; maturity in Tucson, Arizona.
Focusing somewhat on orphaned childhood, he maintains reserve of memoirist. No emotional or personal elements interrupt factual account. Memoir intermixes autobiography, biographies of Mexicans, anecdotes, political life and newsclippings relevant to author. Memoirs of Mexicans Protestants are rare. Lugo de Santoyo, Alicia.
Trip to Europe in s and marriage highlighted tranquil life. Cuadernos Populares de Pintura Mexicana Moderna, Architect and muralist O'Gorman taped memoirs at behest of Luna Arroyo. Yet interference does not distract from informative value for information. O'Gorman frankly discusses family and details aspects of life in art and architecture.
Mentions birth in Sayula, Jalisco, describes childhood home, primary school, friends, adolescence, education, uncles and beginning of military career in first of three autobiographies within this collection. He maximizes what is possible with travel and autobiography for presence saturates every moment in Europe.
By far the longest of the three combined books, El regreso images the diplomat at height of career in Ecuador, Brazil, Spain, the Hague, Chile, England and Cuba. He knew significant writers and diplomats and accordingly vignettes them. Universidad de Colima, Typical of regionalists, he combines autobiography with history and costumbrismo and anecdotes. He remembers city, poets, family, friends and teachers in autobiographical but independent essays that in toto give feeling of yesterday's Colima.
Younger brother of martyred Francisco I. Madero, Gustavo was senator, director of finances of brother's campaign, founder of the Progressive Constitutional Party and secretary of treasury of provisional government in Letters, written to Gustavo's wife, Carolina Villarreal de Madero, suggest happy marriage of their authors and Gustavo's success as businessman.
Eighty-six letters postmarked Mexico and U. Editor Solares wants to correct impression that Gustavo Madero exploited Revolution for own purposes. Mining engineer, industrialist, president of Mexican Red Cross, Madero Olivares quickly notes major contours of life. Cousin of martyred president, he belonged to aristocracy of Monterrey, a privileged status reflected in education and travel. Novelist, dramatist, short story writer and screenplay writer, Magdaleno reveals self in autobiography Present work, collection of articles, is fragmented.
Untouched by realities of dictatorship, Morelia's doctors, street vendors, poets, priests and other assorted types emerge in perfection of nostalgia. Yet Ancla qualifies as autobiography for Maillefert' s relationship to individuals and environment. Reactions to books become more than reviews or other types of analysis when reader records feelings and surroundings that engender them. Such is present work of Maillefert who shares 24 of favorite European and Mexican authors. Collection of subjective reactions brings out Maillefert's autobiography through tastes in reading.
Book anomalous for Mexican autobiography for capturing entire life and exposing many unpleasant situations. Born into poverty in Huatabampo, Sonora, Maldonado's early life was plagued by hard work and disaster. Compared to poignancy of youth, second volume loses in intensity because of maturity. Prosperous, he goes to Europe and in travel memoirs, self becomes displaced. Critical autobiography deserves more attention. Lawyer, soldier, cofounder of Leftist Socialist Party and bracero, in U.
Memoirs and supporting documents touch on these with little on family and personality. A firm believer in Guadalupismo , author and colleagues in set out to conquer Argentina's Aconcagua, highest peak in hemisphere. Memoirs depict struggles in ascent. Continuing Soberana juventud Maples Arce relies on form of memoir to describe life in diplomatic corps: Recording external life rather than creative life of poet, in passing he mentions family and friends. Vida por el mundo proves that adult years lack intensity of youth. Clear and concise, he limits self to military life.
Involved in state politics especially in opposition to regional caudillo Gonzalo N. Aptly-told memoir and source for popular culture for author's chronological reconstruction of life around independent incidents involving events or personalities. Memorias y reflexiones de un obispo. First volume diary of bishop highlights problems of contemporary priest and church dignitary.
Present-day church, self examination and efforts at change acquire tone and content similar to vol. Grupo Editorial Ecumene, Bishop's twenty-month diary blending spiritual with mundane betrays profundity not suggested by title. He shares readings, thoughts about parishioners, duties, mystical role of church in revolutionary Mexico, daily activities, etc. Author, Archbishop of Morelia, travels to U. Religious orientation to all tourist sites make for travel memoir.
Own advice best summarizes philosophy and technique of travel. Recordando la escuela normal de Jalisco. He affectionately recalls normal school, essential part of educational system. Memoria del Pedregal, memorias de mujer: Testimonio de una colona. An articulate survivor, she has four children, fights against a  city government that destroys her home, works to build a school, and in short becomes politicized. Introduction, description of Pedregal, reflections of women's roles and bibliography enhance document.
Massola lauds value of testimony, but mentions nothing on methodology. Expressing some personal experience of author, each thematically-joined relato comprises an independent unit: Manuel Mejido, creative and enterprising reporter, roamed world in search of stories. Each of twenty-one chapters involves an international event usually outside Hispanic world. Focusing on external for a limited number of years, work clearly creates memoir. Although Lydia dominates, other members of northern Mexico family come into view for careers in music.
Constructed from interviews with entire family, autobiography incorporates much Mexican popular lore such as songs and variety acts. Mexican-born Mendoza family survived as entertainers in occasionally hostile Anglo environment. From Guanajuato, Mendoza, novelist, journalist, lecturer, politician and interior decorator, has interests in intellectual habits reading, writing and orating. Abstract life outweighs concrete, i. Intellectual and emotional self emerges. Difficult to note interference or presence of recorder. Family toured Mexico and U. Theater history predominates over personality.
Leaving Yucatan for Mexico City, he joined medical corps. Anecdotal, personal and absorbing, diary complements many military life stories. Editoriales Nuestro Tiempo, Active in both oil and agriculture, author recounts beginnings of career. Narrative useful for perspective on economy. However, little of family, personal life or personality surface in memoirs of active life.
After , Mesa Andraca became more involved in agriculture and in politics. Later volumes, according to Meyers, concentrate more on religious life. Poet, essayist and fanatic Vasconcelista, Monroy Rivera recalls years from age fifteen to thirty. Student in Hermosillo, Guadalajara and later Mexico City, he became criminologist. A Life in Two Worlds. A teenager, he moved to California and became interested in theater and film. Along with career he mentions marriage and family. Poet, dramatist, novelist and critic in short autobiography notes contributions to periodicals and newspapers to which he contributed during productive life: Born into modest family from  Chiapas, Montes was a celebrity as radio vocalist in s and s.
Happy moments of life and other celebrities comprise memoirs. From Guanajuato and later Bishop of Tamaulipas, humanist, and chaplain for Maximilian, he went into exile during Revolution. Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas, Verve, passion and narrative talent of anthor make one of better memoirs of 19th century Mexico. South End Press, In the same style and anger as Loving in the War Years q.
Moraga, even indicated in her bibliography, finds her past in pre-Columbian myths. Her continued antipathy to the patriarchal Chicano system is now coupled with the movement's heterosexism. Essays and poems comprise sporadic autobiography of Chicana-lesbian who mingles lifestory data with essays on Chicanismo but mainly women's liberation from a patriarchal system.
California-born Moraga's bitter confession and analyses surely incorporate women from both sides of the border q. Civil engineer in highway construction, author has written several books relating to places in state of Chiapas.
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In trip he composes a type of derrotero noting cities, history of roads, terrain, individuals and institutions. Costa-Amic, , p. Noting personalities of companions and reacting subjectively to foreign environment places present work in autobiography. PoliticianTejeda Llorca grunned father down. Soap opera qualities, patriarchal  system and Latin interpretation of vengeance make La tragedia a readable autobiography. Author explores unique background: Casa Unida de Publicaciones, She does not fit stereotype of woman.
Series of loosely-tied anecdotes comprise memoir that complements earlier Por Dios y por la patria Each chapter revolves around nonfictional heroic incident in daily life of Cristeros of Jalisco. Recuerdos de un futbolista. Only autobiography in bibliography written by outstanding athlete.
