By including results and methods from scientific disciplines such as psychology, cognitive neuroscience, sociology, philosophy, anthropology, computer science, and of course linguistics, it is hoped to be able to comprehend the internal processes and structures responsible for human cognition and information processing leading to a more holistic view on the subject matter cf. Cognitive linguistics focuses on investigating mental structures and processes which are considered to be pivotal aspects of human linguistic abilities cf. Language itself is thereby no longer defined as a system of arbitrary signs as proposed by SAUSSURE, but includes functional as well as procedural patterns and structures which are associated with the respective linguistic manifestations and their communicative functions cf.
Cognitive linguistics thereby does not focus on particular features of language or specific parts of grammar, but attempts to analyze and explain its interplay with the perception of the world, i.
In its characterization of language as part of the cognitive system, not as an autonomous phenomenon  cf. Beyond merely linguistic aspects, the cognitive approach aims at discovering laws of structure of natural language categorization and conceptualization as well as the intricate connections between language use and thought as well as perception and experience cf.
Radden , and thereby targeting a new theory of categorization cf. Lakoff , imagination cf. Metaphor is one of the chief means by which these research objectives are analyzed and attempted to be explicated. This will be discussed further in chapter 4. Before contrasting the modular approach as proposed by Chomsky and the holistic approach postulated by cognitive linguists, the basic hypotheses which most cognitive linguists agree on will be summarized.
First, language is not viewed as an autonomous cognitive faculty, but as one of many interrelating cognitive abilities cf. The second major hypothesis of the cognitive linguistic approach is that natural language  is conceptually structured and therefore subject to construal, including category structuring as well as the collocation of knowledge cf. Within the research field of cognitive linguistics two major opposing theoretical approaches are to be distinguished by the way they interpret and describe interpersonal communication through language, its structure, its organization, and its acquisition.
In general, language may be viewed as a system which entails a certain internal organization, generally referred to as grammar. This internal structure is based on specific rules by which the correctness of language use is determined cf. Grammar therefore may be said to be theory as well as description and amplification of language resulting in numerous, oftentimes complex structural as well as functional definitions cf.
A similar diversity can be observed in the analytical orientation by which linguists attempt to describe, contrast, or advise grammatical phenomena. Theoretical approaches to research grammar may be diachronic or synchronic, descriptive or normative, ascending or descending, resulting in a wide spectrum of grammar models representing different perspectives from which language is observed and analyzed cf. Engel 17 et seq. In the context of this paper a precise explication which covers all important grammar models cannot be given. Yet, it is hoped to summarize and contrast the most important aspects of the two main opposing approaches.
The modular approach aims at an exact and detailed description of procedural and structural aspects of human language processing on a quite formal level and it claims the existence of a language-specific system as a subsystem within human cognition. Individual cognitive components, so-called modules, are involved in the process of language processing but are thought to function autonomously and framework-exclusive cf. It is proposed that this hierarchically organized system includes one particular module for syntactical structures, one for semantics and so forth.
Informational output is thereby transferred from one module to the next. Therefore, linguistic units are thought to be first decoded on the syntactic level, followed by the activation of their semantic content, which finally leads to the appropriate phonological realization of the unit cf. Undoubtedly, to a certain degree there is a relationship between the individual modules but they are not thought to interact bi-directionally. He proceeds on the assumption that there are specific competences which underlie human language ability.
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To provide a vaster background for such a discussion objectivity and subjectivity will necessarily be explained. This discussion will be accompanied by a contrastive examination of the concept love in several languages, namely German, Italian, and Japanese. An explanation of differences and similarities of these concepts will conclude the discussion part. Based on the results of my examples, I will show the necessity of supporting the experientialist approach.
It is known that learning a second language as an adult is quite difficult. One has to acquire lots of vocabularies, grammar, and the knowledge in which context to use which expression. An important factor in second language acquisition is not to fall back into talking the proper mother tongue. This is seen as the most dreadful error in learning a new language. There are several metaphors which express pretty well the consequences of the lazy learner: Learning new language is like going an escalator in the wrong direction.
When you stop going on, you will fall back, to where you started. Studying in a foreign country, with every sentence in your mother tongue, you will lose ten sentences of the language you came to learn in that country.
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- woman to woman preparing yourself to mentor Manual.
These figurative expressions seem to match the common idea of how hard it is to learn and keep on learning a foreign language. This paper is not about second language acquisition but about what metaphors are, how they are structured, and why there seems to be a definition of metaphor that goes beyond the traditional though mythical position of the ancient Greece.
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In detail, I first will discuss the term metaphor with respect to literal and figurative language. Then I will go on to conceptual system concentrating on the argument of the false dichotomy of objectivity and subjectivity. The interactional approach is an alternative way that can lead out of the dilemma created between these two insufficient positions. In order to test the interactional approach, I will examine the metaphor of LOVE in several languages, and under several aspects like sexuality, and platonic love.
The results and the background of this examination can provide evidence for the interactional approach.
After the conclusion I will provide an outlook on the argument since it is a hardly accepted and scientifically radical position with regard to the traditional view. To get an idea of what metaphors are, the best way to find out is probably to see in which contexts metaphors are used. In several occasions it seems to be ideal or even necessary to use a metaphor. First, metaphors are found in poems, prose, in almost every branch of literature. Second, they are found in proverbs, and thus either in written or in spoken form.
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Third, and this is probably the occurrence we are most unaware of, metaphors make part of our everyday language. To see more clearly the crucial difference of the three areas it is practical to look at some examples:. In the first example the road is seen as a decision in life. They share the property that one cannot travel two paths at the same time and equally one cannot make a decision between two things trying to keep both. The figurative meaning of the second example claims that it is unwise to be sure of having something what you still do not have yet.
The last example is different from the first ones. It shows the parallels between the Chomskyan Period and the Period of Dinosaurs. In the first two examples the use of figurative language is more ornamental than basic for the understanding. But the last example shows the relation of two domains in this metaphor. Here seems to be a direct link between Chomsky and the metaphor of a dinosaur.
How are metaphors structured, so that even people who do not know Chomsky understand the meaning of this metaphor? The definition of metaphor goes further back than to Chomsky. Aristotle brought up the definition by the so called substitution  theory. In this case of metaphor a word is substituted by another one. Shipped in 12 to 14 working days When do I get it? Our picking, packing and delivery is linked to what you order, where you want it delivered and how you choose to pay, so delivery times can vary. Collections Currently only available at our Cape Town warehouse.
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