The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks


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The importance of this goldsmith's work has led these authors to discuss several archaeological and artistic points which deserve attention. I will also give my opinions on this subject, which in some respects differ from those hitherto advanced. In the Middle Ages the name of crown was equally applied to those worn on the head, to the votive crowns hung before altars, and to the pendent lamps which were also of this circular form.

I refer the student to two works on this subject, which treat especially of crowns of light, which none of the authors who have written on Guarrazar have consulted: The crowns found at Guarrazar were undoubtedly votive offerings, for they all have chains by which they were suspended in the sanctuary in which they were found. Their size and the structure of their rims lead us to suppose that they may have been worn on the head. The same observation applies to a similar crown at the Cluny Museum; if so, the chains, cross, and pendent letters were added when the crown was offered to the sanctuary.

The Industrial Arts in Spain, Juan F. Riaño

Although details which appear in the handwork of these jewels betray a certain rudeness, not uncommon in the time they were made, their beauty and richness are truly surprising. In the cross of Recesvinthus the pendant is in the form of a capital, and from it hangs a small cross of the same style of work: The border of some of these crowns is formed of a net-work of small gold massive balustrades; having between them square spaces in which pearls and sapphires are set. Some of them have inscriptions and a few stones set at intervals. The pendants from these crowns are inferior in richness to the others already described.

One of the most interesting results produced by the study of the treasure of Guarrazar has been to show us the immense luxury which it represents, if we remember the period of decay and poverty of the Visigothic monarchy. We find this magnificence frequently alluded to by ancient writers. The Arabs when they took possession of Toledo in the 8th century, mention in different works the immense quantity of jewels of all kinds which they found and carried away. The gold and silversmith's work of this period was everywhere in a very high state of development.

We find it constantly alluded to in the works of Paul Silentiarium and other writers of the time of Justinian, and in the inventories and references given by Du Sommerard of the jewel work anterior to the Carlovingian period in Italy and France. The Visigothic kings, who copied from the Eastern emperors even their legal forms, followed this rule to a great extent in everything which bore relation to their daily life. The most important question is to determine the origin and locality where these jewels were made. To prove this he presents, among other arguments, the comparison of a fragment of the ornamentation which appears on the crown of Recesvinthus, with a similar one on the Evangelistiarium of Theodolinda in the treasure of Monza, which he considers to be of German workmanship.

These theories are untenable. Rios is of a different opinion, and considers these jewels to have been made in Spain, owing to the similarity of ornamentation with different specimens which occur in Spain in architectural remains of the Roman and Visigothic periods. Both these writers give in my opinion the decorative elements of the crowns of Guarrazar an importance which they do not possess. The ornamentation which most frequently occurs consists of a combination of circles, imbrication, and palms of such an elementary kind that it would be difficult to ascertain its origin; it appears equally in mosaic work of the later Roman period, in vases and other objects of the best times of Greek art, and in Asiatic and archaic works.

It may be affirmed that the ornamentation of the goldsmith's work of the north and south of Europe are derived from a common origin; from the oriental civilization which in the first centuries of the Middle Ages penetrated into Europe; it may also be affirmed that its manufacture and technical proceedings are precisely similar.

Later on, the ornamentation and manufacture of these jewels received from the western nations some slight modifications; but this artistic industry by no means proceeded from them. One example will be enough to prove this. I will draw especial attention to the plaque in the Museum of Wiesbaden, found at Wolfsheim in At the back may be read an inscription in Persian characters, which gives the name of a Sassanide king, Artachshaber, of the 3rd century of our era. I know no more ancient specimen in the north of Europe of these jewels with coloured stones, nor can I give a better example of their oriental origin.

Those who may wish to make a more profound study on this subject, can also examine the interesting jewels with stones found at Petrossa, Wallachia, in , now in the Museum of Bucharest. They are attributed to the Visigothic King Athanaric, who lived towards the middle of the 4th century of our era, and are considered in the present day of undoubted Sassanide origin. The artistic and technical origin of the jewels of Guarrazar must be looked for in the East; their manufacture was most probably Spanish.

On part of these jewels, inscriptions of the names of the donatarios appear, and it is highly improbable that they were made in another country. We cannot imagine the extraordinary magnificence of the Visigothic court, so similar to that of Constantinople and other contemporary ones, without the presence at each of a group of artists whose task was to satisfy these demands.

The Visigothic style continued to be followed in Spain at the court of the Christian kings, until the 11th century, notwithstanding the Moorish invasion, and the poverty of the kingdom. The specimens at the treasury of the cathedral of Oviedo, and others which will be described farther on, will give a good idea of the manufacture of jewels of this period.

Among the relics which are kept in the shrine called the Camara Santa , at Oviedo, are two most interesting gold processional crosses studded with stones, which are known by the names of Cruz de los Angeles , and Cruz de la Victoria or de Pelayo. In the front are five medallions, and an inscription in the vacant spaces.

Among the gems there is a good cameo, and seven engraved stones in the Gnostic style. The inscription on this cross shows us that it was made, A. The cross of Victory is supposed to have been the same wooden one borne by Don Pelayo when he began, early in the 8th century, his struggles against the Mahomedan invasion, it was decorated in the next century with gold platings and precious stones. Another most interesting object at this shrine is Don Fruela's casket, which is ornamented with agates set in gold, and is similar in style.

The inscription, which appears outside, gives the date A. A diptych which belongs to the same shrine may also be mentioned. Round it are the words— Gundisalvus Episcopus me jussit fieri. This diptych is 5 inches long by 7 wide: Although I do not consider it to be of Spanish workmanship, it is necessary to mention the splendid Arca Santa , in which it is believed many of the relics were taken to Oviedo.

The figures are similar in style to the paintings and sculpture of this period, and it is highly probable that it may have been the work of Italian artists. The Cufic inscription is illegible, and is interrupted in the angles by the symbols of the Evangelists.

This style of simulated inscriptions was frequently used by Italian artists. A cross of the same style as those already described exists at the cathedral of Santiago. It is made of wood covered with gold platings and precious stones; some of these are old intagli, which are set in delicate filigree work. The number of gems which have reached us, after so many centuries of ruin, the similarity of the different specimens, and the statement which appears on the cross of King Pelayo, that it was made at the castle of Gauzon, prove that the goldsmith's industry had attained great importance in Spain during this period.

There is a constant connection between these objects and those made of ivory: The art of ivory carving was imported from the East, the subjects are much alike in ivory and metal when men and animals are represented, and the inscriptions and bands of ornamentation are similar in style. A fine Casket belongs to this kind of oriental work which still may be seen on the high altar of the cathedral of Gerona, Spain.

Round the rim of the cover runs the following Cufic inscription:. The blessing of God and happiness and prosperity and permanent joy for the servant of God, Alhakem Emir Amumenin Almostanser Billah, because he ordered this casket to be made for Abdul walid Hischem, heir to the throne of the Muslims. It was finished by the hands of Hudzen Ibn Bothla. Alhakem reigned in Spain from A. This casket belongs, therefore, to this period, and is especially interesting as giving the artist's name.

One of these is elliptical in form; it is ornamented with a good design of leaves and tendrils, and Cufic inscription; the whole of the casket is enamelled in black. The ornamentation belongs to the 12th century. The inscription only mentions the owner's name, Abdo Shakir. The other casket is silver-gilt, square in form, and rather poorly ornamented. The two Cufic inscriptions which surround it are laudatory. At the cathedral of Oviedo there is another silver casket with a laudatory inscription and medallions with figures, in which from very early times, the remains of S ta.

Eulalia have been kept. I suspect that this casket and the former one are not of Spanish Arab workmanship, for besides the circumstance that their inscriptions can be applied to any owner, their ornamentation is unlike others of the same kind. In the first casket it is insignificant, but on the shrine of S ta. Eulalia the background of the medallions is covered with an imbricated pattern which I have never seen repeated on any Arab or Moorish example in Spain. It is highly probable that they were productions of Oriental industry and were imported commercially.

Several specimens of the 14th and 15th centuries, the last period of the Moorish domination, exist in Spain. They consist of jewels and sword handles. There are specimens also at the Kensington Museum, Nos. Other jewels of less importance are known to exist, consisting of bracelets, amulets, earrings, and rings, mostly made of silver niello-work, these are ornamented with geometrical patterns and inscriptions of little importance.

Moorish arms are most artistic; they are fully described in the article Arms. The most important specimens are in the Royal Armoury, and noble house of Villaseca, Madrid; another fine example of a similar style is at the Generalife of Granada. In some instances the hilt is made of ivory. It is impossible see plate on p. It is evident, therefore, that this industry had reached a very high grade of perfection at Granada in the second part of the 15th century.

The sword now in the possession of the Villaseca family belonged to Boabdil, the last Moorish king; the one at Granada to one of Boabdil's nearest relations. In continuing our description of Christian silver-work in the 11th and 12th centuries, we meet with two historical chalices of the highest interest.

One was made by the order of Saint Domingo de Silos [ A. This chalice still exists there, with the following inscription: It is ornamented with fine filigree work, forming zones and horse-shoe arches, in a similar style to that of the silversmiths' work of Asturias, which has never been completely abandoned in Spain. The author of the life of this saint, Fr. Juan de Castro, Madrid , says, p. The other chalice might have been seen until very lately at San Isidoro, Leon; it has been temporarily concealed owing to political disturbances. The cup and foot are of agate, probably specimens of the classic period; the mounting, which dates from the time of D na.

Urraca, is studded with a profusion of precious stones and pastes. Some of the gems of the chalice and paten are antiques. Round the lower part runs the following inscription: Dona Urraca, who was a sister of Alfonso VI. Another interesting chalice of the same period, although not of the same importance as those just named, belongs to Cardinal Moreno, archbishop of Toledo. Round the stem are represented the emblems of the Evangelists, and the inscription: Pelagius abbas me fecit ; this formula appears so frequently that it must be understood in the sense of fecit fieri , ordered to be made.

This chalice consists of a circular cup hollowed out from a fine brown sardonyx which is tastefully moulded round the lip. The base is formed of another inverted sardonyx. These are united by straps of pure gold. The stem is flanked by handles, which are inlaid with delicate arabesque in black enamel. Oriental pearls are set round the base and stem, which alternate with rubies, sapphires and emeralds. This chalice is a work of the Roman imperial epoch, and the mounts are of a later date.