In unusual testimony, he chronologically merges experiences with corridos ballads of own creation. Cartas de amor y conflicto. Except for occasional mention of place, films, and illness, few other items interrupt expressed love. Critical for film as popular culture. Having lived in U. As Novo confesses and also practices, travel writings are conversations with self. Subjectivity, regarding place, people and idea, exposes more of Novo than topic he treats. Although readers benefit from perceptive comments on Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires and Montevideo, they ultimately possess more of author's personality.
Novelist, short story writer, and essayist, Ojeda combines travel and autobiography based on trip to Europe: Descriptions relate to travel while involvement with other students auto biographizes young Mexican sensitive to 's meaning for his generation. Written to wife, Margarita Valladares, collection has as its locus the frustrated artist living in New York and wary of exploitation. Painting, contact with friends, promotion of works and questions concerning family in Mexico dominate in correspondence.
Themes lack poignancy of earlier collection, an artist-toartist exchange, which enhances observations. Orozco, Margarita Valladares de. In Cartas a Margarita. Two autobiographies comprise Cartas a Margarita. In first seventy pages, Margarita Valladares, Orozco's widow gives context of husband's letters. Quickly noting family background, meeting with Orozco, she focuses mainly on his presence or absence during U. Delgado problems of verse, vocabulary and publishing.
Collection shows writer at work. Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Pacheco Cruz served as major translator to propagate Alvarado's program in Yucatan. Novelist, poet and widow of Samuel Ramos, Adela Palacios composes according to feminists dogma. Frank and iconoclastic, she deplores parents and conventions that stifle women. Totally different in content and style from other female autobiographers of her generation, she mingles history, poetry and autobiography with delightful results.
In 29 brief chapters author traces life from childhood to maternity. Always central figure, mother dominates each impression and even more so following death. Paean to motherhood universally, but in Mexican context. He joins intellectual development education, love for reading, and efforts at creation with biographical facts concerning family in chronological autobiography. Although writing intellectual biography of Xavier Villaurrutia, essayist Paz leaves much of own life. For ideas all appear derived from primary sources, i. Indirect memoir comprises reminiscences and interpretation of Villaurrutia's creation and at times Mexican and Hispanic culture.
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Pro revolutionary soldier, Pazuengo describes Revolution and its effects in Durango. Both as observer and participant, he interests most in anecdotal moments such as disposal of bodies or assimilation of captured enemy troops. He captures a mood of Mexico in s and s. University student, playwright and politician, Peniche Vallado records memoirs of Yucatan. No other autobiographer registers more intensely preparatory and university years of s and s.
Final pages concern author's writing career. Las sustancias de la tierra: As she biographizes Luis Spota, Peralta also discloses self. Pages emphasize love and quarrels of prolific writer and companion. An independent and talented individual in own right, Peralta has no need of Spota for fame. Selections of best autobiographical writings of outstanding writer. Diary of an Undocumented Immigrant. Translated by Dick J. Starting from Oaxaca, he wants to earn money to set self up as carpenter. For instability in gringo environment, he leads picaresque existence. Moving from Texas to California to Oregon and finally back to Mexico, he holds multiple jobs, views underbelly of U.
Costa-Amic  p. As indicated, each autobiographical chapter is a self-contained incident of medical practice in Tijuana, Baja California. El Colegio Nacional, He has taught pathology in various institutions. Memoirs encompass intellectual development in interaction with teachers and mentors but also in humanities. Tamaulipan native, he employs thoughtful approach to science and medicine. After hiatus of 25 years, he joyfully returns to research. In search for self, Pettersson explores larger terrain than do most writers in series.
Although writing and its constituent acts, reading and solitude form axis of memoir, novelist here, in displaying developing self, communicates mundane aspects of life: Even  non-Mexican education of bright child is verifiable. Exotic intrusion of Father Teufel upsets ostensible decorum of upper class family. Portales is Mexican Horatio Alger. Born and reared in poverty, he gained modest living as traveling salesman. In , he opened Empacador Zapor cannery that eventually made him wealthy. Business success in Monterrey is subject, not family or personal life.
Second volume, concerning travels in Europe, reveals less. Lito Offset Fersa, President from , Portes Gil writes memoirs typical of politicians: Creating memoir, he limits self to political career, not youth. Writer, translator, alcoholic and prisoner in Lecumberri, Portilla tells about intellectual formation in love for reading and hatred of schools. An analysis of own solitude originates in large unhappy family with parents superbly vignetted. Portilla, more than any other author in series, has sense of sin and unworthiness coupled with religious visions. Mature woman remembers happy childhood during Porfiriato.
Innocence of childhood in wealthy environment produces disconnected humorous incidents. Death of brother is only sorrow. Prieto Laurens constructs loosely tied memoir in recounting 30 years as revolutionary Zapatista and politician often against established government. Knowing many prominent revolutionaries of period, he introduces them in anecdote. In exile as journalist in Houston, Texas, he writes more history than autobiography in comprehensive memoirs. A nomad living in major European capitals, she goes beyond travel in description for reader is aware of writer's presence and subjective reactions to environment.
Work clearly demarcates travel from autobiography. Beyond space, Puga journeys to inner self in search of writer. Author and social worker, Puglia writes of experiences among women prisoners in Mexico and concentrating on children. Anecdotal and using much dialogue, she recreates horror of prison life. Famous engineer from Porfiriato helped clean port of Veracruz of sandbars, established fish hatcheries and founded and headed school of forestry. Born in Guadalajara, orphaned at an early age, and educated in France, Quevedo concentrates on career in Mexico.
Biblioteca popular de El Universal, Gaona began career in in Mexico and in went to Spain retiring from bullring in Gaona registers sensitivity to public more than art of ring. He notes schools and father and writing, an anguish allowing one to self encounter. Alianza Editorial Mexicana, Book fulfills promise of title. He is present; he filters all impressions through subjectivity; he writes in style both accelerated and breathless.
Farmer, journalist, politician, and Sinarquista, Rangel follows form of memoir in first pages of book. Undigested miscellanea comprise remainder: He concentrates on drama and problems of beginning playwright. Simultaneous memoirs of author-politician and hometown, Tapachula, Chiapas in Revolution and aftermath. Good for politics at a regional level.
Postmarks indicate nomadic existence: Image is fragmented because of various media and various disjunctions of time and tone, but prose is sinewy. Rosaura Revueltas concentrates on self only in final section of book. In chronological order she lists main events of life: Always interesting narrative, self portrait is rapid and sporadic and unreflective. Revueltas also lays bare self in memoirs of other famous members of family: Excerpts from diaries and letters make each of portraits semi-autobiographical. Collection with three types of autobiographical materials: All materials locate Revueltas in music.
Violinist and composer, he directed national symphony. Although more definitive than two above, collection repeats some of same material. Excellent photos illustrate text of one member of brilliant family. Because of commitments in Mexico, author could spend limited number of days traveling and at Berkeley. Memoirs recount rapid car trip and Reyes's encounter with tailors and academicians. Document exhibits both writing talent and self irony. Exchange of letters between Reyes and each of following: Collection naturally concentrates on Reyes and shows him generous scholar towards Cuban colleagues.
Reyes, Alfonso y Victoria Ocampo. Collection of letters between two of Latin America's intellectual luminaries of 20th century. Within general topic of their creative lives, Ocampo's magazine Sur receives much attention. Second-year law student, Reyes adjudicates dispute among Indians in Ajusco, Morelia. Autobiographical piece, in its Alfonsine style, contrasts Indian and European worlds of Mexico, close geographically yet distant psychologically. Reyes de la Maza, Luis.
Genealogical research, reflecting author's sense of humor, consists of finding examples of foolishness in family. Insider's view of theater. G rillos y gandallas: Much of memoirs concerns continuation of life beyond college. Compiled by Luis Mario Schneider. Collection of letters of literate and sensitive woman, patroness of arts, translator and writer. In well-wrought confessions, she brings in Mexican culture marginally in New York City where she associated with Mexico's intellectual expatriates. Second edition has four short stories and portions of novel.
Last 27 pages of Obras comprise intense diary of Rivas Mercado obviously penned in Paris just prior to suicide in Notre Dame.