Other specimens of jewellers' work of the Roman period might be mentioned which exist in Spain, but I do not find sufficient evidence to justify the opinion that they were made in that country. I consider those that I have described to be of Spanish origin, for they keep to the same technical modes of workmanship as the jewel work of Asturias, and the inscriptions which appear on them refer to historical personages.

It would be difficult, considering all things, to suppose they were imported. We can mention in the thirteenth century a specimen of Spanish silversmiths' work which illustrates the transition to the new style, and the progress in the design of the figures owing to the Italian Renaissance—I refer to the interesting triptych at the Cathedral of Seville, known as the "Tablas Alfonsinas," made by the order of Don Alfonso el Sabio for holding relics. Several good cameos with sacred subjects appear near the edge of the side leaves.

In the centres are eagles, which S r. Rios supposes to allude to Don Alonso's claim to be crowned Emperor, in which case it was made in the year The ornamentation which surrounds the panels belongs to the 16th century. Rios suggests that the possible or probable author of this interesting object of silversmith work was Maestro Jorge, a silversmith of Toledo, who is praised by Don Alonso in his Cantigas—he also mentions the names of Don Lorenzo and Don Niculas as silversmiths of Seville who worked in this period. The most important example of Spanish silversmith's work of the 14th century is the Retablo and Baldaquino of the cathedral of Gerona.

Street, in his Gothic Arch. Each panel has a cinque-foiled arch with a crocketed gablet and pinnacles on either side. The straight line of the top is broken by three niches, which rise in the centre and at either end. The three tiers of subjects contain figures of saints, subjects from the life of the Blessed Virgin, and subjects from the life of our Lord. Bernec was a silversmith of Valencia, and in another document he was called Barners. It has been supposed that two other contemporary silversmiths, whose names appear in papers of the cathedral, worked also at the Retablo.

Formerly in front of this altar there was a magnificent silver and gold frontal studded with stones, a fine work of the 11th century—which was unfortunately carried off by the French in their invasion of the Peninsula early in the present century, and was probably with other innumerable priceless treasures melted by them. See further details in "Viage Literario de Villanueva," vol. In the Sala Capitular of the Cathedral of Gerona there are three splendid processional crosses belonging to the 15th and 16th centuries; one of them is of enamelled gold, and is undoubtedly one of the most artistic works of the kind in Spain.

Among Spanish art treasures of the 15th century of a historical style must be mentioned the splendid silver throne of king Don Martin de Aragon, d. This throne is carried in the procession of Corpus Christi. The monstrance, a splendid work of art in the Gothic style, ornamented with delicate pinnacles and jewel work, is placed on a fine silver foot and carried on this day in front of this throne. This monstrance is covered also with jewels of great value which almost conceal it, the gifts of royal personages.

The fine Gothic silver-gilt cross must also be mentioned, known at Toledo by the name of Guion de Mendoza ; it was borne before the great Cardinal Mendoza, and was the first cross placed on the highest point of the Alhambra Torre de la Vela on the day of the conquest, 2nd January, The following woodcut represents a processional cross of Spanish work of the beginning of the 15th century, in the South Kensington Museum, No.

On one side is a rood with the Virgin and St. Over the figure of Christ is the word Inri. At the extremities angels in high relief bear the emblems of the Passion. On each side of the figure of Christ are plaques of translucent enamel representing the penitent and impenitent thief, at the foot of the cross the Resurrection and Adoration of the Magi, and above the figure of Christ the Nativity. At the back there is a figure in high relief of the Almighty; in the four extremities the emblems of the Evangelists in high relief and enamelled plaques representing the Annunciation, Flight into Egypt, Christ's descent into Hades.

Among the most remarkable may be mentioned those preserved in the cathedrals of Seville, Pamplona and Astorga. The following document undoubtedly alludes to one of these figures. It is dated 12th May, Notwithstanding the poverty of the Spanish monarchs, their personal ornaments were rich and splendid. The account he gives us of the jewels worn by Queen Isabel la Catolica is most interesting. They varied at every interview.

In one of these she wore "a line of trimming composed of oblong bosses, of gold, each decorated with fine and valuable jewels, so rich that no one has ever seen the like. She wore round her waist a girdle of leather made in a man's style; the pouch was decorated with a large balass ruby, the size of a tennis ball, between five rich diamonds and other stones, the size of a bean. The rest of the girdle was decorated with other precious stones.

Round her neck she wore a rich gold necklace composed of white and red roses, adorned with jewels. Two ribbons were suspended from her breast adorned with diamonds, balass and other rubies, pearls, and other jewels of great value to the number of a hundred or more" p. She was dressed in a robe of a rich woven cloth of gold made in the fashion of the kingdom, and over that a mantilla all spangled with lozenges of crimson and black velvet, and on each lozenge was a large pearl. And with each of these pearls was a rich balass ruby the size of a beech nut, the richest thing that could be seen, no man ever saw anything equal to it.

She had on her neck a large necklace, adorned with large diamonds, balass rubies, carbuncles, large pearls, and a great number of other rich precious stones. She had upon her head-dress two balass rubies as pendants, the size of a pigeon's egg, and at the end of the said rubies a large pearl, which jewel was supposed to be worth 12, crowns" p. In the specimens described belonging to the Visigothic period, and many others to which we might refer, we find constant similarity in form with silversmith's work of other European countries. Among objects of this period the most important are the Custodias or monstrances of the cathedrals; these are exclusively peculiar to Spanish art.

The almost incalculable quantity of silver-work produced at this period is accounted for by the reconquest of the Peninsula from the Moors, the discovery and possession of America, and other circumstances which increased the power and wealth of Spain, and elevated the country to great importance. We find frequent mention at this time of silversmiths, many of whom came from Germany, France, or Italy, attracted by the large number of works ordered. The Spaniards who joined them were greater in number, and not inferior in merit.

Silversmiths were already at that time divided into different groups, according to the technical proceedings which each one adopted: Even within these groups were workers in filigree, and those who decorated different objects with painted or mosaic work, atauxia , in the Moorish style. Almost all the most important Spanish towns were large centres of these industries. Leon, Burgos, Valladolid, Cuenca, Toledo, Cordova, and Seville rivalled each other in the number and quality of their productions. The Venetian ambassador, Navagiero, who visited Valladolid in , says, "Sono in Valladolid assai artefici di ogni sorte, e se vi lavora benissimo di tutti le arti, e sopra tutto d' argenti, e vi son tanti argenten quanti non sono in due altri terre, le prime di Spagna" "Il Viaggio di Spagna," Vinegia, , p.

In order to complete the study of this subject, it is necessary, besides, to give some notice of the legal dispositions contained in the Municipal Ordinances and in other laws of a more general character. In Capmany's "Memorias," vol. At this period three of its members formed part of the town Council. The introduction of a statute of proves the excellence of the works which they made. The designs contained in these volumes constitute a most interesting collection of jewels, giving a good idea of the great height of this industry in Barcelona.

Davillier is about to publish a volume on Spanish silversmiths, in which etchings of several of these designs will be reproduced. In the list of artists which follows I give the names of the most remarkable of those who worked at Barcelona. In the Municipal Ordinances of Toledo of the year , some laws relating to silversmiths appeared; they are, however, uninteresting.

The same thing occurs with the Ordinances of Seville, which were re-compiled in The guild of silversmiths of Toledo must have been most important, for in they already formed a brotherhood or guild under the protection of St. Eloy, in which they agreed to help the members of the guild in every way. See "Documentos Ineditos," published by Zarco del Valle, p. The Ordinances of Granada enter more into details concerning the technical proceedings of silversmith's work. These Ordinances appeared in ; the work in the Moorish style is described in full detail; it appears to have been preserved in this locality more than elsewhere.

We can judge of the enormous quantities of objects which were made by those still to be seen in Spanish cathedrals and churches, having survived the French invasion of the present century. For full details of the barbarous treatment of these works of art during the French invasion, see Ford's "Handbook of Spain. The same splendour and abundance of silver objects of every kind existed in the royal palaces and houses of the grandees. Madame d'Aunoy in her "Voyage en Espagne, Lyon, ," p. In the Inventories, a great number of which exist, we find numerous details of silver objects of every kind.

The greater part of the kitchen utensils were also made of silver. Among the most important objects of Spanish silversmith work are undoubtedly, as I have said before, the custodias. The name of custodia is given in Spain, not only to the monstrance or ostensoir where the Blessed Sacrament is exposed, but also to a sort of temple or tabernacle, of large size, made also of silver, inside which is placed the monstrance, which is carried in procession on Corpus Christi day.

In order to distinguish these objects one from another, the name of viril is given to the object which holds the consecrated host; it is generally made of rock crystal, with a gold stem and mount ornamented with precious stones. The small tabernacles are generally objects of the greatest importance both from their artistic and intrinsic value. The description of one of them will be sufficient to give an idea of their construction.

Although a fine custodia existed formerly at Toledo, which we know weighed pounds, Cardinal Ximenez de Cisneros wished a finer one to be made, and caused the plan to be furnished by competition. Arphe began his work in , and continued exclusively employed in this, and without the help of other master silversmiths, until April, , when he gave up the monstrance to the authorities of the cathedral.

The silversmith, Lainez, finished in the gold and jewelled cross which is on the top. From the roof hang bells and incense-holders of filigree work; in the key-stone are studded precious gems. Carvings in relief, representing passages of the life of Our Saviour, appear on the base of the six pedestals; they are admirably carved.

In the centre of the second order is a figure representing the Resurrection of Our Lord. On the pilasters and brackets which appear in the temple there are more than statues of different sizes, all of which are executed with the same skill. This monstrance was mounted on iron wires; and Archbishop Fonseca, wishing that the whole of it should be made of silver, gave orders that Arphe himself should alter it, which he did in , when the total weight was found to be pounds.

The viril was then placed inside it, this was made of the first gold brought from America. It is completely covered with precious stones, and was bought by Cisneros from Queen Isabel the Catholic ; it weighs 29 pounds of gold. The tabernacle was ordered to be gilt in by Archbishop Quiroga; this was done by the Masters Diego de Valdivieso and Francisco Merino.

This splendid work of art remains in this state, and may be seen at the cathedral of Toledo; it was most fortunately saved from the rapacity of the French, by being sent to Cadiz during the war. In the monstrance at the cathedral of Cordova was also made by Arphe, it is similar in style and importance to that of Toledo. Before this, he had also finished the splendid one formerly at Leon, which was destroyed by the French, as was likewise a similar smaller one, also by Arphe, formerly at the Monastery of St.