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Discloses woman concerned about contemporary affairs, determined to follow strict schedule of intellectual development and honest about sexual emotions. Impresora y Editora Mayo, Quotations and other undigested materials make this another prototypical memoir of Revolution. Pro-Revolutionary, Robles Zarate and family flee village and news that father is safe stabilizes situation. Semi memoir suggests turmoil of one family because of Revolution. Yo fui empleado de  gobierno: Government employee claims that anecdotes are true but names of participants changed in confessions.
Humorous account of rivalry, personalismo , and general inefficiency among corbatas exposes more of political system than any dozen memoirs of politicians. Editorial Planeta Mexicana, Roffiel, confessing autobiographical nature of document, claims that almost all persona belong to real world. Journalist Roffiel, revolting against bourgeoisie upbringing, self encounters in Nicaragua. In memoirs with 73 chapters loosely tied, she vignettes moments, personalities and places in Revolution. Total image creates world in disarray and in belated need of change.
Staccato-like sentences accelerate both reading and accumulation of impressions. Romero Flores gives scattered data of life as he moves through Mexico's intellectual world. Each chapter, centering on single individual, becomes forum not only for Romero Flores's ideas but also moment in intellectual development.
In creating work of collective biography, paradoxically Romero Flores imparts own autobiography. Paying attention mainly to childhood first in Sonora and Baja California and later in Tucson and El Paso, he registers life of successful Mexican American growing up on both sides of border. Education, frontier violence, business, family, friends and music comprise memoirs with regional histories of both countries. Un hombre en el tiempo. Native Oaxacan with strong loyalties to state, Rosas Solaegui remembers participation in Revolution.
A career military, he settled labor disputes in various provinces; a violinist, he promoted music in Oaxaca. Narrating little of personal life and concentrating on external, he keeps life within limits of memoir. As a creator of both fiction and poetry, Ruiz recovers intellectual formation: Love for words here marginalizes parents, siblings, travel, marriage and children.
Many correspondents appear only once; some are governmental institutions. Ballesca's letters bulk volume. Collection shows VSA's valuable contacts. No prolonged exchange with any one individual allows little of personality to emerge. In short period, author recounts anecdotes of grandparents prior to or during Porfiriato. Playful title suggests nostalgia in humorous recall of childhood in picturesque family. Interacting with natives, he produces more than travel book.
Murder in Mexico translated by Phyllis Hawley. Secker and Warburg, Unusual in of Mexican autobiography, he structures life like detective novel. From accumulation of images comes fragments of childhood: Consejo Editorial del Gobierno del Estado de Tabasco, Poetry, anecdotes and diary entries, however, combine to personalize very active scholar. Anecdotes on childhood in Macuspana, Tabasco prove to be most engrossing. Comprehensive memoirs, limited to political life of author, prove some of longest in Mexican autobiography.
Probably no other Mexican has written so extensively over U. Like de Toqueville, Justo Sierra travels and comments on country  now Mexico's enemy: At moment of War with Mexico, Sierra belongs to generation still under influence of ideas of Enlightenment and admirers of U. He seems to be writing document that will improve fellow Mexicans. Memoirs reflect current genres of novel, history, travel and political discourse. Outer world takes precedence over self.
Writer journalist, dramatist and novelist Solares renders unorthodox autobiography developing in each chapter exotic themes: From sum of chapters emerges puzzling human being. Writer and fanatic of theater, Margo Su delays few pages to describe Poza Rica, Veracruz home of her large family. An adolescent, she goes to Mexico City and seeks job as chorus girl. Marriage, family and two sons distract little from theater in vivacious prose and with humor. Source for popular culture. Even extrapolated from text, interviews and comments would make weak autobiography.
Yet they give glimpses of adoring widow who acquired profile married to one of most popular presidents.
Lawyer with career in public service: These serve as center of memoirs which betray more of period than of individual. Poet's letters are for the following: Tablada, in letters written from U. Poet credited with introducing haiku to Spanish lyric poetry, Tablada visited Japan in Landscape, temples, costumbrismo, theater and individuals emerge along with author's personality in prose reminiscent of Modernismo.
Fragmented memoir of labor sympathizer who worked with women of clothing industry of Irapuato. Las Malvinas por dos mujeres: Editores Asociados Mexicanos, Memoirs evidence spunky woman, unintimidated either by government bureaucracy or loneliness of locale, recording impressions of controverted island.
Autobiography comprises first 83 pages of life of journalist, historian, short story writer and novelist of Revolution. Through pages pass some of Mexico's luminaries in education. Author, through journal, describes efforts to conquer treacherous terrain which surrounds Urique River and reach its source in Chihuahua. Has adventures but little author intimacy with landscape. Tavira, Juan Pablo de.
Lawyer author has devoted career to penology holding important positions in prison administration in Mexico City since Remainder of book focuses on contacts with six fascinating inmates. Terrazas y Quezada, Joaquin. El agricultor mexicoro, Memoirs, written by Indian fighter's son, are autobiography even though related in third person. Terrazas, fighting Indians in Chihuahua, produces memoirs too factual and non anecdotal to arouse interest.
Thoughts or emotions never intervene. Conversations with a Mexican Peasant Woman. Arizona State University, Peasant woman collaborates with U. Celsa with several husbands and cohabitors and children, spent most of life in village of San Antonio in central Mexico. Gathering and organizing peasant view of world, Tirado confesses: I tried a straight chronological approach; but found that she was much more interesting in giving me episodic accounts of her life Thus he arranged materials according to his concept of order, not Celsa's.
In one of more literate renditions of bracero Topete recounts experiences coinciding with WWII when Mexican immigrants received humane treatment. Topete, leaving Guadalajara for California, worked as dishwasher, cook and field hand. Yet he condemns U. Narrator envisions struggle from own perspective and devotes pages to unjust imprisonment. Torre, Gerardo de la. Gerardo de la Torre. Short story writer and novelist, Torre outlines life: In document, he recalls past and intercalates scenes from present in efforts to send son to join Torres's estranged wife in Cuba.
Licha Torres makes 20th-century confessions as a type of born-again Christian. From humble background, she rediscovered Christ, had visions and experienced small miracles within life. As a Christ-centered individual, she notes only aspects of life relating to religion. Interesting for narrative flow and Torres Bodet's circle of luminaries, memoirs don't compare with Tiempo de arena. Reflection and stylistic care in Tiempo make it one of best. Writer, librarian, and professor for fifty-one years, Torri sustained sporadic fifty-year correspondence with fellow ateneista Alfonso Reyes who wrote 15 of letters.
Both men, mutual admirers, wrote autobiographical letters: Torriente, Lolo de la. Written in third person, Memoria can be labelled as oral autobiography only because de la Torriente declares it so in introduction in describing relationship with Diego and something of methodology. Existence of text attests to affinities between biography and autobiography. Episodios de la Guerra. Journalist Trejo in Spain as a secretary of Mexican consul became disenchanted with communist party and even classified Dolores Ibarruri La Pasionaria a fraud.
Politically left and with feelings for working classes and possibly an early feminist, Trejo always appears to be in conflict with comrades of like sympathies. Personality emerges in writings of visits to France and Civil War Spain. In Mexico he directed and acted in several film classics: Unique book resulted from twenty hours of tapes.
Self-taught writer nostalgically recalls Porfirian Veracruz, home of family and early employment. Like others of his generation, Turrent Rozas notes no social problems of Porfiriato. Underhill, working through an interpreter, did not quite balance culture and personality in anthropological study of Indians who straddle Mexican Arizona border.
Although reader can image an individual in Chona, document records Papago culture: Underhill in introduction confesses an insurmountable barrier in autobiographies of this nature. El Libro Frances, Journalist, poet and essayist, Urbina inadvertently has left dispersed memoir in images and recollections of men of letters. In recording lives of best contemporaries, he unveils own personality.
Author's intellectual personality at various moments in life emerges from collective reading of vignettes. Delightful memoirs of prolific writer and Carranzista general contrast to his six military autobiographies for expression of tranquil time. Although he describes Madrid, he goes far beyond tourist guide in individualizing Spanish environment with several personal experiences. Life and Hard Times on the Mexican Border. Tijuana-born author and Baptist missionary writes of desperate living conditions on Mexican side of border near San Diego. Urrea, who grew up both in Tijuana and in U.
Final pages concentrate on author's family. Urrea de Figueroa, Otilia. Member of upper class in Alamos, Sonora mining center in northwest Mexico , Urrea de Figueroa led idyllic life before  Revolution and family's removal to Los Angeles. Memoirs combine personal experience with history and environment. Present memoir of medical school, teachers, colleagues and practice in Yucatan may share characteristics with novel. Bernard Shaw, in interview, recognizes Usigh's greatness before Mexico does. Has both memoirs and interview with Irish playwright.
Capturing emotions of critical year, he highlights changes wrought in venerable academy. He names school alumni of generation who later distinguished themselves in Mexico: Valenzuela Rodarte negatively compares public school training with later life in Jesuit Order Student both in preparatorio and in medical school, he also taught.
City officials also raised militias for service in the Philippines and arranged for celebrations in honor of missionaries who died in Asia. In this chapter I also analyze the most popular and enduring bond between Puebla and the history of Asian migration to the Americas: Also known as the china poblana she was captured in India and sold as a slave in Manila, and finally transported to Puebla where she became an important religious figure, as news of her piety and visions spread.
I briefly outline the life story of this person, who became the most famous Asian denizen of New Spain, and inspired the longest biography ever published in the viceroyalty. My primary interest in Catarina de San Juan and the justification for this inclusion is that the passages of her biographies inform about perceptions and the social status of all chinos. The city s wealth and transpacific connection facilitated the consolidation of a sizeable number of chinos that, as in Mexico City, employed themselves in a variety of occupations.
I highlight examples of free Asian individuals and families of particular interest, for example, the family history of Antonio de la Cruz, a chino merchant who amassed considerable wealth and prestige in the parish of Analco. However, I also show how the majority worked as slaves often in the obrajes or textile mills that produced the woolens that were a staple of the Pueblan economy. My analysis disproves the assumption that Asian artisans influenced the development of the Pueblan ceramics industry, which, to a I located no sources linking Asians to this particular occupation.
I also discuss patterns of settlement and marriage, and provide extensive charts and tables summarizing archival findings. The last section describes the conditions that led to Puebla s downfall in the eighteenth century and proposes hypotheses linking this process to the decrease of Asian population. The third contribution is the incorporation of an epidemiological hypothesis to explain the process of assimilation of the Asian population element into the Amerindian and African population, and an assessment of the literary repercussion of the transpacific bond between Asia and the Americas, by extending of the period of analysis to include the eighteenth century.
Previous scholars have largely ignored this period because the rate of Asian migration during this time shrunk drastically. The exploration of sources from this period explain how and why Asian presence vanished and explicate the presence of Asian migration in New Spanish literature toward the beginning of the nineteenth century. The last two chapters are about the disappearance and legacies of the Asian diaspora and the Manila Galleon in New Spain. These chapters focus on the last decades of the transpacific trade route and show how the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries featured the last migrations from Asia both in physical and literary forms.
Chapter five discusses sources from the eighteenth century and explores the fate and dissolution of the Asian group. The result is an outline of the last stages of Asian migration in the colonial period, which involved mostly free Filipino migrants. Even though they arrived in smaller numbers, they continued to settle throughout New Spain. This drop in new arrivals, caused by the abolishment of chino slavery and disruptions in transpacific trade, catalyzed exogamy, accelerating the process of mestizaje and blending the Asians with other elements of New Spanish society.
As a result chino became increasingly a term used to designate a variety of Afrodescended racial categories or castas. I propose that Chapter six explores the traces left by the Asian migratory phenomenon and the Manila Galleon in the literature of New Spain. I argue that there is a visible continuum of works dealing with, or alluding to these processes, which needs to be considered as a central aspect of Asian cultural heritage in the Americas.
The canon includes epic poetry, relaciones, documents of geographic and historical nature, journals, panegyric sermons about missionaries and martyrs in Asia, pamphlets, proto-novels, and novels. State of the Art Despite the importance of this phenomenon, relatively little research exists on migration through the Manila Galleon in general. Some scholars have studied migration on the trade route from Acapulco to Manila. Some authors of general histories of colonial Mexico mention Asians immigrants in passing.
Oxford University Press, , 76; Colin M. MacLachlan and Jaime E. Rodriguez, The Forging of the Cosmic Race: A Reinterpretation of Colonial Mexico Berkeley: Although Floro Mercene s study of Filipino migration to New Spain, which primarily employs an ethnographic approach, is a valuable contribution, it is sparsely cited, and therefore it can be considered to be more suitable to general audiences than scholars. Dubs and Robert S.
I discuss this conflict in chapter Thomas Calvo, Japoneses en Guadalajara: Blancos de honor durante el seiscientos mexicano Madrid: Audiencias were administrative and judicial courts that aided in governing territorial demarcations in the Spanish empire. The University of the Philippines Press, Oropeza uses geographic criteria to organize her discourse. After proving context about the colonization of the Philippines and the development of the Manila Galleon trade in chapter one, she discusses the immigrants that settled in Acapulco in chapter two, those that settled along the Pacific coast on a km strip of land running Northwest from Acapulco and its environs to the Colima region in chapter three, and the Asians in Mexico City in chapter four.
Oropeza analyses the influencia oriental in New Spanish material culture and folklore in chapter five. Lastly, she presents a rich database of hundreds of Asians, indios chinos, and chinos that sailed as crewmembers and passengers on the galleons, and individuals living in Mexico City and elsewhere in the viceroyalty between and in six appendixes. Brill, , The page numbers in following citations of this work correspond to the original article. Christina Lee Brlington VT: For the coastal region, Oropeza argues that the transpacific migratory phenomenon was closely linked to the development of a coconut plantation economy, while some individuals engaged in pearl diving.
The author also demonstrated how prominent Asian carpenters, shipbuilders, artisans, and soldiers in the local militia were in Acapulco, without whose contributions the maintenance of the galleons would have been a more difficult prospect. She describes the variety of occupations they engaged in Mexico City, focusing on slaves and barbers.
Oropeza suggests that the arrival of Asians added complexity to the Mesoamerican world, which had been utterly transformed since the conquest. Seijas is most interested in Asian slavery in the viceroyalty. As introduction, Seijas examines the life of Catarina de San Juan, an Asian slave who became an important religious figure in the city of Puebla in the seventeenth century in chapter one. She analyzes the diversity and scope of the Manila slave market and the history of transpacific slave trade in chapters two and three, and their activities in Mexico City in chapter four.
She discusses free Asians in chapter five. Asians were placed in an ambiguous position, as they were technically considered indios, but since many of them were slaves, and slavery was prohibited among indios, they were increasingly related to people of African descent. Seijas argues that chino slaves successfully navigated this ambiguity to achieve their freedom. Essentially, Seijas argues that despite their relatively small numbers in comparison to other ethnic categories, the Asian slave experience provides a lens for examining the experience of other subaltern groups in New Spain, and adds that studying this group of people recovers the experiences of people whose lives were forever altered by global economic forces.
Slack proposes the existence of a Chinatown in Mexico City and that the work of Asian artisans was a vector for the introduction of Asian motifs in New Spanish textiles and ceramics. He provides a detailed analysis of the barber controversy and the participation of Asians in colonial militias. Slack s chief argument is that this understudied portion of the population of New Spain provides new insights into the viceroyalty complex social organization.
Asian immigrants, their adaptations to a foreign cultural milieu, their roles in both viceregal society and economy, and the social amnesia that emerged in the late [seventeenth] century regarding the origins of the chino caste are vital missing pieces of the enormous colonial puzzle that [social scientists specializing in colonial Mexico] have been attempting to reconstruct. Traditionally, historical inquiry about ethnicity in New Spain has been primarily focused on the relations between native Mesoamericans and Europeans to the point that it became a fundamental basis for Mexican nationalism.