The custodia made by Juan de Arphe in , a Leonese artist, and grandson of Enrique, for the cathedral of Seville, competes with that of Toledo. The chapter of the cathedral commissioned the theologian, Francisco Pacheco, to direct the subjects which were to be represented, and when it was finished Arphe published a full description of the monstrance, which he does not hesitate to call "the largest and finest work in silver known of its kind.

Besides these two celebrated silversmiths there was another of the same family, the son of Enrique, and father of Juan, Antonio Arphe, an artist also of great merit, who made in the custodia which still exists at the cathedral of Santiago. Cean Bermudez says in his "Diccionario," "that in the same manner as the city of Leon gave Spain three illustrious silversmiths, Cuenca gave them other three in the Becerrils," these were Alonso and Francisco Becerril brothers, and Christoval, the son of Francisco.

They all worked at the famous and splendid custodia of Cuenca, and between them they produced a most important series of works from to It is extremely difficult to give in so small a space the description of the works and names of the numerous artists on silver and gold work, who worked in Spain during the 16th century. At the present time, notwithstanding the innumerable objects lost, a long list would remain of the specimens which have reached us, and their different forms and applications, still visible in the churches of Toledo, Seville, Zaragoza, Palencia, Santiago, and others of the Spanish peninsula.

Some idea may be gathered of the importance this art attained in Spain by looking through the following list of artists who worked in silver and gold, upwards of of whom I have added to the 95 given by Cean in his dictionary. It must be borne in mind that the objects on a large scale which reproduce an architectural model, adopt three styles during the century, all three of them admirable as regards beauty of form.

The first is Gothic, a reminiscence of the former time, improved by the change which had already taken place, in drawing and modelling. The second style is known by the name of plateresque , when applied to architecture, and consists in copying the general structure of buildings in the classical style, and applying the orders and pointed arch, while keeping to the profusion of decoration of the earlier period, and modifying the general plan with the object of introducing the greatest quantity of ornamentation.

The third style is the Greco-Roman; it is more sober in decoration, and has a greater tendency to keep to the imitation of the classical school. There are interesting specimens at the Kensington Museum which give an excellent idea of Spanish silversmiths' work. Besides those already described attention must be drawn to. Height 3 feet 2 inches. Silver-gilt chalice, ornamented with foliated scroll work and half figures beaten and chiselled.

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The foot is chased with masques, festoons, harpies, and birds, and surrounded by eight semicircular projections, on which are an armorial shield and a cross set with emeralds and lapis lazuli. Engraved at bottom "S. Silver-gilt pax of architectural design; in the centre is a group in full relief of the Virgin giving the chasuble to St. Incense holder, boat-shaped, of rock crystal mounted in silver-gilt. Around the rim is a band of guilloche pattern, set with amethysts and garnets; on the lids a band inscribed "Oratio mea dirigatur sicut incensum. Silver triptych with suspending chain, the interior painted in oils, the exterior engraved in arabesque.

We find that Spanish jewels were as magnificent in the 16th century as were the large architectural objects for ecclesiastical use. One of the most important in richness and artistic merit was the splendid crown belonging to the Virgen del Sagrario at Toledo, which it is deeply to be regretted disappeared in This crown was made in by the silversmith Hernando de Carrion; it then consisted of a gold circle with chiselled and enamelled ornamentation, set with pearls, emeralds and rubies.

In Cardinal Loaisa wished to enrich it, and ordered a silver worker called Alejo de Montoya to add to it an upper part, formed as an imperial crown, which Montoya agreed to do by a special agreement. The bands were studded with precious stones and ornamented inside with subjects of the life of the Blessed Virgin in enamel.

Montoya took 12 years to do this work—he finished it in The fine bracelets belonging to this crown, which have also disappeared, were made at the same time by Julian Hernando. The jewels worn by the Spanish kings and grandees were equally magnificent. In the description of the gems which Prince Don Carlos, the son of Philip II, left to be distributed at his death, are included a sword the hilt of which was of solid gold enamelled in different colours: I owe to the courtesy of Count Valencia de Don Juan, the following description of arms made by Toto platero de su Alteza in Although the greater part of these silversmiths were Spaniards, the Milanese artist, Jacome de Trezzo was very celebrated during the reign of Philip II.

He made several jewels of great importance for the king and royal family. The splendid tabernacle which was taken by the French in from the Escorial was one of his finest works; they carried off at the same time the superb shrines, the gifts of kings and princes, and everything they could lay their hands on of gold and silver, loading ten campaign carts. Consult, "Historia del Escorial," by Quevedo.

At the South Kensington Museum are several objects of this kind, which will give an excellent idea of Spanish jewel work. A gold enamelled pendant, in form of a chained dog, supported on a scroll from which small pearls depend, and suspended by two chains of alternate enamelled and plain links, united to a fastening crowned by a bird. Enamelled gold pendant in form of a pelican and her young, enriched with a carbuncle and pearls, and suspended by pearl links. Pendants representing the Virgen del Pilar Saragossa, attended by saints. Spanish jewel work does not decrease during the 17th century, the number of artists who worked was very great, and the quantity of objects of all kinds which were made by them to enrich the shrines of churches, and the houses of grandees, was remarkable, although their artistic merit was far inferior to the work of the 16th century.

The general decay of art, which produces in Europe the barroco style, appears in Spain more exaggerated and to a greater extent than elsewhere. The objects made during this period reproduce until the beginning of the 18th century the lines and extravagant ornamentation which we meet with in architecture, the handiwork however continued to be excellent, and no expense was spared to give an aspect of richness to the objects made. The large quantity of objects of all kinds made of silver, and the quantity also used in wearing apparel, gave rise to constant prohibitions restricting its use from the reign of Ferdinand and Isabel, and even to a far greater extent at the beginning of the 16th century.

The luxury which was apparent in this century of great decay for Spain will be found in the numerous descriptions which exist of different feasts and ceremonies. A good idea may be had of this style of silversmiths' work from the silver dishes in the South Kensington Museum. Fragments of another crown and of large crosses: At the Archaeological Museum, and in several private collec- tions in Spain, may be seen a large number of stones and pearls which were found at Guarrazar.

Among the objects at the Archaeological Museum at Madrid, a small section, which proceed from a different locality, have also been classified as Visigothic. They consist of necklaces, earrings, and rings, and are less important in workmanship than those found at Guarrazar. The student will find further details in " Museo Espanol de Antiguedades," vol. The objects forming part of the treasure of Guarrazar now in the Museum of Cluny, Paris are: Crown of Recesvinthus, with pendent cross and inscription: A similar crown, without inscription.

Four crowns formed to imitate basket work, with crosses hanging from the centres. Three crowns, the rims of which are formed of repousse work, only one of which is ornamented with precious stones, and without pendent crosses. Swinthila reigned from to , a.

Much has been written on these Visigothic jewels by French and Spanish authors, the most interesting and valuable studies are: Consult also his article in "Monumentos Arq. The imi ortance of this goldsmith's work has led these authors to discuss several archaeological and artistic points which deserve attention. I will also give my opinions on this subject, which in some respects differ from those hitherto advanced. In the Middle Ages the name of crown was etjually ajjplied to those worn on the head, to the votive crowns hung before altars, and to the pendent lamps which were also of this circular form.

I refer the student to two works on this subject, which treat especially of crowns of light, which none of the authors who have written on Guarrazar have con- sulted: The crowns found at Guarrazar were undoubtedly votive offer- ings, for they all have chains by which they were suspended in the sanctuary in which they were found. Their size and the structure of their rims lead us to suppose that they may have been Avorn on the head. Although details which appear in the handwork of these jewels betray a certain rudeness, not uncommon in the time they were made, their beauty and richness are truly surprising.

These crowns are decorated round their rims with rosettes of pearls and sapphires, and a delicate ornamentation of cloisonne work, which encloses a substance resembling red glass. From the upper part are attached four chains formed of leaves percees a jour, these are united to a double gold rosette with pendent sapphires, in the centre of which is set a piece of rock crystal. In the cross of Recesvinthus the pendant is in the form of a capital, and from it hangs a small cross of the same style of work: The border of some of these crowns is formed of a net-work of small gold massive balustrades, having between them square spaces in which pearls and sapphires are set.

Others are made simply of repousse gold, their chief interest consisting in the ornamentation which has been so artistically carried out. Some of them have inscriptions and a few stones set at intervals. The pendants from these crowns are inferior in richness to the others already described. The pendent crosses are ornamented in the same style, either with cloisonne work or repousse inscriptions. One of the most interesting results produced by the study of the treasure of Guarrazar has been to show us the immense luxury which it represents, if we remember the period ot decay and poverty of the Visigothic monarchy.

We find this magnifi- cence frequently alluded to by ancient writers. The gold and silversmith's work of this period was everywhere in a very high state of development. We find it constantly alluded to in the works of Paul Silentiarium and other writers of the time of Justinian, and in the inventories and references given by Du Sommerard of the jewel work anterior to the Carlovingian period in Italy and France. The Visigothic kings, who copied from the Eastern emperors even their legal forms, followed this rule to a great extent in everything which bore relation to their daily life.

The most important question is to determine the origin and locality where these jewels were made. To prove this he presents, among other arguments, the comparison of a fragment of the ornamentation which appears on the crown of Recesvinthus, with a similar one on the Evangelistiarium of Theodolinda in the treasure of Monza, which he considers to be of German work- manship. These theories are untenable. Rios is of a different opinion, and considers these jewels to have been made in Spain, owing to the similarity of ornamentation with different specimens which occur in Spain in architectural remains of the Roman and Visigothic periods.

Both these writers give in my opinion the decorative elements of the crowns of Guarrazar an importance which they do not possess. The ornamentation which most frequently occurs con- sists of a combination of circles, imbrication, and palms of such an elementary kind that it would be difficult to ascertain its origin ; it appears equally in mosaic work of the later Roman period, in vases and other objects of the best times of Greek art, and in Asiatic and archaic works. Later on, the ornamentation and manufacture of these jewels received from the western nations some slight modifications ; but this artistic mdustry by no means proceeded from them.

One example will be enough to prove this. Setting apart the famous doisoime pcdorale at the Boulac Museum, Cairo, and other jewels of the queen, Aah-Hotep, 17th century b. I will draw especial attention to the plaque in the Museum of Wiesbaden, found at Wolfshcim in At the back may be read an inscrip- tion in Persian characters, which gives the name of a Sassanide king, Artachshaber, of the 3rd century of our era.

I know no more ancient specimen in the north of Europe of these jewels with coloured stones, nor can I give a better example of their oriental origin. Those who may wish to make a more profound study on this subject, can also examine the interesting jewels with stones found at Petrossa, Wallachia, in , now in the Museum of Bucharest. They are attributed to the Visigothic King Athanaric, who lived towards the middle of the 4th century of our era, and are considered in the present day of undoubted Sassanide origin. The artistic and technical origin of the jewels of Guarrazar must be looked for in the East ; their manufacture was most probably Spanish.

On part of these jewels, inscriptions of the names of the dotiatarios appear, and it is highly improbable that they were made in another country. The Visigothic style continued to be followed in Spain at the court of the Christian kings, until the nth century, notwithstand- ing the Moorish invasion, and the poverty of the kingdom. The specimens at the treasury of the cathedral of Oviedo, and others which will be described farther on, will give a good idea of the manufacture of jewels of this period.

Among the relics which are kept in the shrine called the Camara Santa, at Oviedo, are two most interesting gold processional crosses studded with stones, which are known by the names of Cruz de los Angeles, and Cniz de la Victoria or de Pelayo. The Ci'uz de los Angeles is t6 inches high, by i6 inches wide, it is covered at the back with an ornamentation in fine filigree work, set with different stones.

In the front are five m. Among the gems there is a good cameo, and seven engraved stones in the Gnostic style. The inscription on this cross shows us that it was made, a. The inscrii tion, which api ears outside, gives the date A. It was given by Bishop Don Gonz do, who was bishop of Oviedo from a. Round it are the words — Gundisalvus Episcopux vie jtissit Jicri. This diptych is 5 inches long by 7 wide: Although I do not consider it to be of Spanish workmanship, it is necessary to mention the splendid Area Santa, in which it is believed many of the relics were taken to Oviedo.

It is covered with silver i lates, with repousse and chiselled work representing different religious subjects: The figures are similar in style to the paintings and sculpture of this period, and it is highly probable that it may have been the work of Italian artists. This style of simulated inscriptions was frequently used by Italian artists.

A cross of the same style as those already described exists at the cathedral of Santiago. It is made of wood covered with gold platings and precious stones ; some of these are old intagli, which are set in delicate filigree work. The number of gems which have reached us, after so many centuries of ruin, the similarity of the different specimens, and the statement which appears on the cross of King Pelayo, that it was made at the castle of Gauzon, prove that the goldsmith's industry had attained great importance in Spain during this period.

By studying the different objects of silver and gold work which still exist in Spanish churches, we can form a good idea of the historical progress of this industry in the following centuries of the Middle Ages ; but before we do so, it is well to make some observations upon objects of orfevrene, the work of the Moors.

There is a constant connection between these objects and those made of ivory: The art of ivory carving was imported from the East, the subjects are much alike in ivory and metal when men and animals are repre- sented, and the inscriptions and bands of ornamentation are similar in style. The main variations consist in the different systems employed in metal work, by which the work differs accord- ing to the proceedings adopted of repousse or chiselling, filigree, niellos or enamels.

A fine Casket belongs to this kind of oriental work which still may be seen on the high altar of the cathedral of Gerona, Spain. Round the rim of the cover runs the following Cufic inscription: The blessing of God and happiness and prosperity and permanent joy for the servant of God, Alhakem Emir Amumenin Almostanscr Billah, because he ordered this casket to be made for Abdul walid Hischem, heir to the throne of the Muslims. It was finished by the hands of Hudzen Ibn Bothla. This casket belouizs, therefore, to this period, and is esj ecially interesting as giving the artist's name.

Two other silver Arabian caskets may be seen at the Archaeological Museum, Madrid, which were formerly at the shrine of San Isidoro of Leon, but they possess less artistic interest than the casket at Gerona. One of these is elliptical in form ; it is ornamented with a good design of leaves and tendrils, and Cufic inscription ; the wholj of the casket is enamelled in black. The ornamentation belongs to the 12th century.

The inscription only mentions the owner's name, Abdo Shakir. The other casket is silver-gilt, square in form, and rather poorly orna- mented. I suspect that this casket and the former one are not of Spanish Arab workmanship, for besides the circumstance that their inscriptions can be applied to any owner, their ornamenta- tion is unlike others of the same kind. It is highly probable that they were productions of Oriental industry and were imported commercially. Several specimens of the 14th and 15th centuries, the last period of the Moorish domination, exist in Spain.

They consist of jewels and sword handles. The most interesting trinkets are a bracelet and fragments of a necklace and earrings which are at the Archaeological Museum, Madrid. They are made of gold, covered with a geometrical repousse ornamentation, and a delicate filigree pattern. There are specimens also at the Kensington Museum, Nos. Other jewels of less importance are known to exist, consisting of bracelets, amulets, earrings, and rings, mostly made of silver niello-work, these are ornamented with geometrical patterns and inscriptions of little importance. Moorish arms are most artistic ; they are fully described in the article Arms.

The most important specimens are in the Royal Armoury, and noble house of Villaseca, Madrid; another fine example of a similar style is at the Generalife of Granada. The hilt and settings of the sheath are of solid silver, gilt, and covered with geometrical patterns ornamented in high relief, parts of which are filled with translucid cloisonne enamel.

In some in- stances the hilt is made of ivory. It is impossible see plate on p. It is evident, therefore, that this industry had reached a very high grade of perfection at Granada in the second part of the 15th century. The sword now in the possession of the Villaseca family belonged to Boabdil, the last Moorish king ; the one at Granada to one of Boabdil's nearest relations. One was made by the order of Saint Domingo de Silos [a. This chalice still exists there, with the following inscription: It is ornamented with fine filigree work, forming zones and horse- shoe arches, in a similar style to that of the silversmiths' work of Asturias, which has never been completely abandoned in Spain.

The author of the life of this saint, Fr. Juan de Castro, Madrid , says, p. The other chalice might have been seen until very lately at San Isidore, Leon ; it has been temporarily concealed owing to political disturbances. Some of the gems of the chalice and paten are antiques. Round the lower part runs the following inscription: Dona Urraca, who was a sister of Alfonso VI. Another interest- ing chalice of the same period, although not of the same importance as those just named, belongs to Cardinal Moreno, archbishop of Toledo.

Round the stem are represented the emblems of the Evangelists, and the inscription: This chalice consists of a circular cup hollowed out from a fine brown sardonyx which is tastefully moulded round the lip. The base is formed of another inverted sardonyx. These are united by straps of pure gold. The stem is flanked by handles, which are inlaid with delicate arabesque in black enamel. Oriental pearls are set round the base and stem, which alternate with rubies, sapphires and emeralds. This chalice is a work of the Roman imperial epoch, and the mounts are of a later date.

Other specimens of jewellers' work of the Roman period might be mentioned which exist in Spain, but I do not find sufficient evidence to justify the opinion that they were made in that country. I consider those that I have described to be of Spanish origin, for they keep to the same technical modes of workmanship as the jewel work of Asturias, and the inscriptions which appear on them refer to historical personages. It would be difficult, considering all things, to suppose they were imported. We can mention in the thirteenth century a specimen of Spanish silversmiths' work which illustrates the transition to the new style, and the progress in the design of the figures owing to the Italian Renaissance — I refer to the interesting triptych at the Cathedral of Seville, known as the " Tablas Alfonsinas," made by the order of Don Alfonso el Sabio for holding relics.


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It is of wood, covered inside and out with silver-gilt plates ; it is 2 2 inches high by 39 wide when its three leaves are open the woodcut opposite represents the outside of left leaf , and is divided inside into fifteen compartments full of minute ornamentation, among which are set a large number of capsules covered with rock crystal containing relics, each one with an inscription of enamelled gold, doisoiiJie. Several good cameos with sacred subjects appear near the edge of the side leaves.

The ornamentation which surrounds the panels belongs to the i6th century. Rios suggests that the possible or probable author of this interesting object of silversmith work was Maestro Jorge, a silversmith of Toledo, who is praised by Don Alonso in his Cantigas — he also mentions the names of Don Lorenzo and Don Niculas as silver- smiths of Seville who worked in this period. The most important example of Spanish silversmith's work of the 14th century is the Retablo and Baldaquino of the cathedral of Gerona.

Street, in his Gothic Arch, in Spain, p. Each panel has a cinque-foiled arch with a crocketed gablet and pinnacles on either side. The straight line of the top is broken by three niches, which rise in the centre and at either end. The three tiers of subjects contain figures of saints, subjects from the life of the Blessed Virgin, and subjects from the hfe of our Lord.

Bernec was a silver- smith of Valencia, and in another document he was called Earners. It has been supposed that two other contemporary silversmiths, whose names appear in papers of the cathedral, worked also at the Retablo. Their names were Raimundo Andreu, and Master Bartolome. See further details in " Viage Literario de Villanueva," vol.

In the Sala Capitular of the Cathedral of Gerona there are three splendid processional crosses belonging to the 15th and 1 6th centuries; one of them is of enamelled gold, and is un- doubtedly one of the most artistic works of the kind in Spain. Among Spanish art treasures of the 15th century of a historical style must be mentioned the splendid silver throne of king Don Martin de Aragon, d.

This throne is carried in the procession of Corpus Christi. The monstrance, a splendid work of art in the Gothic style, ornamented with delicate pinnacles and jewel work, is placed on a fme silver foot and carried on this day in front of this throne. This monstrance is covered also with jewels of great value which almost conceal it, the gifts of royal personages.

The fine Gothic silver-gilt cross must also be mentioned, known at Toledo by the name of Guion dc Mendoza ; it was borne before the great Cardinal Mendoza, and was the first cross placed on the highest point of the Alhambra Torre de la Vela on the day of the conquest, 2nd January, The following woodcut represents a processional cross of Spanish work of the beginning of the 15th century, in the South Kensington Museum, No.

It is of wood covered with plates of silver-gilt repousse work. On one side is a rood with the Virgin and St. Over the figure of Christ is the word Inri. At the extremities angels in high relief bear the emblems of the Passion. At the back there is a figure in high reHef of the Ahnighty ; in the four extremities the emblems of the EvangeHsts in high reHef and enamelled plaques representing the Annunciation, Flight into Egypt, Christ's descent into Hades. This cross, which is three feet in height, is marked in several places with the name of r E D R O A large number of images exist in Spain belonging to this j eriod, and even to an earlier date, chiefly consisting of images of the Blessed Virgin ; their garments are formed of silver platings, chiselled and repousse in the traditional Byzantine style.