The meanings of chino and china Terminology represented the biggest challenge in writing this thesis.
In particular, the precise meaning of the term chino lends itself to a wide variety of interpretations that warrant clarification. In this section I briefly discuss terminology issues, synthesize the various meanings for chino proposed by previous scholars and, provide my working definition. The least problematic aspect of this complication is in regards to place names and usage of Chinese and Japanese terms. For the sake of simplicity, I use New Spain in reference to the American territories of the viceroyalty, and Philippines in reference to the Asian territories.
I prefer the terms India de Portugal or Estado da India over Portuguese India, as they better reflect the fact that the sources refer to a polity that, in addition to Portuguese outposts in the Indian subcontinent, included Mozambique, Ceylon, Malacca, Macau, and Nagasaki, and thus it cannot be discarded that people from la India de Portugal could have come from any of those territories.
A far more complicated issue is the matter of the terminology employed to refer to ethnic categories. Rather than attempting awkward and unhelpful English translations I render the descriptions as they appear in the sources, unless I cite them from another author. Similarly, I employ indio, negro, mulato, pardo, etc. In regards to Asians I refrain from using the term oriental to refer to the Asian denizens of New Spain. During the colonial period the Philippines were known as the Islas de poniente or Islas de occidente, reflecting their position in relation to New Spain. It would be more accurate to state that almost all the chinos of New Spain came from the Far West.
The terms chino and china are critical concepts in this thesis and thus they warrant an extensive explanation. This is the definition I use in this thesis. This would be a very clearcut definition were it not for the shifts in meaning and slight nuances in the usage of the words, having to do with gender and ethnicity that emerged throughout the long history of the Manila Galleon. Blair and James A.
Robertson , The Philippine Islands, , Vol. It seems that the majority were natives of the Philippines; however, much in the same way as what happened with objects imported via the Manila Galleon, people from a variety of places in East, South East, and South Asia were given this collective moniker. In this sense, Gustavo Curiel s concept of the Greater China Continuum applies to Asian immigrants, both free and forced. A perusal of any Inventory of Possesions of the seventeenth or eighteenth centuries shows that everything that arrived in the cargoes transported by the Manila galleons was regarded by the inhabitants of New Spain as coming from China.
Thus the fine cottons of Bengal, the sumptuous porcelains of Arita that the Japanese traded from the port of Imari, the Japanese Namban export lacquers, the boxes lined with a fine lamina of mother-of-pearl from Gujarat in Portuguese India, and even the merchandise produced in the Spanish enclave of the Philippines by a variety of groups of diverse ethnic origins with very different cultural features were all regarded as Chinese.
When the epithets Chinese or from China appear in reference to place of origin of an object, we should not regard this as a trustworthy appellation d origine. Donna Pierce and Ronald Otsuka Denver: See also Gustavo Curiel, Al remedo de la China: El arte y la mirada del Otro Mexico: Thus the people that arrived to central New Spain from the west were logically called de la China or simply chinos or chinas. For instance, according to Francisco de la Maza, sailing across the Pacific there were Filipinos, Chinese from Canton, Java islanders, natives from Coromandel and Malabar, all generically called chinos by the Spaniards because everyone that came from Luzon and Mindanao was chino.
The term had a subtext of insult and condescension that stands out, for example, in the biographies of Catarina de San Juan when they mentioned how some people called her perra china embustera. See Maza, Catarina de San Juan,. Whether motivated by a lack of interest, cultural sensibility, or knowledge, people have grouped immigrants in such ways in many places and times across the globe.
In this sense, it is worth citing Mark Kurlansky s observation that: In England, Caribbeans, especially Jamaicans, became the core of the black population. Before they started coming in large numbers, in the years after World War II up until [Jamaican] independence , there were very few black people in England. Some Africans have migrated, but Caribbeans dominate. Caribbean- African tension has a subtle dynamic, and there have also been tensions between blacks and Asians, large and small island Caribbeans and between domineering Jamaicans and everyone else.
But the white English do not usually make these distinctions. In popular British jargon they are all blacks even people from India and Hong Kong are sometimes referred to as black. According to Seijas, Asians did not develop communities of their own, nor retain a unique Chino identity due in part to their propensity to acculturate.
According to her, these categories were nothing more than expedient legal classifications. Another question is whether there was a difference between chino and indio chino. Even though the word was gradually charged with undertones that suggested slavery, it also remained a designation of geographic provenance.
I find Oropeza s argument that sometimes indio chino was used to differentiate Asians from native people designated indio natural or indio mexicano 60 convincing. For the definition of indios as natives see Robert H. Jackson, Race, Caste and Status: Indians in Colonial Spanish America Albuquerque: The basis for this confusion is that in the eighteenth century the association of the term chino with people of mixed African and Amerindian descent did become more prevalent.
Scholars such as Cuevas have mistakenly interpreted this fact to support the argument that, throughout the entire colonial period, Asian migration was an insignificant phenomenon. In chapter five I clarify the processes that triggered this Africanization process, but for now I note my agreement with Seijas assertion that to contemporaries, chino slaves were similar in their physiognomy to the indigenous people of Mexico, [ ] much more so than to African slaves. From the perspective of Spanish masters, chino slaves had skin colors that were too varied to be the marker of slavery.
They described chinos as white blanco , brown moreno , dark prieto , and the color of quince amembrillado , among others. The same chino would often be described differently at separate occasions, suggesting that there was no real consensus regarding what he or she looked like. Rafael Carrasco Puente Mexico: However the use of these paintings as sources is complicated because most of the categories they represent, as Patricia Seed observes, were never used in ordinary communication and most likely did not reflect real-life.
As I discuss in detail in chapter five, the fact that in the s some of the people who were still called chinos were equated to people of Afro-Amerindian descent, with no trace of Asian heritage, resulted from a process of Africanization of the Asian diaspora as proposed by Slack.
This process was propelled in part by growing intermarriage and a drop in new arrivals from Asia. Slack argues that the waters became increasingly muddied by colonial authorities who began to lump chinos with the African mixed-race castes by the middle of the 17th century. People born in places in Africa where malaria is endemic inherited the resistance to their children, further decreasing the proportion of malariavulnerable people of Asian and mixed Asian and Amerindian descent in New Spanish population as a whole.
Slack, Sinifying New Spain,. I present the result for the masculine and feminine separately, as I found important differences between the two in the records. In New Spain both the term associated to people from Asia and the Andean usage denoting an indio servant coexisted since the s.
Changes in policies regarding intercolonial trade between New Spain and Peru likely affected the evolution of the meaning of the term chino in the former. These are the so-called Bourbon Reforms, which I further discuss in chapter five. CORDE contains sixty-five instances where the word chino occurs in documents dated between and Forty-two appeared in Spain, seventeen in the Philippines, three in present-day Colombia, two in Mexico, and one in Peru.
According to de la Maza, china was synonymous with servant or slave in a ameliorative or tender sense, while in South America it meant concubine as well. Inca Garcilaso de la Vega wrote that china was a term used for la doncella muchacha de servicio. Antiquated usages in various Spanish American regions referred to phenotype or ethnicity, a person with slanted eyes, or of indian-like features while in Peru, chino cholo meant a person of African and Amerindian descent.
Pilar Ponce y Leiva, , originally published in I determined that since terms chino and china can be interpreted in a variety of ways, the most objective alternative is to employ them ambiguously as terms denoting provenance from Asia, which later acquired their current meanings. I use these terms to characterize Asian immigrants and their children born in New Spain, as contemporaries did. I reject the notion, particularly for sources from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, that chino and china were categories employed mostly to describe children of people of Amerindian and African descent.
The other more nuanced more complex ethnic, gender, and legal connotations surrounding these concepts developed gradually and heterogeneously across various regions of Spanish America. Therefore, considering the approach and types of sources I employ in this thesis, these connotations are largely unhelpful. In an effort to specify as much as possible the exact descriptions of origin of the individuals, I render them as they appear in the sources. I divide this corpus in its two major distinct thematic divisions: The purpose is to provide a general State of the Art of the Manila Galleon while outlining the macro-economic context and cultural framework in which Asian migration to mainland New Spain took place.