Among the most remarkable may be mentioned those preserved in the cathedrals of Seville, Pamplona and Astorga. The following document undoubtedly alludes to one of those figures. It is dated 1 2th May, The account he gives us of the jewels worn by Queen Isabel la Catolica is most interesting. They varied at every interview. In one of these she wore ''a Hne of trimming composed of oblong bosses, of gold, each decorated with fine and valuable jewels, so rich that no one has ever seen the like.

She wore round her waist a girdle of leather made in a man's style ; the pouch was decorated with a large balass ruby, the size of a tennis ball, between five rich diamonds and other stones, the size of a bean. The rest of the girdle was decorated with other precious stones. Round her neck she wore a rich gold necklace composed of white and red roses-, adorned with jewels. Two ribbons were suspended from her breast adorned with diamonds, balass and other rubies, pearls, and other jewels- of great value to the number of a hundred or more " p.

She was dressed in a robe of a rich woven cloth of gold made in the fashion of the kingdom, and over that a mantilla all spangled with lozenges of crjnson and black velvet, and on each lozenge was a large pearl. She had on her neck a large neck- lace, adorned with large diamonds, balass rubies, carbuncles, large pearls, and a great number of other rich precious stones. In the specimens described belonging to the Visigothic period, and many others to which we might refer, we find constant similarity in form with silversmith's work of other European countries.

It is interesting, however, and worthy of remark, that important objects are also found in Spain decorated with champleve enamel, such as the splendid altars of San Miguel in Excelsis Xavarre. In the Renaissance period, Spanish orfcvrerie enters into its most brilliant epoch, not only on account of the beauty of the form of the objects produced, but also owing to its great ri h- ness. Among objects of this period the most imi ortant are the CusL'dias or monstrances of the cathedrals; these are exclusively peculiar to Spanish art.

The Spaniards who joined them were greater in number, and not inferior in merit.

South Kensington Museum

Leon, Burgos, ValladoHd, Cuenca, Toledo, Cordova, and Seville rivalled each other in the number and quality of their productions The Venetian ambassador, Navagiero, who visited Valladolid in , says, ''Sono in ValladoHd assai artefici di ogni sorte, e se vi lavora benissimo di tutti le arti, e sopra tutto d' argenti, e vi son tanti argenteri quanti non sono in due altri terre, le prime di Spagna " " II Viaggio di Spagna," Vinegia, , P- In order to complete the study of this subject, it is necessary, besides, to give some notice of the legal dispositions contained in the Municipal Ordinances and in other laws of a more general character.

In Capmany's " Memorias," vol. At this period three of its members formed part of the town Council. The introduction of a statute of proves the excellence of the works which they made. The designs contained in these volumes constitute a most interest- ing collection of jewels, giving a good idea of the great height of this industry in Barcelona. Davillier is about to publish a volume on Spanish silversmiths, in which etchings of several of these designs will be reproduced.

In the list of artists which follows I give the names of the most remarkable of those who worked at Barcelona. The same thing occurs with the Oidinances of Seville, which were re-comi iled in The guild of silver- smiths of Toledo must have been most important, for in they already formed a brotherhood or guild under the protection of St. Eloy, in which they agreed to help the members of the guild in every way.


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The Ordinances of Granada enter more into details concerning the technical proceedings of silversmith's work. These Ordinances appeared in ; the work in the Moorish style is descril ed in full detail ; it appears to have been preserved in this locality moe than elsewhere. We can judge of the enormous cjuantities of objects which were made by those still to be seen in Si anish cathedrals and churches, having survived the French invasion of the present century.

For full details of the barbarous treatment of these works of art during the French invasion, see Ford's " Handbook of Si ain. The same splendour and abundance of silver objects of every kind existed in the royal palaces and houses of the grandees. Madame d'Aunoy in her '' Voyage en Espagne, Lyon, ," p. In the Inventories, a great number of which exist, we find numerous details of silver objects of every kind.

The greater part of the kitchen ute;nsils were also made of silver. Among the most important objects of Spanish silversmith work are undoubtedly, as I have said before, the custodias. The name of custodia is given in Spain, not only to the mon- strance or ostensoir where the Blessed Sacrament is exposed, but also to a sort of temple or tabernacle, of large size, made also of silver, inside which is placed the monstrance, which is carried in procession on Corpus Christi day.

In order to distinguish these objects one from another, the name of viril is given to the object which holds the consecrated host ; it is generally made of rock crystal, with a gold stem and mount ornamented with precious stones. The small tabernacles are generally objects of the greatest importance both from their artistic and intrinsic value.

The de- scription of one of them will be sufficient to give an idea of their construction. Although a fine custodia existed formerly at Toledo, which we know weighed pounds. Cardinal Ximenez de Cisneros wished a finer one to be made, and caused the plan to be furnished by competition. The silversmith, Lainez, finished in the gold and jewelled cross which is on the top. From the roof hang bells and incense-holders of filigree work ; in the key-stone are studded precious gems.

Carvings in relief, representing passages of the life of Our Saviour, appear on the base of the six pedestals ; they are admirably carved. In the centre of the second order is a figure representing the Resurrection of Our Lord. On the jMlasters and brackets which ai pear in the temi le there are more than statues of different sizes, all of which are executed with the same skill.

This monstrance was mounted on iron wires ; and Archbishop I'onscca, wishing that the whole of it should be made of silver, gave orders that Arphe himself should alter it, which he did in , when the total weight was found to be i ounds. It is completely covered with precious stones, and was bought by Cisneros from Queen Isabel the Catholic ; it weighs 29 i ounds of gold. The taber- nacle was ordered to be gilt in by Archbishop Quiroga ; this was done by the Masters Diego de Valdivieso and Francisco Merino. This splendid work of art remams in this state, and may be seen at the cathedral of Toledo ; it was most fortunately saved from the rapacity of the French, by being sent to Cadiz during the war.

In 15 13 the monstrance at the cathedral of Cordova was also made by Arphe, it is similar in style and import- ance to that of Toledo. Before this, he had also fmished the splendid one formerly at Leon, which was destroyed by the French, as was likewise a similar smaller one, also by Arphe, formerly at the Monastery of St. The custodia made by Juan de Arphe in , a Leonese artist, and grandson of Fnrique, for the cathedral of Seville, competes with that of Toledo.

The chapter of the cathedral commissioned the theologian, Francisco Pacheco, to direct the subjects which were to be represented, and when it was finished Arphe pub- lished a full description of the monstrance, which he does not hesitate to call " the largest and finest work in silver known of its kind.

Besides these two celebrated silversmiths there was another of the same family, the son of Enrique, and father of Juan, Antonio Arphe, an artist also of great merit, who made in the custodia which still exists at the cathedral of Santiago. Cean Bermudez says in his " Diccionario," " that in the same manner as the city of Leon gave Spain three illustrious silver- smiths, Cuenca gave them other three in the Becerrils," these were Alonso and Francisco Becerril brothers, and Christoval, the son of Francisco.

They all worked at the famous and splendid custodia of Cuenca, and between them they produced a most important series of works from to It is extremely difficult to give in so small a space the descrip tion of the works and names of the numerous artists on silver and gold work, who worked in Spain during the i6th century.

At the present time, notwithstanding the innumerable objects lost, a long list would remain of the specimens which have reached us, and their different forms and applications, still visible in the churches of Toledo, Seville, Zaragoza, Palencia, Santiago, and others of the Spanish peninsula. Some idea maybe gathered of the importance this art attained in Spain by looking through the following list of artists who worked in silver and gold, upwards of of whom I have added to the 95 given by Cean in his dictionary. The first is Gothic, a reminiscence of the former time, improved by the change which had already taken place, in drawing and modelling.

The third style is the Greco-Roman ; it is more sober in decoration, and has a greater tendency to keep to the iniiuuiun of the classical school. There are interesting specimens at the Kensington Museum which give an excellent idea of Spanish silversmiths' work. Besides those already described attention must be drawn to No. A silver-gilt cross ornamented with foliage, statuettes of saints and the Evangelists with their emblems! Marked NOE About Height 3 feet 2 inches.

Silver-gilt chalice, ornamented with foliated scroll work and half figures beaten and chiselled. Engraved at bottom " S. Chalice, silver-gilt; the bowl chased in relief with the instruments of the Passion ; on the knop are ten applied figures of Apostles on ground of translucent blue enamel; the foot, which has eight semicircular projections, is repousse with represen- tations of the EvangeHsts, cherub and other heads, the Crucifixion, and a shield with the initials L. Silver-gilt pax of architectural design ; in the centre is a group in full relief of the Virgin giving the chasuble to St.

Incense holder, boat-shaped, of rock crystal mounted in silver-gilt. Around the rim is a band of guilloche pattern, set with amethysts and garnets; on the fids a band in- scribed "Oratio mea dirigatur sicut incensum. We find that Spanish jewels were as magnificent in the T6th century as were the large architectural objects for ecclesiastical use. One of the most important in richness and artistic merit was the splendid crown belonging to the Virgen del Sagrario at Toledo, which it is deeply to be regretted disappeared in t This crown was made in by the silversmith Hernando de Carrion ; it then consisted of a gold circle with chiselled and enamelled ornamentation, set with pearls, emeralds and rubies.

In Cardinal Loaisa wished to enrich it, and ordered a silver worker called Alejo de Montoya to add to it an upper part, formed as an imperial crown, which Montoya agreed to do by a special agreement. This addition was formed of small figures of angels of enamelled gold, in pairs supporting the side bands, which met in the upper part forming a group of allegorical figures, upon which was placed a spherical emerald, without a flaw, if inches in diameter, which served as a base to the cross. The bands were studded with precious stones and ornamented inside with sub- jects of the life of the Blessed Virgin in enamel.

The height of this crown was loi inches by 8 wide. Montoya took 12 years to do this work — he finished it in The fine bracelets belonging to this crown, which have also disappeared, were made at the same time by Julian Hernando. The jewels worn by the Spanish kings and grandees were equally magnificent. In the description of the gems which Prince Don Carlos, the son of Philip IL, left to be distributed at his death, are included a sword the hilt of which was of solid gold enamelled in different colours: A gold sword, the cross of which is ornamented with masks of white, grey, and black enamel.