The chapter explains the reasons for the consolidation of the transpacific trade route, outlines its early history, and analyzes the process of adoption of Asian motifs in New Spanish decorative and utilitarian arts. Lastly, it discusses the immaterial heritage of the trade route and Asian migration by outlining the customs and traditions imported from Asia to mainland New Spain. This chapter is meant to provide context for the case studies of Asian migration discussed in the rest of the thesis, and narrate the establishment of the trade links that enabled this migration.
The first sections cover the economic aspects of the history of the Manila Galleon. I start by briefly describing the history of Spanish exploration in the Pacific, leading up to the consolidation of the trade route. The survey covers the major Pacific expeditions from to It continues with an explanation for the selection of Manila and Acapulco as terminals of the transpacific trade, and the economic.
New Spain and the Manila Galleon and commercial context in Asia that made silver a highly priced commodity, affording the Spaniards the opportunity to benefit from transpacific commerce. Additionally, I discuss the people involved in this process. I highlight the role of Portuguese merchants and Fujianese immigrants and analyze how the Chinese community of Manila affected the history of Asian migration in New Spain. Next I tackle the complicated issue of what was the correlation between adoption of Asian artistic techniques, products, and motifs in New Spain, with Asian immigration in the viceroyalty.
To do so, I review a second corpus of academic literature, that which discusses the influence of the Manila Galleon in the development and commerce of textiles, ceramics, lacquerware, paintings, ivory sculptures, and furniture in New Spain. The most relevant aspect of this process is the evolution of a unique artistic style that imitated Chinese and Japanese decorative elements while remaining different from European chinoiseries. I situate my argument in the middle ground between authors who maintain that these aesthetic transformations were the direct result of the influence of Asian artisans working in mainland New Spain, and others that contend that Asians were completely irrelevant.
I argue that while there is no causal relation between the two phenomena, there was some correlation between Asian migration and the evolution of the aesthetics of utilitarian arts in New Spain. Although their contributions should not be exaggerated, chinos played a role in the process as merchants trading in goods that inspired New Spanish artisans. Additionally, there were Asian gold and silversmiths, and painters working in the viceroyalty. Chino artisans, however, as discussed further in chapter four, were not necessarily responsible for the appearance of Asian motifs in Puebla enameled ceramics.
The last section of this chapter is devoted to a brief survey of what I call immaterial aspects of the Manila Galleon s cultural influence in New Spain. By this I mean influences in gastronomy and folklore. I will add an explanation on my own hypothesis that the tradition of divinatory birds, visible in Mexico and Schurz describes its itinerary, the nature of its crews, the organization of commerce in these ships, as well as the dangerous nature of the journey. Since then, historians have been increasingly aware of the importance of the Nao in the configuration of the global economy.
Pierre Chaunu described the Manila Galleon as a maritime silk road in , and in he analyzed the trade route in the context of an emerging early-modern global economy. The organizing committee published a series of paper presented for the occasion. Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 4 New Spain and the Manila Galleon explained the process by which trade and commerce grew in the region until the greatest blank on the map became a nexus of global, commercial, and strategic relations. Among her many contributions, she highlighted the importance of the Manila Galleon in providing merchants in New Spain an arena to act beyond the direct control of the Spanish monarchy.
Lands, People and History of the Pacific. The Australian National University Press, , originally published in , ix. Gobierno del Estado de Guerrero, Spain and the Acapulco-Manila Galleons. New Spain and the Manila Galleon the configuration of the world economy. Most relevantly, this trade route helped consolidate an early modern or proto-globalization by providing a vector for silver flow into China.
Its origin and long history were made possible by the conjuncture of two main factors: I will briefly outline the history of this conjuncture to contextualize the history of Asian migration in New Spain in this broader frame, and review the most relevant scholarship at the same time. The establishment of the Manila Galleon was the culmination of half-a-century of Spanish exploration in the Pacific. The problem became the projection of the Tordesillas line on the other side of the globe. There were disputes about the position of its antemeridian.
Spain began its bid to control the Pacific when Balboa took possession of the Mar del Sur, and all its lands in Shortly afterwards, the first Spanish and other European sailors to reach the archipelago, which would later come to be known as the Philippines, sailed with Ferdinand Magellan in This first ill-fated but successful attempt to circumnavigate the globe lost its leader when Magellan died at the battle of Mactan allegedly at the hands of chieftain Lapulapu, who would later become a heroic figure in the Philippines. Battle of Mactan 55 1 ; and Resil B.
The recently conquered territories would become a base for future explorations in the Pacific. Saavedra crossed the Pacific, landed in Moluccas, and died at sea trying to find the route back to the Americas. Magallanes, Elcano, Loaysa, Saavedra Madrid: Maxtor, , originally published in , See also Ione S.
University of Miami Press, New Spain and the Manila Galleon Alvarado and lead the transpacific exploration and colonization expedition. After being driven away by the islanders, they were captured in the Moluccas by the Portuguese. Villalobos died in the Moluccas under their custody. Urdaneta succeeded in that endeavor 33 and sought to establish Acapulco as the American terminus of the route that would later be known as the Manila Galleon.
Noone, General History of The Philippines. The Discovery and Conquest of the Philippines Manila: Upon Velasco s death, the Audiencia took over the organization of the transpacific expedition. Historia de la plata mexicana en Asia, Mexico: New Spain and the Manila Galleon In this sense, Schurz considers the city to have been better situated than the Portuguese and Dutch outposts at Macau, Malacca or Batavia, being located roughly midway between the sources of two of the great commodities of Asia: The Manila Galleon would have never consolidated as a viable trade route if it had not been for the uncanny coincidence that the Spanish started to settle in the Philippines and discovered a return route to New Spain in , and took Manila in , virtually at the same time as the Ming state lifted its bans on maritime trade in The Ming Dynasty, Part Two, eds.
Mote and Denis Twitchett New York: Ander Gunder Frank s influential work analyzes this topic in a broader perspective: Global Economy in the Asian Age Berkley: University of California Press, For the formation of this trade network complex see Janet L. Abu- Lughod, Before European Hegemony: The World System A. Oxford University Press, University of California Press, , ; Charles P. Kindleberger, Spenders and Hoarders: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, ,.
New Spain and the Manila Galleon of all sorts; wheat, flour, and sugar; many kinds of fruit, iron, steel, tin, brass, copper, lead, and other kinds of metals, Manila alderman Juan Pacheco Maldonado wrote that the prices of everything are so moderate, that they are to be had almost for nothing. The high purchasing power of silver in Asia made the Manila Galleon a highly profitable trade route, as merchants traded silver mined in the Americas for Asian luxury goods, primarily silk and cotton textiles, Chinese porcelain, Chinese-Filipino ivory statues, Japanese lacquerware pieces of furniture, and spices.
China and India were sponges that soaked up the streams of silver flowing through Europe and the Philippines from Spanish America [ ] Peru, Mexico, and Spain were what are called today high absorbers, economies that spent heavily for private and public consumption, in Spenders and Hoarders, 2. See also Carlo M. Conquistadores, piratas y mercaderes Barcelona: New Spain and the Manila Galleon system that gradually shifted from rice to silver as form of payment. This created the need of silver imports and consequently large quantities of silver from Japan, which were later supplemented by Spanish American bullion.
Spanish American silver reached Asia also through Europe as Dutch and English merchants of their respective East India Companies used it to acquire their goods. See Richard von Glahn, Fountain of Fortune: University of California Press, ; Dennis O. Variorum, , , ; Dennis O. Pacific and Pacific Rim history since the sixteenth century, eds. Flynn, Lionel Frost and A. Charles Ralph Boxer, Plata es Sangre: John TePaske estimates pesos annually between and Ward Barrett New Spain and the Manila Galleon its monetary policy; in fact, according to Von Glahn, Zhang Juzheng, the Ming official most responsible for the reform, expressed dismay at the loss of sovereign authority that accompanied the spread of uncoined silver.
Cambridge University Press, , ; Dennis O. The term was coined by Alfred W. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange. Praeger, , originally published in New Spain and the Manila Galleon the world s biological landscape. In terms of this thesis this process is relevant because it facilitated the death of the majority of the native population of Mesoamerica, who lacked the antibodies to resist diseases common in Afro- Eurasia.
This catastrophe created the need for labor supplied by slaves from Africa and Asia, as discussed in chapter two. Asian coconut palm trees were introduced to mainland New Spain, transforming the economy of the Pacific coastal region. As discussed in chapter two, this process was also related to Asian migration occupational patterns, as Asian slaves were employed in coconut plantations. On the opposite direction, the transpacific trade route aided in the introduction of maize, potato, sweet potato, chile peppers, sunflower, tomato, squash, beans, and tobacco to Asia.
Some of the earliest mentions of these American plants in China are dated in the century after the establishment of the Manila Galleon. The journey from Acapulco to Manila lasted about three months, including a short stopover in Guam. On the opposite direction it required four to five months, sometimes even six, due to the long detour it made to pick the eastward kuroshio winds near Japan The number of Asian slaves was much smaller than those brought from Africa.
Biblioteca Miguel de Cervantes de Shanghai, They followed a Northwest trajectory passing several miles off the coast of Japan. Sometime in or around October, they turned east and plied across the Pacific, nearing the Southern California coast around January. They changed to a Southeast course until entering what are today Mexican waters, nearing their destination by February. Having spent months at sea, the crews were normally demoralized and disease ridden. They were also most vulnerable to attacks from pirates who were a threat throughout the entire history of the galleon. Some pirates used the Marias archipelago off Mexico s western shore as a refuge.
The bells of the churches in those cities rang to announce the event. After entering Acapulco bay, the crew and passengers were allowed to disembark while the cargo remained on the ship. After the inspection, the merchants gather to set the prices for the goods. Then the cargo was finally unloaded and the feria ensued. New Spain and the Manila Galleon and cochineal dye were purchased and loaded on the ship to trade in the Manilan market.
GLOBALIZATION ( ) Rubén Carrillo Martín, PhD candidate. Thesis Committee: - PDF
When China s avid consumption of Spanish American silver threatened to disrupt Spain s Atlantic trade system with its colonies, the Spanish monarchy became concerned. Juan Gil argues that viceroy Luis de Velasco wrote to king Philip III stating that a large amount of the benefits generated se quedan en este reino and thus did not benefit the metropole.
In this period, roughly half of the silver transported to Manila from Acapulco was mined in Peru. Seville and the Iberian Peninsula. New Spain and the Manila Galleon limitados por un cuerpo de leyes imperiosas y restrictivas. It is possible that the reason behind this was that, by sharing in a common monarchy, the Portuguese and the Spaniards found fewer obstacles against cooperation. There are sources that imply there was some trade of Chinese merchandise from Mexico to Peru: AGN, General de Parte, vol. New Spain and the Manila Galleon slave trade network. But perhaps more so than the Portuguese, it was Fujianese immigrants to Manila who most transcendentally influenced transpacific trade.
Scholars have shown the vital importance the Chinese community had for the viability of Manila to function as a trade hub and the center of Spanish presence in Asia-Pacific. Acantilado, , , n. New Spain and the Manila Galleon by Schurz gives higher estimates for the Chinese population of Manila, which are reproduced in graphic form in figure 1. William Schurz, The Manila Galleon, The Chinese in Manila were called sangley, a term which, according to Schurz, derived from Seng-li, a word of the Southern Fujianese dialect Minnanhua meaning trade. New Spain and the Manila Galleon Picture 1.
Anonymous, Sino-Spanish codex Boxer codex , ca. These articles have already begun to be manufactured here, as quickly and with better finish than in China; and this is due to the intercourse between Chinese and Spaniards, which has enabled the former to perfect themselves in things which they were not wont to produce in China. New Spain and the Manila Galleon handicrafts of a nation, and many of them in each occupation. He explained to the king how the handicrafts pursued by Spaniards have all died out, because people buy their clothes and shoes from the Sangleys, who are very good craftsmen in Spanish fashion, and make everything at a very low cost.
He also praised the sangleys for their beautiful work in gold and silver, and their skill as painters and embroiderers, and how they were able to produce items to the Spanish taste. Salazar noted that the churches in Manila were beginning to be furnished with the images which the Sangleys make.
He mentions a sangley who secretly learned the art of book-binding from his master and set up his own shop, assuring the king that he became so excellent a workman that his master has been forced to give up the business, because the Sangley has drawn all the trade. He also talks about sangley gardeners, fishermen, bakers, and stonemasons and builders. According to Schurz, the Chinese that migrated to the archipelago came to dominate the economy of the Philippines early on, monopolizing retail and manufacturing.
As a consequence, the sangleys were on several occasions the target of aggressions from Spaniards, Japanese, and Filipinos throughout the colonial period. Schurz argues that Spaniards distrusted them because there were too many of them and that Filipinos envied and hated them because of their superior 92 Letter by Domingo de Salazar to Philip II, , in Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands, , Vol.
New Spain and the Manila Galleon material lot that was the reward of their industry and skill. These frictions resulted in a series of sangley revolts, which met with harsh response. The scene would repeat itself in this time after rumors from an invasion by the ruler of Taiwan, Zheng Chenggong, otherwise known as Koxinga. There were several more uprisings throughout the eighteenth century and attempts to expel the sangleys from the archipelago.
New Spain and the Manila Galleon I included this discussion about the sangleys of Manila in this chapter because I want to explore the issue of whether they were counted among the chino immigrants in New Spain. That is to say, I argue that a sizeable number of the chinos of New Spain were indeed Chinese, sangleys that migrated forcibly or otherwise to the center of the American viceroyalty. The sheer proportion of sangleys in Manila makes it problematic to discard the possibility that many of the chinos or even indios chinos whose provenance in the sources is stated as de Manila found in New Spain were sangleys or mestizos de sangley, born of unions between Chinese and other inhabitants of the Philippines.
Sangleys could plausibly have been taken as slaves in the aftermath of the revolts of , and Additionally, there were indeed people labeled as sangley living in New Spain. The first is dated in when don Pedro Quintero Fionio, a sangley, sold two African slaves to the admiral of the Manila Galleon for sale in Mexico.
AGN, Indiferente Virreinal, caja , exp. His brother Francisco de Tagle, who lived in Mexico City, joined him in the trade. They sold numerous other African slaves to sugar plantations around the same time. Aside from these cases, I believe that many chinos not specifically labeled as such were sangleys.
However, it is extremely difficult to determine how many among the chinos were sangleys. The occupation of the chinos is another indication of their sangley origin. Edward Slack suggests that chino barbers in Mexico City were either Chinese of Chinese mestizos, for the reason that Spaniards who spent time in Manila mentioned this profession as being dominated by Sangleys. There were Chinese goldsmiths in Mexico City, as Thomas Gage reported in that the Indians, and the people of China that have been made Christians and every year come thither, have perfected the Spaniards in that trade.
Benjamin Motte, , Lavegne, TN: New Spain and the Manila Galleon suspicion that undoubtedly, skilled chino embroiderers and weavers were employed in Puebla and other centers of textile production in New Spain. The purpose of its inclusion is to underscore how the objects transported in the Galleon shaped the development of handicrafts and artistic tastes in the viceroyalty.
The craving for these products fueled the profitability of the Manila Galleon, which, at the same time, also influenced the want for everything Asian that led to chino slaves being employed in the houses of the wealthy. At the same time, the fact that these tastes consolidated the trade route enabled free Asians to settle in New Spain. Thus the Galleon had profound manifestations on the material culture of New Spain and Asian migration to the Americas was a correlated process to the development of this new aesthetic. Asian immigrants and sojourners played a role in the arrival of the many products that entered annually in Acapulco.
However, the idea that they themselves made the New Spanish objects that incorporated Asian motifs is problematic. With the exception of ivory statues, which seem to have been made by the sangleys in Manila, local i. Mesoamerican hands made the majority of ceramics, the pieces of furniture, the paintings, and the textiles inspired by Asian art.