A gold dagger, and sword-belt belonging to the same sword, ornamented in a similar manner. Also a gold sword, belt and dagger ornamented with figures of children in solid gold and enamel. Although the greater part of these silversmiths were Spaniards, the Milanese artist, Jacome de Trezzo was very celebrated during the reign of Philip II.

He made several jewels of great im- portance for the king and royal family. The splendid tabernacle which was taken by the French in from the Escorial was one of his finest works ; they carried off at the same time the superb shrines, the gifts of kings and princes, and everything they could lay their hands on of gold and silver, loading ten campaign carts. Consult, " Historia del Escorial," by Quevedo. At the South Kensington Museum are several objects of this kind, which will give an excellent idea of Spanish jewel work. A gold enamelled pendant, in form of a chained dog, supported on a scroll from which small pearls depend, and suspended by two chains of alternate enamelled and plain links, united to a fastening crowned by a bird.

Enamelled gold pendant in form of a dog en- riched with jewels. Enamelled gold pendant, in form of a parrot, set with hyacinth, suspended by chains. Enamelled gold pendant representing the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception. Pendants representing the Virgen del Pilar Saragossa, attended by saints. The general decay of art, which produces in Europe the harroco style, appears in Spain more exaggerated and to a greater extent than elsewhere.

The objects made during this period reproduce until the beginning of the iSth century the lines and extravagant ornamentation which we meet with in architecture, the handiwork however continued to be excellent, and no expense was spared to give an aspect of richness to the objects made. The large quantity of objects of all kinds made of silver, and the quantity also used in wearing apparel, gave rise to constant prohibitions restricting its use from the reign of Ferdinand and Isabel, and even to a far greater extent at the beginning of the 1 6th century.

A good idea may be nad of this style of silversmiths' work from the silver dishes in the South Kensington Museum. An engrav- ing of one of these appears on the preceding page. Instead of this, jewels were formed of emeralds, diamonds or rubies in gold setting, penes a jour, producing an excellent effect.

The exceptions to this rule are the objects in which enamelled work still predomi- nates, a reminiscence of the former century. It is formed like a basket of flowers, of delicate tracery, and richly studded with fine emeralds. Several most interesting specimens exist at Kensington of Spanish jewellery of this kind, bought at the sale which took place in of the jewels belonging to the Virgen del Pilar at Zaragoza. Breast ornament, gold open strap work and floral filigree, the lower part an oval pendant, set with table diamonds.

A pectoral cross, with medallions containing relics. Gold filigree cross, within which is an ivory crucifix. Enamelled gold pectoral cross set with amethysts. A pair of earrings of gold open work, branches set with white crystals. Silver open work earrings set with rose diamonds. Four miniature ewers of silver filigree open work, the bodies of Chinese enamelled copper. Models of the baroque or, as it is called in Spain, Churriguesque styles continued to be copied during the beginning of the i8th century, in the same manner as in the 17th century.

At this time, as in the rest of Europe, a reaction begins in every branch of art, due in Spain to the influence of French and Italian artists who accompanied the family of Bourbon. The Academy of Fine Arts of St. The great centres which in the i6th century had produced such splendid works of art had almost completely ceased.

Madrid absorbed from the middle of the 17th century the whole of this industry. In Larruga's " Memorias," Vol. Several important establishments for the object of making silver work on a large scale were founded at Madrid, the most important being that of Tomas de Buenafuente, which passed after to Francisco Novi. Two Frenchmen called Isaac and Miguel Naudin established a manufactory in In each the greater part of the work was machine made.

Others were founded to cut and polish precious stones, and mount paste stones. This was done with great skill by Antonio Martinez in , in a building fitted up for the purpose, which still exists opposite the Botanical Garden of Madrid. Martinez was pen- sioned by Charles III. Pupils of both sexes were admitted ; machinery was made in the workshops, and Martinez undertook to teach the manufacture of gold, double, or steel trinkets, with or without enamel or stones. Sword-hilts, buckles, snuff-boxes, needle-cases, handles for sticks, brooches, necklaces, orders, and other different objects, were made either of open work or enamelled gold.

Inkstands, dishes, dinner services, chocolate stands, cruets, knives and forks, were made of silver in different styles, generally imitat- ing the English manner.

Seville Golden Age of Spanish Painting at the Museum of Fine Arts

An interesting and varied collection of modern Spanish peasant jewel- lery exists at the South Kensington Museum. Strange to say, although this collection was formed a very few years ago, in ' It would be very difficult now to make another; for owing to the means of communication having been of late years so much improved in Spain, the peasantry are leaving off their national costumes, and substituting in every detail modern fashions. Among this peasant jewellery the silver gilt necklace and reliquaries of Astorga, No. These necklaces were worn round the neck and part of the body.

The neck ornaments of gold and seed pearls made at Salamanca, those of silver gilt of Santiago ; the filigree work of Cordova in the Moorish style, and the long earrings of Cataluna with precious stones, arc interesting reminiscences of older times. J f'ars in which they worked. Ilu l7cn hen Eozb, a Moor. Modova, Pahlo de Niculas Don Andreu, Raitnundo de Paris, Pedro de Tortosa. Castelnou, Jayme de, son of Juan Cetina, Mestre. Diez, Pedro el Cabalan. Vears in which they worked.

Rodrjijuez de Villarcal, I, ope Ivoiz, Pero Juan de Valles, Juan. Vigil, Pedro de Yvo V. Alonso, Juan Alvarez, Baltasar. Years in which they worked Residence. Belta, Hanz Belthae, V. Salamanca Dueilas, Juan de. Years in which they worked. Mendoza, Diego de Merino, Francisco. Pedraza, Diego de Pedraza, Esteban. I'ons, Pere lishman dine at livin Residence. Rodriguez del Castillo, McIl Ik. Rozas, Jeronin;o de Burgos.

Salamanca, Antonio de Madrid. San Roman, Pedro de Toledo. Sigiienza, Pedro de Sevilla. Tello de Moreta Toledo. Trezzo, Jacome de, an Ilalinn. Trezzo, a nephew of Jacomo Madrid. Valdes, Antonio de Barcelona. Valdivieso, Diego de Toledo.

Valladolid, Juan de Toledo. Valle, Antonio del Madrid. Valles, Hernando de Toledo. Vargas, Gutierre de Toledo. Vergara, Nicolas de Toledo. Vicente, Mateo, lapidary Toledo. Villagran, Juan de Toledo. Kamadenh , called also SvrabAt, is the cow of plenty which grants all desires, and was produced at the churning of the ocean by Vishnu Uchekaih sravas is the eight headed king of horses, produced at the churning of the ocean.

Fig 3] is probably of foreign origin. The Vulture, the vehicle of Sam. Sometimes Saraswati is represented on a white Pea cock, and sometimes on a Paddy bird. The Makara or Jalampa, the mythical sea monster the vehicle of Varuna and sometimes of Knma-dcva. When the latter rides on a Parrot, he bears the Makara as his standard.

Very learned discussions have been held os to the nature of the Mnkara, but it is obviously a crocodile, tricked out with the tail of a fish and the head and paws of anything. The Nagms or female Nagas are represented with the body of a woman ending in the tail of a snake [Plate J Fig 3] like as sin is represented by Milton. Battisa Sualen, a town m the Satara collectomte, is also famous as a place of serpent worship at the present day and the nhole of the Canarese country is devoted to it The most celebrated temple dedicated to it is at Bhomaparanden in the Nuam s Dominion The Nngas are said to have first invaded India between nc.

Bali was the usurping monkey-king of Kisklnndhya, who was slam by Rama. He was the brother of Sugma, the friend and ally of Rama. They gradually become assimilated to some one or other of the officinal gods, generally Siva or Vishnu and their iaktis. Sacred Stones Certain stones also are held in the highest worship the chief of them being the Salagrama mhich is sacred to, and mdeed identified with, Vishnu. But the Sahgrama u the only stone denvmg its deity from itself, and all other stones worshipped are made sacred by incantation.

Sacred Trees and Plants. The following are the principal sacred trees of Indio. Tabemremontana coronaria, tagaia Sesbama grandifiora, agasia Mimusops Elengi, kesara. J as annum undulatum Guettarda speciosa. Mesua ferrea, naga-keshara Origanum Marjoram, niaruia Ixora Bhanduca, bhanduca, lanjun. Pan don us odoratissimus, kcura Mangifcra indica, amba Michelm Cham pa ca, chamfaca. Pavoma odorata, bala Plants sacred to 1 the Hosts of Heaven. To Daremt Punica Granatum, dantxa. To Manaka Alocama maaoittiiOD mono.

To Dhanya, Coriandrum sativum, dkanya. Mlmusops Elengi, rakala, kaara. AH the animals, which are the vahans or vehicles of the gods, ore sacred, namely the antelope, bull, buffalo dog goat, elephant, lion, peacock, rat, serpent, tiger Vc. The eating of ghee destroys all sin and the eating of the five pro- ducts of the cow cleanses from all pollution. The dung of the cow is universally used for spreading over floors and walls on ' scrubbing days," and strange to say it has the effect of a scrubbing on them cleansing them perfectly and gmng a room the fragrance of the Tonqain bean.

How would Dr Richardson explain it? Sacred Men The Brahmans arc objects of worship as is alto tho Rnna of Udaipur the representative of the Solar Race or Surya Varna, In later tunes long after the age of Rama Chandra, the kingdom of Ayodhya merged in that of Kanouj Afterwords a second dynasty was established at Vallabi, and when, a. The Ranas are always represented in their portraits with the aureole round their heads.

All nvera are sacred , and the nvm Ganges [Ganga], Nerbudda [Narmada] arc specially sacred. AU mountains are tacrcd. Jwala MuVhi mouth of fire, a volcano In the Lower Himalayas north of the Punjab where fire issues from the ground is a celebrated place of pilgrimage. When he yawns, the world is shaken by earthquakes, and when at the end of each kalfa he uncoils his might folds, the whole crcauon topples down and passes away like a scroll in the blasts of fire he belches forth from his mouths.

The Hikou Sects avd Sectarian Mauri. The innumerable sects of the Hindus all merge into one or other of the five following i The Satvns, who wonhip Siva and Parvatl conjointly 2, The Vaishnavna, who wcrrship Vishnu. Also the crescent moon and the insula or trident indicate a votary of Siva. The images of Brahma, who is both water and fire bear the sectorial marks either of Siva or Vishnu or both combined. But the left handed Saktas never avow themselves, and the right hand seldom bear on the forehead the peculiar mark of their sect for fear of being suspected of belonging to the other branch.