New Spain and the Manila Galleon Before reconstructing the history of chino immigrants it is necessary to analyze these transpacific material exchanges. To this end, I review the considerable amount of literature written on this matter, which also serves to show the bias towards material culture and relative neglect of literary manifestations in the scholarship about the cultural influence of the Manila Galleon, addressed in the final chapter of this thesis.
Several authors have written about the artistic dimension of the Manila Galleon. For this section, I rely primarily on the recent research of scholars compiled in the volume by Donna Pierce and Ronald Otsuka, presented on the occasion of an exhibit about Manila Galleon at the Denver Art Museum. Pierce and Otsuka, Asia and Spanish America.
New Spain and the Manila Galleon throughout the chapter. Few records remain concerning the first Asian laborers who immigrated to Spanish America. However, clear evidence does emerge of a discreet presence towards the beginning of the seventeenth century. Many were artisans in the various trades. Given that they were a minority among the lowest classes and involved in a discipline as competitive and highly regulated, as was carpentry at the time, only specialized skills not known to European or native artisans could safeguard their positions in this field.
I situate myself between the two arguments. While I agree with Seijas that the main driving force behind the adoption of Asian motifs in New Spanish art were mostly Asian objects and not Asian people, I do not believe that the two phenomena were disconnected. While reviewing some of the latest works on the subject in this section, I argue that there was a correlation between the two and present evidence that Asians introduced Asian artifacts to New Spain. Additionally, I argue that the idea that Asian artisans made some of the objects cannot be discarded outright.
The great purchasing power of silver in Asia discussed in the previous section made it a very profitable enterprise to import Asian luxury goods to New Spain. According to Mariano Ardash Bonialian, there were such quantities of Castilian and Asian goods in Mexico that the prices of these commodities dropped considerably, and merchants in New Spain sought to re-export them to Peru.
As a consequence, for years large amounts of Asian ceramics, ivory carvings, textiles, and furniture, among other products, entered Acapulco. New Spain and the Manila Galleon viceroyalty had profound and lasting effects, lending itself to a process of syncretism with local traditions. Gustavo Curiel explained it in the following way: There are numerous forms and decorations inspired by Asian art present in items such as trays, vases, cups and saucers for drinking chocolate, serving dishes, writing chests, chests, trunks and boxes, sewing cases, and a multitude of other examples of the utilitarian arts produced in New Spain during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
In fact, George Kuwayama suggested that the popularity of chinoiseries in Europe might have stimulated the importation of Asian goods to New Spain through the Manila Galleon. An enormous quantity of European luxury articles teeming with Chinese pagodas, bridges, and birds, palace ceremonies, figures in Asian dress clasping parasols, etc. These recreations of the Asian expressed the way the Europeans imagined Asia.
At the same time, let us remember, via the Pacific coast the original pieces continued to flow into New Spain in the cargoes of the Manila galleons. New Spain and the Manila Galleon Porcelain was one of the main drivers of this process of aesthetic syncretism. There are many examples preserved in museums through the country, a few found during the excavation of the main Mexica temple in Mexico City.
The two-story fountain adorns one side of the patio of the mansion, as can be seen in picture 1. It is decorated with teacups, saucers, plates, and broken pieces of Ming and Qing porcelain, as well as seashells and ceramics from Puebla. En la parte superior del muro, cerca del remate, se colocaron cinco platos hondos de porcelana china [Ming], decorados con azul delgado sobre fondo blanco [ Photo by Mariona Lloret.
The most famous consequence of the importation of Asian porcelain was the emergence of the so-called Talavera poblana enameled ceramics. Despite great differences in the materials they were made of, the organization of labor in their production, and the decoration between Chinese porcelain and Pueblan Talavera, Curiel asserts that Chinese art was the original inspiration for eighteenthcentury Puebla ceramics, stating that in fact reference has often been made to an oriental style in the enameled ceramics of Puebla. A related document is catalogued under AGN Civil, vol.
New Spain and the Manila Galleon in chapter three, I located no evidence to support this claim. Thus the emergence of Asian motifs in Talavera poblana was not direct consequence of Asian migration into the heart of the viceroyalty. In spite of this, Asians did participate in the process by trading some of the objects that inspired New Spanish artisans, and therefore a certain correlation between the two phenomena is undeniable.
Moreover, other Asian vendors of Asian merchandise working in mainland New Spain are documented. New Spain and the Manila Galleon tianguis [outdoor markets]. Thomas Gage reported in that the Indians, and the people of China that have been made Christians and every year come thither, have perfected the Spaniards as goldsmiths. It was perhaps the very presence of Asian artisans and vendors like them that gave its name to the large marketplace built on the main square of Mexico City after AGN, Indiferente Virreinal, , exp.
New Spain and the Manila Galleon According to the same entry, its use in the Spanish language is limited to Mexico. Warren, Vagrants and Citizens: New Spain and the Manila Galleon The information about Japanese diplomatic missions to New Spain in , and New Spain, Spain and Rome in , sustains the idea that commerce of Asian goods and arrival of people from Asia were connected.
Pierce and Otsuka, Curiel, Perception of the Other, I discuss individuals within this Japanese population in chapter two. Some Japanese were also labeled chinos. I will further analyze the presence of the Manila Galleon, Asia, and Asians in his writings in chapter five. New Spain and the Manila Galleon with them many iron objects, desks, and clothes to sell in Mexico City. The ultimately purpose of both missions was to establish commercial links between Japan and New Spain.
This process was stopped by Japanese politics, which would eventually culminate in virtual interruption of foreign trade, and Spanish reaction towards an increasingly hostile policy towards Christians in Japan. Other objectives were to exclude the Dutch from Japanese trade, while the Japanese sought benefit from Spanish expertise in mining. It is important to note that for Spanish missionaries and dignitaries, evangelization was another fundamental objective. These were the Japanese objects that triggered the most syncretism. Biombos became very popular in New Spain and locally produced items quickly emerged to compete with Japanese imports.
New Spanish artisans were clearly inspired by the Japanese Nanban or Namban art, the decorative style employed in objects made in Japan for European markets. Most evident among the signs of influence of the Namban style in New Spanish art was the adoption of gold clouds as a decorative element in biombos. Cuarto centenario de la embajada Keicho Madrid: Weatherhill, ; Rodrigo Rivero Lake, Namban: Art in Viceregal Mexico Madrid: New Spain and the Manila Galleon often obscuring figures within the composition. View of the Viceroy s Palace in Mexico City.
Another example of this type of Asian-American artistic syncretism are the New Spanish paintings on wood inlaid with mother-of-pearl, known as enconchados. Pierce and Otsuka, New Spain and the Manila Galleon elements derived from Namban lacquers in the frames of enconchados were the work of Japanese residents in Mexico City, or were they adoptions by the local craftsmen of the Namban repertoires?
Gustavo Curiel considers that ceramics, pieces of furniture biombos in particular, paintings, and various other utensils and decorative elements made in New Spain that imitated Asian models were, Very peculiar artistic expressions that must be understood as constitutive essences of considerable weight in the discourse of Creole self-affirmation, and never as mere isolated influences or the result of repetitive or mechanical copying of motifs from foreign models. Eventually these elements became part of a distinctively New Spanish artistic language.
Charias Christi, , New Spain and the Manila Galleon included procuring such forms of artistic expression. In the collective imagination of the time, the concepts of wealth and opulence were inextricably linked with Asia. From the sixteenth century, for Spanish and Creole society, objects brought to the New World from the Far East had been synonymous with riches and extreme refinement. This association would influence greatly the development of Latin American furniture for the next three hundred years. It became customary for them to decorate their houses and palaces with these pieces, biombos, in particular.
For instance, rich people in faroff Merida, Yucatan, had access to Asian products. Instituto de Cultura Hispano Mexicano, , Translation by Curiel, Perception of the Other, Splendors of Thirty Centuries New York:
Related GARCIA MARQUEZ: Más de medio siglo de anecdotario inédito sobre el Nobel colombiano (Spanish Edition)
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