The Ganapatias paint this dot or circlet with minium and the Saktas with saffron. The Jainas, and their Twenty-tour Jins. Buddhism, the religion of Nipal, Bhutan, Ceylon, Burma, Assam, Siam, China, Japan, Mongolia, Tibet, and of the Kirghis and Kalmuck Tartars, or of nearly 5 00,, of the human race, survives m India, the holy land of its birth, only [exclud- ing Nipal and Bhutan] in the sect of Jainas, who ate worshippers of the images of the twenty-four sectarian saints or Jins, from whose generic designation they take their name But before de- scribing these images it is necessary to refer to the rise of Buddhism m Indja, not simply to explain the existence of the Jainas, but because the rise and establishment of Buddhism in India is so intimately associated with the origin of Indian architecture According to Mr Fergusson, India owes the introduction of the use of stone for architectural purposes to the great Buddhist king Asoka, who reigned from b c.

From the establishment of Buddhism to the fifth pM sixth centimes A. There is no known Hindu temple, Mr Fergusson says, older than the sixth or fifth century of the Christian era and all the earlier stone braidings in India are Buddhist. Apart from the Buddhist monuments and inscriptions it is only m the sacred books of the Hindus that we are able to trace the vague and broken outlines of the history of anaent India.

All other contemporary native records, if any ever existed, have, so far as is known, perished. Hence, notwithstanding the great antiquity of Hindu civilisation, the chronological history of India is comparatively modem. From time immemorial the precious productions of the country had been known to the people of the West and in the fifth century B.

Afghanistan and the Panjab furnished troops to Xerxes in his invasion of Greece, who were left with Mardonius, and fought at Plataea. Still, all our knowledge of India is purely legendary and conjectural until the time of Al exand er From the Vedas and the traditions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata it is supposed that the Aryas must first have entered Afghanistan and the Pan jab about three thousand years before Chnst, and the mytho- logical Hindu era known as the Kah Yaga also begins from U. It was m ac. This fugitive was treated only with contempt by Alexander but when the Greeks had marched back from the Hyphaas, he gathered round him the tribes of the Panjab, and gradually extended his power until, about b c.

Neither Chandragupta, nor his son Bmdusara, were Buddhists, but the third of the race, Piyadasi, better known under the name of Asota [b. He is the Constantine of Buddhism. Edicts of his establishing Buddhism have been found sculptured in Phoenician letters on rocks in Cuttack, Gujarat, and elsewhere. The most celebrated of them are 1 at Gimar near Jtmaghar 2 at Kapur-di gin, near Peshawar 3 at Dfcauli m Onssa and 4 on lots or pillars at Delhi and Allahabad.

He began the great Buddhist tope or banal shrine at Sa n chi miles east of Ujjayim, about ac. It was dia cohered by General Cunningham in and is assigned by him to the date n. Under the Mamya dynasty founded by Asoka, Mogadha rose to great eminence. Trunk roads traversed the whole of Hindustan from Patabpntra jPoHbothra of the Greeks] the modem Patna, westward to the Panjab and southward, past Bharhut and Bhilsa, to Amravaii on the Kistna , and southwest ward, by Nasik, to Kalyan the great port of Western India in ancient times, before it was superseded by Tanna in the middle ages [Mnhommedan period] and by Bombay after the Portuguese discovery of the sea way to India round the Cape of Good Hope.

The most intimate commercial intercourse was established with Syna and Egypt alliances were formed with Antiochus the Great, Antigonus, Ptolemy Philadelphas, and Magas of Cyrenc, for the establishment of hospitals, and the protection of Buddhists travelling m their territories, and the arts and sciences and literature of India reached their highest perfection. The whole country was covered with magnificent colleges for the education and retreat of pious Buddhists.

These buddings were called viharos a word which grves its name to Bihar the ancient Magadha, to the great Vihar reservoir near Bombay and to the aty of Bokhara, Holy Bokhara," m Central Asia and thus proves the complete ascendency which Buddhism must at one tune have attained in all the countries which naturally fall within the political and commercial influence of India. It spread into Ceylon about the end of the third century B. O, and into Tibet and China a. Of these Parswanath is the twenty third and Jlfahavtm the twenty-fourth the dntr of the latter being not anterior to A.

But m stone they appear as black or white curly headed npnght or seated images, which it is impossible to identify except by their arbitrary characters. Every native of India would at once recognise the insula as the symbol of the generative power and the chakra or wheel of the productive. The Tree so conspicuous in all the ancient Buddhistic sculptures of India has with great probability been supposed to represent Sanga, or the Congregation.

They formerly abounded in Southern India, but were much persecuted, particularly at Madura, and finally driven out in the eleventh century The Hindu Temples. Ibe triumph of the Brahmans over the Buddhists was but short lived. As they emerged from their retreat in the south, and slowly but surely regained their lost position in the north the Arabs, fol lowed by the Afghans and Mongols, began to appear in Sindh and the Pan job and the thousand years of Buddhist supremacy were followed by the thousand years, from the eighth to the eighteenth century of the tyranny and devastation of the Mahommedan rulers of India.

The Mahommedan invasions began with the first desultory incursions of the Arabs under Muhalib, A. D Hindustan was invaded twelve tones between and by Mahmud of Garni, founder of the first Afghan dynasty of India, which reigned at Garni and Lahore A. Mahommed of Ghor the fdrmder of the second Afghan dynasty overthrew the Tomam and Choan Rajputs at Pampai in and at Taneahwar m The conquest of Hindustan was completed by the annexation of Main a, Mar war, Gwalior, and Ujjayim m , by the third Afghan dynasty, which ruled at Delhi from a.

The seventh and last Afghan dynasty of the bouse of Lodi lasted from to when it was overthrown at the great battle of Pampat by the Mongols under Sultan Baber, the founder of the Mogol empire of India, which continued as a political power until , and nominally to the death of the 17 th Mogol emperor Mahommed Bahadar, one of the chief instigators of the mutiny of It was during the last Afghan dynasty that the Portuguese first landed at Calicut on 22 May After the revolt of the supremacy of Delhi was not a gam restored in the Dakhan until the time of Akbar, the third Mogol emperor, a.

In the Cashmere temples, which were all built between the fall of Bud- dhism and the rise of Mabornmeilanfsm, the Greek influence was still very marked. From the Mahoramedan conquest of India the further development of Buddhist art is to be traced chiefly beyond India in Tibet Burma, and China, in which country Buddhism has prevailed without any interruption for more than soon years, among races of mankind closely allied to the Turanian population of the Gmgetic valley who first csolvcd the religion of Buddha, and spread it, with its characteristic architecture, over South Eastern and Eastern Asia.

It would be interesting to trace the influence qf the introduction of Buddhism Into America m the fourth or fifth century a. The most complete is that which was found m at Allahabad whldi, in addition to the Asoka inscriptions, contains one by Saroudra Gupta, a.

Its shaft is thirty three feet In length and three feet in diameter at the base, diminishing to two feet two Inches at the summit. There was, however Mr Fergimon believes, a structural nharti in five or more storeys, the origianl of all the temples in Southern India. The Buddhistic style was succeeded by thejoina. D 17 No doubt Jamas did exist and build temples during the whole of the interval between the second and the eleventh cen- turies.

If we could trace back Jama architecture continuously from about A. D iooo, when we at hut lose sight of true Buddhist archi- tecture and if we could trace Buddhist architecture continuously down to ad. The bracket form of capital is also largely introduced in Jama buildings for the first time in Indian architecture. The ground plan of the Jain a temples is shewn by the temple of Aiwalh [area a. Uuro, t'i an infinite variety of forms, are the essential elements of the pi un of jama and Hindu temples of all subsequent ages The siha , or tower, called also the r imam, is a peculiarity common to both Jama and Hindu architecture m Northern India In the ordinary Jama temples, the image is invariably placed in a square ceU, which receives its light from the doorw ay only It seems also an invariable rule that the presence and position of the presiding idol should be indicated extern ally by a tower, and that though square, or nearly so, in pi in, it should have a curvilinear outline l lie upper part of these towers over- hangs the base, and bends inwards toward the top, winch is surmounted by a melon-shaped member called the amaltha, from its supposed resemblance to the fruit of the Pit Han thus Iiu Utca.

IT is colossal images are probably the survival of a vague local tradition of Gautama Buddha. Only three are known. The bastis ore ordinary Jama temples dedicated to the Tuthankara, and those at Sravana Belgula are the grandest examples of Jama architecture in all India. The temples and pnests tombs at Mudbidn, m Cnnara, must owe their lit end Tibetan character to some direct connexion, at the penod of their construction, between Tibet and Southern India.

The rock-cut Kylas at Ellora was executed by southern Dnmdians, either the Cheras or Cholnx, who had sway there during the eclipse of the Chalukyas between A. The noblest exa m ple of the Chalukyan style 11 the great temple of Hilabid, the old capital of the Rajput Ballalas of Mysore.

Unfortunately it was never finished having been stopped by the Mahommedan conquest A. The budding is raised on a terrace from five feet to six feet in height. Above it is a frieze of lions, then a band of scrollwork of infinite beauty and variety of design, over which is a frieze of horsemen and then comes another scroll, over which is a frieze representing the conquest of Sanka by Rama.

The Chalukyan style is seen also m the temple of Knit I swan at Halabid, and the temples of Som- nathpur and Bafllur both in Mysore , and in those of Buchropudy not far from Hydrubad, and of Hammoncondah or Warangal, also in the Nizam a dominion. The Indo Aryan style is found m its greatest punty in Onssa Among the or original shrines of Bhuvaneswar not a pillar is to be found, and those added to the porches of the temples at Bhtrvaneswnr and Pun arc of the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.

At the South Kensington museum the same curved form is seen in the roof of a shnne of Byzantine work. I have borrowed so copiously from what Mr Fergusson has written on the architectural history of Hindu temples because the domestic and foreign influences which affect the arts of a country are always most satisfactorily traced in its architec ture.

One marked by the knop and flower pattern is called Saracenic, but I prefer to call it Aryan, because the use of lti characteristic ornamentation was simply revived m India by the Pemamsed Arabs, Afghans, and Mongols. Another presents the archaic forms of ornament found m the jewelry and other art work of central India, and Onssa, and parts of Bengal. The pyramid of fire bolls, often seen in these panehayatans t is the pancha pinda. The four balls forming the base of the pyramid represent Vishnu, Suryn, Parvati, and Ganesa, and the fifth ball at the apex Siva.

Number 1 plate O is the shell, resting on its mystic tnpod used for pouring water on the idol No. It is ornamented with flowen and birds m the manner of the hawthorn blossom Dresden china vases, and stamped with the auspicious sign of the triangle. It is a mystic representation of the generative principle of nature. The kkalga, or sacrificial sword, is said to have been begotten by Brahma.

It u a long cleaver with a deep blade nearly the whole length of the handle, broadened, with a curved outline to double its depth at the end where an eye is painted In red and block on each side Evil Influence or titx Pdranas on Indian Art The mythology of the Puranas is not an essential element in Hindu art, which, however it has profoundly influenced It lends itself happily enough to decorative art but has had a fatal effect in blighting the growth of true pictorial and plastic art in India. The monstrous shapes of the Puranic deities are unsuitable for the higher forms of artistic representation , and this is possibly why sculpture and painting are unknown, as fine arts, m India.

Where the Indian artist is left free from the trammels of the Puranic my thology he has frequently shewn an instinctive capacity for fine art The onaent Buddhist sculptures of San chi, Bharhot, and Amra v vati display no mean skill, and some of the scenes from Buddhas hfe, in which he 11 represented m purely human shape without any ritualistic disfigurement, are of great beauty Many also of the more popular scenes of the Ramayana and Mahabharatn, such as the marriage and honeymoon of Rama and Sita, and Krishna s courtship of Radha and Rnkmini, are free from the Intrusion of the Puranic gods, and the common bazaar paintings of them often approach the ideal expression of true pictorial art.

Beaten of dram, and twang len of tbe wire. Who make the peopJobsppy by command. Moretrrer from afar came rberchantmen. All crying ' Jai! This Is really owmg to the homogeneous unity given to the immense mixed population [about ] of Indu by the Code of Mono. Thus the very word manufacture has m Europe come at last to lose well nigh all trace of its true etymological meaning, and is now generally used for the process of the conversion of raw materials into articles suitable for the use of man by machinery Work thus executed.

In which the invention and hand of a cunning workman have had no part, must be classified by itself and under the most intricate and elaborate divisions. In India everything is hand wrought, and everything down to the cheapest toy or earthen vessel, is therefore more or less a work of art. It is not of course meant to rank the decorative art of 'India, which is a crystallised tradition although perfect in form, with the fine arts of Europe, wherein the inventive genius of the artist, acting on his own spontaneous inspiration asserts itself in tHe creation.

The spirit of fine art is indeed everywhere latent n India, but it has yet to be quickened ogam into operation. It has slept ever since the Aryan gem us of the people would seem to have exhausted itself m the production of the Rama 'yon a and Mahabharata. Bat the Indian workman from the humblest potter to the most cunning embroiderer in blue and K.

That it exactly what a native, under a happy inspiration would do. Some other richer carpets they make all of silk, so artificially mixed, as that they lively represent those floweri and figures made in them. The ground of some other of their very nch carpets is silver or gold, about which arc such silken flowers and figures as before I named, most excellently and orderly disposed throughout the whole work.

The social and moral evils of the introduction of machinery into India arc likely to be still greater At present the industries of India ore carried on all over the country although hand wearing is everywhere languishing in the unequal competition with Man Chester and the Presidency Mills. But m every Indian village all the traditional handicrafts are still to be found at work.

Outside the entrance of the single village street, on on exposed nsc of ground, the hereditary potter sits by his wheel mould mg the swift revolving clay by the natural curves of his hands. At the back of the houses, which form the low irregular street, there ore two or three looms at work m blue and scarlet and gold the frames hanging between the acacia trees the yellow flowers of which drop fast on the webs os they are being woven In the street the brass and copper smiths arc hammering away at their pots and pans and further down in the verandah of the nch man 1 house is the jeweller working rupees and gold raohrs into fair jewelry gold and sHrer eamngs, and round tires like tho moon, bracelets and tablets and nose rings, and ti nk ling ornaments for the feet, taking his designs from the fruits and flowers around him, or from tho traditional forms represented in the paintings and carvings of tho great temple, which rises over the grove of mangoes and palms at the end of the street above the lotus-covered village tank.

Freely available

At half past three or four in the afternoon the whole street is lighted up by the moving robes of the women going down to draw water from the tank, each with two or three water Jars on her head: The village communities have been the stronghold of the tra ditionarj arts of India and where these arts have passed out of the villages into the wide world beyond, the caste system of the Code of Man a has still been their best defence against the taint and degradation of foreign fashions. It is a perpetual contract, but in the lapse of 3 years, the artisans have constantly terminated their connexion with a village or have had to provide for sons in some other place, and they at once sought their livelihood m the towns which gradually began to spring up everywhere round tho centres of government, and of the foreign commerce of the country It is in this way that the great polytechmcal a tics of India have been formed.

No unqualified person can remain in or enter a guild. In large cities the guilds command great influence. In the workshop of the imperial wardrobe the wearers and embroiderers of every country were to be found, and whatever was made by them was carefully kept, and those articles of which there thus came in time to be a superfluity were given away in presents of honour Through the attention of the emperor the manu facture of various new fabnci was established at Delhi.

One of these was a good aired globular vase of steatite, which, with its carved cover or lid, was encircled with inscriptions, tcratched with a style, in Bactro-Pah characters. On removing the lid, the vase was found to contain a little fine mould, mixed np with burnt pearls, sapphire beads, Ac. By the side of the vase were found four copper corns, m excellent preservation, having been deposited in the tope freshly minted. They were the most useful portion of the relics, for they enabled Professor H EL Wilson to assign the monument to one of the Axes dynasty of Gneco-Barbanc tangs who ruled in this part of India about 50 B.

The niches are formed by a senes of flat pilasters supporting y finely tinned arches, circular below and peaked above between th, which are figures of cranes with outstretched wings. The conclusion therefore is that the remarkable European character of the Buddhistic sculptures m the Panjab and Afghanistan, is due, not to Byzantine, but to Greek influence , and it is confirmed by the discovery of this casket.

The silver patera has been fully described and figured by me in voL ad, New Scries, of the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literatim It was also described and figured by Prinscp In vol ril of the Transactions of the Astatic Society of Bengal and is mentioned and badly figured in Sir Alexander Humes' Cabool, Colonel Yule gives a woodcut of it m the second edition of his Marco Polo Sir Alexander Burnet figures along with it a second rilrcr dish of Persian work, representing Yexdtgird I [a.

This second dish is said to be still in the possession of the Bumes family, and would be an invaluable addition to the few objects of historical Indian art m the India Museum. I have no doubt that this patera is of Eastern workmanship, possibly of colonists from Rome and we may conjecture it to have been taken among the spoil when Antioch fell to the Persians, a. The best known is the parcel gilt silver work of Cashmere, which is almost confined to the prodnction of the water vessels or sarats copied from the clay goblets in use throughout the northern parts of the Panjab.

Their elegant shapes and delicate tracery graven through the gilding to the dead white silver below which softens the lustre of the gold to a pearly radiance, gives a most charming effect to this refined and graceful work. It is an art said to have been imported by the Mongols but influenced by the natural superiority of the people of the Cashmere valley over all other Orientals m elaborating decorative details of good design, whether in metal work, ham mered and cut, or enamelfmg, or weaving. Cups are also made m this work, and trays of a very pretty four-cornered pattern, the corners being shaped like the Mahonamedan arch.

Among the Prince of Wales' Indian presents there is a tray with six cups and saucers in M ruddy gold, which is an exquisite example of the goldsmith s art of Cashmere. Hie district still however possesses good goldsmiths and silversmiths, whose work is marked by the strongest local character In the Bombay Presidency the plate of Katch and Gujarat has long been noted. Sir Seymour Fitzgerald has lent the India Museum a bowl and tray [Plate 7] of the old pierced parcel gilt work [the cfas tntcrraulc of the Romans] of Ahmed abad.

The silver pit vase, and silver pit and jewelled coflce pot, illustrated in Plates 8 and 9, arc known to be not less than yean old, having been near! They are said to have been made by a Jama goldsmith. If a Hindu has to undergo jmn fication, one of the necessary ntes is to step through thcjvrrf, the myrtic symbol of female power This u often done by sitting for an instant on the scar of a tree, bearing a similitude to the sacred symbol Sometimes the scar forms a true matrix, or the cavity may penetrate the whole thickness of the tree when the Hindu will step in and out of it, or what is holiest, will pass ngbt through it, in sign of his regeneration.

It ts said that to this day the rajas of Travancorc, on succeeding to the throne all go through the same ceremony, and thereby arc elevated to the status of Brahmans. A cast of it is shewn in the India Museum. The beautiful hammered and perforated brass gates of the tomb of Shah Alum at Ahmed abad are another notable sample of the great skill of the natives of Gujarat in metal work.

The larger idols are always cast in moulds, and after wards finished with the chisel and file. The gold images of Durga, Lakshmt, Krishna, Radha, and Saras watt kept in private houses and worshipped daily must not be less than one Ha [ncarl half on ounce] tn weight, and they gcncrall weigh three or four Has The images of Shi tala [the goddess of small-pox] arc always of silver and weigh ten or twelve Has The images of Siva in his fingaat form an.

Copper images of Surya, and of Siva nding on Jvondi, and also, in man parts of India, of the serpent Naga are kept in all houses and arc wor shipped daily Brazen images of many of the gods ore also kept in private houses and daily worshipped i and images of Radha, Durga, Lakshrai and Siva in mixed metal. The images of the gods made of this perfect alloy may also be worshipped either at homo or hi the temples.

The images of all the gods and goddesses are graven in stone, but they ore generally worshipped only in the temples only a few very small ones being found in private houses, the greater number of those used in domestic worship being of the liHgaxt form of Siva. An immense manu- facture of all these idols, and of sacrificial utensils, is earned on m Benares The industry has sprung up natural! A large quantity of the exported domestic brass work of Benares has in recent years found its way into this country It is vety rickety In its forms, which are chased oil over in shallow weak patterns , and it falls altogether to please owing to its excessive ornamentation.

In the trays particularly all appearance of utility is destroyed by the unsuitable manner in which decoration is applied over their whole surface.

The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks
The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks
The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks
The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks
The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks
The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks
The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks
The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks
The Industrial Arts in Spain With Numerous Woodcuts: South Kensington Museum Art Handbooks

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